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riiOCEEDINGS '^^K'"'^)f- 















The Academy dmre it to be miderstood that they are nut 
ansiccrahle for any opinion, representation of facts, or train of 
reasoning that may appear in any of tlie folloioiiuj Papers. The 
Authors of tJu several Essays arr. nione responsible for their 

DiBLis: Prlnteo at the U.mvebsitv 1'ke.-s nv Ponsoxbt and Gibus. 





Ball (Sir Eobekt Stawell), LL.D., F.E.S. : — 

Contributions to the Theory of Screws, 16 

€oN\vAY (Akthub W.), M.A., D.Sc. : — 

On the Motion of an Electrified Sphere, 1 

EoBERTs (Eev. W. E. Westropp), M.A. : — 

The Symbolical Expression of Eliminants, 69 



Page 16. lice H,/or !-+ ^ ^ ^ ? ,,„rf ^ ^ ? , 9, 

c!Pi opt P, Cp\ dpi CPm 

Page 19, line 4 from bottom, /or morement read moment 
Page 20, line- 15, /or (oVO "ad (o'V.j)^ 







By AETHUE W. CONWAY, M. A. (Oxon. and E. U. L), D. Sc, 
Professor of Mathematical Physics, University College, Dublin. 

Bead December 13, 1909. Oidered for Publication January 12. Published February 24, 1910. 


I. Introduction and Summary, . . 1 
II. The Electromagnetic Equations and the 

Boundary Conditions, ... 2 
III. The Harmonicoid Functions of the 

Fii'st and Second Kinds, . . 5 

IV. Method of General Solution and 

Examples, . . . . . 7 

v. On Oscillatory Distributions, . . 9 

VI. Quasi-stationary Motion, . . .11 

VII. Dynamical Results 13 


In this Paper the following problem is dealt with : — A sphere perfectly 
conducting and supposed not to be subject to a Lorentz-Fitzgerald shrinkage 
is charged and moved in any field : required the distribution of electricity on 
its surface. It was shown long ago by Searle that, if its velocity was uniform, 
the surface-density remained uniform ; and an important paper by Walker,* 
dealing with several cases of initial motions, was sufficient to show the 
complexity of the problem. In any field of force, and for any state of 
motion, there is an infinite number of solutions, namely, the simplest solution 
and the solution due to the free oscillations of the sphere. In all cases the 
current on the sphere can be divided (in a hydrodynamical sense) into an 
irrotational and a rotational current. These give rise to two classes of 
functions which we term harmonicoid functions of the first and second type 
respectively. These functions are generalized forms of similar functions 
employed by Lamb, Love, and others in the problem of the fixed sphere. 

*G. W. Walker, Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. Ixxvii, p. 260. 

R. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIll., SHOT. A. [1] 

2 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

They consist of infinite series the first term of which is in each case the 
corresponding term for the fixed sphere. The solution obtained here 
consists of a method of approximating to as many terms as we please to the 
surface-density arranged in descending powers of c, the velocity of radiation. 
Quaternion notation and electromagnetic or electrostatic units are employed. 
The latter units are much more convenient for this problem and generally 
in electronic investigations than the " rational " units employed by Lorentz 
and Hea\-iside. The most remai-kable results obtained are as follows : — If a 
sphere be placed in a uniform field of force, and if it possesses no Newtonian 
mass, it will move so as to have a uniform surface-density. If, however, it 
possesses this mass, an excess of negative electricity is formed on the side 
opposite to the eicceleration, and excess of positive on the opposite side, 
following the simple cosine law in addition to the uniform layer. As the 
mass increases, the cosine layers approach the electrostatic value for a fixed 
sphere, but in all cases the total masses longitudinal and transverse have the 
seime values as for a sphere having a Kni/orm fixed surface-density. It is also 
true that the radiation is the same in both cases. Now the rigid electron of 
Abraham* is the conception which agrees most closely with the now classic 
experiments of Kaufmann, so that we see now that we may, if we please, 
consider the electron to have the properties of a perfect conductor, or, if the 
sphere has no mass, the interior might be an insulator. Phenomena such as 
Rontgen rays might then be due to the oscillations on the electron itself. 
Tlie mechanism might be such that the oscillations would not be so highly 
damped as for those of a spherical conductor. Electrons of equal charge 
might then differ from one another on account of being in different modes 
of vibration. Certain phenomena such as the number of molecules ionized 
by Rontgen rays and the differences in secondary /3-particles observed by 
McClelland and others might be thus explained. The result obtained in 5 — 
that a slow velocity diminishes the damping factor and lengthens the period — 
would perhaps strengthen this supposition. 

II. — The Elkctkomagxbtic Equations axd the Boundaby Conditions. 

In free aether the electric force c and tlie magnetic force t\ are derived 
from a scalar potential P and a vector potential 53 by means of the equations 

r't = - VP - ti, (1) 

c-'l = I'Vo, (2) 

where c is the speed of radiation and the units are electromagnetic. P and w 

" Prof. E. T. Whiitakcr points out that the defonnablc electron of Bucherer gives a better 
•gieement with recent experimenlal results. 

Conway — On the Motion of an Electrified i^plicrc. 3 

are connected by the relation a'"P = (SVot, and arc solutions of the equation 

V= + c-*3V9(!» = 0. 

The vectors £ and »; satisfy 

c-'i = V„, (3) 

- 7) = Vf. (4) 
If, however, there exists a current i, these latter equations become 

c-=£ + 47rt = Vi), (5) 

- ^ = Vf. (6) 
If the origin is moving with velocity a, we may write them 

c'-'i + c'-ShV, £ + 4i7Ti = FV)j 
-7] - SaV. >) = VVt. 

Suppose that the current becomes confined to an infinitely thin sheet, 
the unit normal to which is l/v, and that the sheet moves with velocity a as 
if rigidly attached to tlie origin, and let e, r/ be the values of the vectors on the 
positive side of the surface (i.e. containing v) and infinitely close to it, and let 
t', 1} be the corresponding values on the negative side ; then by integration we 
obtain the following boundary conditions* : — 

c-2(£ - i')SoUv + 47rt = V.Uv{,}- 7,'), (7) 

- („ - ,,'),'SaV'v = V.Uv{t - £'). (8) 

where i is now the surface current density. In fact, since it is only the 
normal component of V which causes the discontinuity, we can replace V 
by - UvSUvV and integrate. The above then represent the boundary 
conditions at any moving current sheet where 

- SaUv 

is the velocity at the point of the sheet normal to itself. If (o denote the 
relative current density, and c the electrical surface-density, we have 

I = to + eir where Stav = 0. 

* Royal Dublin Society Transactions, vol. viii, sei'. ii, 7. Macdonalil, "Electric Waves,'' 
pp. U, 15. 

4 Proceedings of tlie Royal Irish Academy. 

From equation (8) we get SUv{r\ -?)') = 0, so that 
„-„' = - VUvVUv{ri -■,{), 
and VUv VUv (., - .,') Sa Uv = - F. Uv Vc („ - „'). 

Hence r.Uv[t - t' 4 F<t(i, - .,')] = 0. 

If the negative side of the surface is a perfect conductor, 

i + Van = ; 
and we thus get the surface condition to be, that the vector 

must be normal. 

Operating on (7) with SUv, we find 4n-c = - c'-SUv{e - t), which gives 
us the surface-density e in terms of c and *', whilst the relative current lo is 
given by « - ca. 

In the case of a conductor moving in a general manner as a rigid body 
the electromotive intensity at each point inside is zero, so that 

I + Via + Vwp) ((' = 0, 

where a is the velocity of the origin, and <u is the angular rotation, p being 
the distance of the point from the origin. Operating on this with FT ( ), 
we find, by the aid of (.3) and (4), 

'!±-S{<x+Vo>p)V.„ = 0, 

which shows that each part of the conductor preserves in magnihide and 
carries with it the magnetic force which was there originally. The problem 
thus loses nothing in generality if we suppose that the initial magnetic field 
is initially and always afterwards null. The internal electric force will then 
also be zero, so tliat the boundary condition is that the vector t + Van is rurnnal 
to the boundary. The general problem consists of calculating vectors t and ij 
which satisfy this condition, and then the equations 

C-'tSaUv + -iiri = Wv„. (9) 

iTTC = - c^SiUv. (10) 

I = to + e<T (11) 

give us the electrical condition of the surface. 

Ci)NWAY — On the Motion of an Electrified Sphere. 5 

111.— The Hakmonicoid Functions of the First and Second Kinds. 

If the position of a moving point bo denoted by a, it is necessary to 
assume that the function a has a diiferential coefficient h. Let us denote tlie 
values of a at the times t' and ti respectively by a' and ai ; then the function 

e {t - t'y- + {,, - a')- 

has a real positive zero <, between and t if c-f + p- > aud Th < c* 
These conditions express the facts that p is to be taken inside the sphere 
of radius d, and having the centre as origin, and that the speed Ti of 
the point is less than c. If t' is complex, aud if we take a contour integral 
enclosing only the zero t, the function 




C\t - tj + (p- (tT 

possesses a pole in real space at the point p = o-„ and satisfies 


The integral may be written 




Tip -^')[c(t-t')-T{p -<,')] 

If now it is possible to draw a contour enclosing <, and no other zero 
and the point t, and such that on the boundary c\t - t'\>\T (p - (t"j\, then 
it is possible to expand the integral in inverse powers of c, and we obtain 


fI^^^^^^i^^ = |'--4F©-K')-<-'"t 

If we change the notation so that p is now the distance of any point 
from <7, and put Tp = r, we have for the scalar potential P^ of a point- 
charge £ the series! 

P ^- (-)"c-" /a\" ,.,. 

* Proceedings of the London Miitlieraatical Society, series 2, vol. i. 

t I'rooeediiigs of the Royiil Irish Aciidemy, vol. .\.\vii, Section A, No. viii, G. A. Scholt, AiinaU'ii 
der rhysik, 2.5, p. 79. 

I Mr. W. R. W. Roberts, f.t.c.d., suggests a compact form for /n nnd similar series ; thus 

Po = .E Exp {d!dt . >■). 

where after expansion the operator is placed at the beginning of each term. 

6 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and for the vector potential 


more generally if /m(V) in any scalar harmonic function of V homogeneous 
and of m dimensions, and if V/,„(/)) =f'Jp), so that Spf'mip) = - mf,„{p), 
then scalar and vector potentials are given by the equations (u being any 
arbitrary function of t) : 

•P. - 2-^--(|) («v).-'«). (^) 

"■ = -i-'!-.7f(l)""<«^"-">- <"> 

The corresponding electrical force 

---^2^-4f^(|)"(^FVr„,V.-«). (C) 

and the magnetic force 


1 ^" (-)"c-"/a 

- -2 


In these expressions the coefficients of the operational function /,„(v) niay 
be functions of the time. If these coefficients, or m, are such that the 
diffei-entiatious witli respect to t bring in powers of C, we can arrange the 
series differently ; for example, if u = c*", we find, on collecting, 

We shall call the solutions (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F), karmonicoid 
solutions of the first ki7id. 

We have also a second class of solutions of a conjugate type, in which 
the electric and magnetic forces ('„ and ij'm are connected by the equations 

t m = ~ 1m ) 1 m °° C " Cm- 

We shall call these harmonicoid aolviions of the second kind. 

If the centre of the sphere is at rest, these solutions assume well-known 
forms. We may first notice that if F(r) is any function of r 


* Hobson : Proceedings of London liUthematical Society, vol. zziv. 

Conway — On the Motion of an Electrified Sphei-e. 
If, for instance, ?t = 1, in (A), 

whilst (E) gives 

1 / 9 \"' 1 

p,„ = /;„(V)- =/;„(,,) (^-|^j -, 

Hence we see that if the centre of the sphere is at rest, the harmonicoid 
solutions degenerate into the known solutions of harmonic or Ikssel- 
harmonic type which are employed in fixed sphere problem. We shall 
speak of a harmonicoid solution as a continuation of the corresponding 
solution for the fixed sphere. 

IV.— Method of General Solution and Examples. 

The sphere being placed in any field of force, solve the problem as if the 
centre of the sphere were at rest. We thus get an electric force oo and a 
magnetic force c"°3o expressed as sums of functions of harmonic type. 
Continue this function, and we get an electric force 

£ = On + c"'ai + Coo + c"'a3 + . . . 

and a magnetic force 

r, = c--j3„ + c-% + c-% + . . . 

The electromotive intensity 

Oo + C'n, + c"-(a2 + Fir/jj) . . . 

(where a is the velocity of a point on the boundary) is, however, not normal 
to the sphere, with the exception of the first term «„. Suppose again that the 
centre of the sphere is at rest, and find an electric force c"'yo, such that 

c''("> + 7a) 

is normal, and let c"'8o be the magnetic force. On forming the continuation 
and adding, we have 

e' = Oo + C-' (ai + 7„) + C-' (a, + yO + . . . 

„'= c-'|3o + c-^/S, + 8„) + . . . 

The electromotive intensity is now normal for the first two terms, but the 
third term c"^ [m + 71 + Va^^) is not normal ; we can, however, determine 

8 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

an electric force c'-\ and magnetic force c^fio, such that 

c--{a! + 71 + rj/3o + A„) 
is normal; and we thus get 

e" = Oo + C-'(ai + 7„) + C-'ia, + 71 + X„) + C-'foa + 72 + Ai) 

„"= c-'(io + c-'O, + 80) + c-'{fi, + S, + 8„). 

The electromotive intensity is normal as for the first, second, and third terms ; 
and we can thus carry the solution to any degree of approximation. The 
case in which the external field can be expanded in powers of c can be solved 
by treating separately each term. 

As a firet example consider the case of a sphere moving without rotation 
under the action of no external electromagnetic field, the charge on the 
sphere being £ in electrostatic units. The cquQibrium state comes from a 
potential Er'' ; and its continuation gives 

= E)-' + iJE'c-'jr-'(- i' + Spa) - r-'iSpaY) 
- ^Ec-^2Spa - 2Sou\, 
and the vector potential 

do = Ec^ar'^ - Ec-'a + . . . 
To the first approximation the electric force e which is - VP„ - ro„ 
= Er^'p + Ec-^\p{hr-\- a* + Spa) - ^r^Sp'oY] - haT']. 
To get electromotive intensity we add 

VaVVzs, or Ec-*r^(pa' - iSpa). 
Wo have now the following teiin : — 

Ec-^[- U»- + r'aSpa], 
which is not normal to the sphere. 

Terms must be added such that to the first approximation the non-normal 
terms are annulled. Assume a scalar potential 

P, = AS'aV.- + B(siv\' -, 

and we find by taking 

A = - - Ec^ and B = — -— 

that the conditions are satisfied. We thus get for the complete scalar 

potential as far as c' 

Conway — On Ihc 3Iotiou of itu I'JIci'IrijinI Sphere. 9 

In the same mannci' vvc proceed to terms involving c'; and wo dutLimini' 
an additional term 

I ■d\\dlj d r 

and we find for the vector potential 

E^or^ - Ec-^a 4 Ec-^ I (..) - ^ I i + ^ I .s:V i) + . . . 
\6 ^^ 2 dt r 6 dt rj 

The electrical force t at the surface of the sphere is 

-Y I /3 + c"" {2pSpa - a'-p VpaSpor) + cr' ( - 2paSp(i) + . . .', 

and the magnetic force at the surface is 


If the internal magnetic force is initially and afterwards zero, the 
surface-density is simply obtained from the normal component of the 
electric force, and this forms at each step a check on our calculations ; for 
the total charge on the sphere must be constant. In this case we find for 
the surface-density 


- — - {1 + 2ac~'-SUocs - 2a"c~^SUofj + . . .1. 

We find from the boundary conditions the current ?'(, to be 
4^^ [o-'VpVpcr - ac-^VpVpa^ . . .). 

Other examples easily solved by this method would be the case of 
constant electric and magnetic force, plane waves, etc. 

v.— On Oscillatory Distributions. 

For a sphere at rest there is not only the simple distribution, but 
also an infinite number of possible oscillatory distributions, and those can 
be continued in the usual manner. The method can best be explained by 
an example. For the fundamental mode take 

1 ^Ac( ^-vffl^-c- >-«-'■'• + 

n, = -c-o-a(^ 

r dt 

where a is a fixed direction in space, and we shall suppose that the sphere 

K. I. A. PKOC. VOL. XXVni., SECT. A. [2] 

iO Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

moves without rotation. We find, on the surface »• = a, 

, /I k l~\ ^ ,./3 '6Jc lr\ 
\a^ a- a) ^ \a' o} ay 

. pSapS.p (i + ?^' + ^^) + pSa. (i + ^)j C- 

+ ^|.(V5aV - aV') re-*-- + . . .; 
and for the magnetic force we find 

- r,„ . ,.r' [v,r,.(i. . i). '•] -- |(i * „^ - !).-'■ .... 

To a first approximation we find that the non-normal terms vanish if 
A-V + /a + 1 = 0. If /.,, denote this value of k, we may assume that the 
complete value is of the form A,, + cH; + c'-k^ + . . . There is, how- 
ever, no term containing a multiplied by a constant coefficient in the term 
multiplying c-' in t + Finj, and no term will arise, as shall be seen, in 
compensating there the non -normal force, so that A| = 0. The non- 
normal term wiU be found to be 

which can be annulled by a " harmonicoid " of second kind 

- .' = kc-^VpVoai^- + ^)c-*- + C-'-V.Voa{^- + ,^ - ^)':-*- + ■.. 

It will be found on inspection that the only term containing a in the 
coefficient of e"' arises from 

On arrangement of terms we find 

til _ 7/3A 

c'\,4 12 y • ■ 

, l + v/3i 
kfi = + 

where r is the velocity, and i = -/ - \. 

The general tendency is thus to diminish the damping factor and to 
lengthen the period from which we may infer that the charge is less stable 
than before. 

Conway — On the Motion of an Electrified Sphere. 1 1 

Fiiuu ii knowlodgo of the imiiiial wnipoiienl. oT Uk- clectiio force we 
liiid that the Burl'aco-dciisity is jiri>piirli(iiial lo 

Sap + — f ^SapShp + Jrt-iSacr j + . . . 

Thus the harmonic distribution of first order involves also one of the second, 
so that the principal modes of oscillation are different from those of a fixed 

We can now deal with the case of discontinuous motions, i.e. when 
any differential coefficient becomes discontinuous. For example, suppose that 
the sphere is moving with an acceleration ij', and that when t = t^ the 
acceleration is a. Before the time t^ the surface-density is 

1 + 2<r"-Spa + . . . j, 

then after t =„/a the surface-density is 

- — ; Jl + 'Ic'^Spa +...[ + Sup + . . . 

where a is a solution of 

aci^ + acic + ac" = 

such that when t = to the densities and the currents (which depend on the 
differential coefficients of the density) are equal. In this case we find 

" = 9-;? ('^0 - To) f -" \ ' Sin \-^— {t-t,) + - sin - 

^TTCI y_ lit Oj\ o 

Ec' -^ ('-'") • v/3/ \\. 2ir 

^" \ / sin t - t.. ] sin — • 

{'do - o-o )c '^" ^ I sin — - [i - fo] sin 

2ira 2a 

VI. — Quasi-Stationary Motion. 

A particular class of motion called quasi-stationary motion has received 
much attention in modern dynamics of an electron. In this motion the 
acceleration is supposed to be so small that its differential coefficients 
and its square and higher power can be neglected. Our formulie become 
in this case somewhat simpler ; but another method (which can be applied 
to any other case of motion) seems more direct in this case. 


12 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The harmonicoid fuuctions used al1o^•e have no simple physical meaning, 
but, by the aid of a theorem which can be easily verified, we can construct 
harmonicoid functions which represent potential of spherical shells having 
a given assigned surface charge represented in spherical harmonics. This 
theorem is as follows: — If dP be the potential due to an element of unit 
density according to any law of force which depends only on the time and 
the relative position of element and attracted point, and if /„(p) be a solid 
spherical scalar harmonic in wliicli, for simplicity, we may regard the 
coefficients as constants in time, then 

^;i"/"(V) [ " «..,^'^..-. f"""V'„.,*T,., . . . [\IP 

"■ Jo Jo Jo 

(where dP means the potential of a sphere of radius «,) is the 

potential of a surface-distribution of amount fn{Up) over a sphere of 
radius «, and this holds both for external and internal points. 

We have also the fact that the potentials P and H, and a uniform 
spherical shell of charge E, are given by 

" = 2;jf2H!-UJ " — V — -' ^"^™""y- 

From these formulae we find for the electric force t inside such a shell 


2E ._. , / 3 3tt' 3 4tt' \ 


and we find for the magnetic force ij the equation 

2E ,, ... /3 1m= 3 2m' 

,^ 2E ., ,.. /3 1m= 3 2m' \ 

/ nn = — — — ■ rr I a-' a \ -^ • - — + -• — . . .l- 

■■'">'" \2 3 c' 2 5 c* J 

Oonwav — On the MoUoti of an Electrified Sphere. 13 

Wo thus timl f(iv tho oloctroiuoti\'o intensity inside tlic expression 


jjf = 

•IE- /, 5 V? 9 «.' \ ^^ 1 I 1 , 1 + /.• 2 

C- ?'■'■■ 7 lV,,r /.:^ ( t " 1 - /,: 1 - IcV 


where it = Ta and Z; = «/c. 

It will be noticed that M and M' are Abraham's expressions for 
longitudinal and transverse mass.* 

If we suppose now a surface-density of amount 

pSpaS(T~'a + ([SpaVa'^a, 
we find an internal electromotive force of amount 


277 (1 -k-) jl, I vk J 

^• = — F—U-^°g 1—^-^1' 


(1 - k-f (1 1 + /.• 2 

2' = — AT-j-^'^gr^^i-^^ 

For example, if we require the distribution of electricity due to a field 

ffl' 'lo' ^® fi'^*^ ^h^ linear equation : 

apijo - et \<y>^<y~^<y + I «!?i!? ~ "*^ ) "^ K t" or + eq + Kwi/o = U. 

This contains two scalar unknowns p and q, and a vector unknown a, so 
that another equation is necessary. In the next section this will be found. 

VII. — DynaiMical Results. 

As a basis for our results we can assume with Lorentzt that the total 
force on the conductor is that due to the aethereal forces on each element 
of electricity. If in addition we have Newtonian forces, including reversed 
effective forces, then the whole system of forces, electrical and non-electrical, 
must be in equilibrium. The electromotive intensity on the elements gives 

* Cf. Abraham, Theorie lUr EUctrinliit, ii., p. 191. 
tCf. Lorontz : Theorij of Electrons, p. 19. 

14 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

rise to a force tc + Vn], where '■ is the surface-density. By the aid 
of the boundary conditions one form of tliis is 

■ c'-(l -c--(F<i'v)=) + c-V 
i - {bavy c 

where v {Tv = 1) is the normal to the boundary; and as we are dealing 
with surface-distributions, we must take one-half of this in computing the 
total force. It may be noticed that tliis force is entirely normal, so that 
for a sphere such forces have no tendency to cause rotation. The current 
< = (q -^ fu can be obtained from the boundary-conditions. However, 
if harmonicoids of the first type only are present, (q is " irrotational," and 
can be calculated from c by the diflerential equation.^ 

V{p-' VpV,,) = 0. 
For example : if t = f„(p), a solid harmonic of degree n, then 

v=/;.(p) = 

may be written 

71 (n + 1)] 


so that the current is 

-pVpV d^ 
n (n + 1) dt 

Consider the case of the isolated sphere. We have 
c = e„(l + 2c-'Spa - 2ac^SpS . . .) 
where £ = 47ra'e„ and the cuiTent 

'o = c^ic-'VpVpa . . .). 

e'(l - c-H Vapf) + c-V 

= c„'[(l + 2c^Spi - 2a(r>SpSy' + c^{<f + 2c-'<T,S>rT + c-'VpYpSy] 
[1 + (SivYc-^ + (SavYcr* + . . .] 

= .„= [1 +' 2c-'(25/)«T + ff' -1- {S„vy) - iac-'SpS + ...]. 
It is clear that only terms of odd degree will contribute to the final result, 
so that on multiplying by 2n-i', and integiating, we find 


( - of + «C"''(T + ...!• 

It will Ije noticed that this is the same a.s if tlie charge on the sphere wa.s 
uniform and fixed. The energy wasted and conserved is the same (to this 

Conway — On the Motion of an Electrified Sphere. 15 

degree of approximation) in both cases, but if the sphere is suddenly brought 
to rest, the mode of attaining the final state is different in both cases. In 
the one case the total kinetic energy is radiated in the form of a thin shell ; 
in the other case the charge assumes the equilibrium position after a number 
of oscillations. 

If the isolated sphere had in addition an oscillatory distribution of 
surface-density c-'^Sap + c'^Sfip, we find for the opposing force 

2 £1 

3 «7 

1 '!^ 

+ f ' I rt(T 

where a and /3 satisfy 

a«- + arte + ac' = 0, 

(ib- + /3«c + /3c- = 0. 

In the case of quasi-stationary motion, employing the notation of the last 
section, we have, if m denote the Newtonian mass, and ^ the Newtonian force, 
the equation of motion 

- Ila(ppiiScr'^'(y + qq,nVa'''(T) - ma + | = 0, 

pSfxrSa'^rr + qSpnVa'^'cf 

is the surface-density. This, taken along with the equation 

completes the solution. We deduce at once 

{3f + m)(jSa"'(j + {M' + w)aJ'rr-'rT = Z + (c^ + Va\]^)E. 

This is the equation of motion of a rujidly uniformly electrified sphere; 
and we notice that if 

«i(T - S = 0, then p = 0, and q = 0, 

and the sphere is uniformly electrified. 

n.I.A. PROC, vol.. XXVIII., SIUT. A. [3] 

[ 16 ] 



By sir ROBERT BALL, ll.d., f.r.s., 
Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry in the University 

of Cambridge. 

Read Jani'aky 10. Onlered for Publication January 12. Piiblislied April 5, 1910. 


Page I Page 

I. On the expression for the Virtiiiil IV. Applications of Quaternions to tlie 

Coefficient of two Vector-Screws, . 16 Tlieory of Screws, . . .44 

! V. Use of Quaternions in the Theory of 

II. f)n the composition of Twists or | Reflected Screws, ... 62 

Wrenches on Vector-Screws, . 27 YI. Quaternion InvesUgation of the Screw 

111. On the Pilch 0[ier»(or 

:r- + 5- -t . . . + — , . .40 

Cpi opt )>, 

Ueciprocal to five given Screws, 55 

VII. Keprcsentation of Screw Systems of 
the third order \>y Linear Vector 
Functions, ..... 61 

I. — On the expression for the Virliutl Coefficient of two Vcctor-Screips. 

TiiK properties of the virtual coefficient of two screws are of fundamental 
importance in that branch of mathematics which is known as the Theory of 
Screws. The term " virtual coefficient " was firet introduced into the Theory 
of Screws in a memoir by the present writer.* It must, however, be remem- 
bered that a certain function of geometrical quantities, which is called the 
fundamental invariant of two linear complexes, and which is exactly parallel 
to the virtual coefficient in the Theory of Screws, had been previously 
employed by Kleinf in a series of important investigations. 

The evanescence of the virtual coefficient of two screws indicates that the 
screws stand in that remarkable relation which we have expressed by desig- 
nating them as reciprocal. In the earlier investigations of the Theory of 
Screws there had been no occasion for the employment of the virtual co- 
efficient except in connexion with reciprocal screws. But when in a later 

• Phil. Trans. Boy. Soc., 1874, p. 16. 

t Math. .\nn., vol. ii., pp. 198-226 (1869). For further details and references, see the " Treatise 
on the Theory of Screws" by the present writer. Cambridge, 1900, pp. 17, 617. In future 
references to this boiik in the piesent paper, it >« ill be terniod "ioiply " Treatise." 

15a 1,1, — Conlributlons Iv the Thcorij of Screws. 17 

memoir* it became necessary to introduce the Theory of Screw co-ordinates, the 
virtual cocfHcieut as a function of the two screws, and now no longer zero, 
assumed a significance which it had not previously appeared to possess. 

It may perhaps be thought strange that after the lapse of so many yearn 
it should now have been found necessary to re-examine the rigour of thi' 
original expression for the virtual coefficient. That expression was given in 
terms of the pitches j)^, p^ of the two screws o and j3, of d the shortest distance 
between their two axes, and of the angle between them, and was statedf to 

i{{l>a + I'p) cos f) - dsin B\. 

In the course of the Quaternion developments of the Theory of Screws, 
to which a considerable part of the present paper is devoted, a doubt arose, 
not indeed as to the formal accuracy of this expression, but as to the rigour 
of the process by which it was supposed to have been established. It presently 
appeared that there was a flaw in the proof, owing to the absence of any 
definite convention as to the way in which the angle between the two sci-ews 
is to be measured. If the angle 360° - 9 had been used instead of 0, then 
the second term in the virtual coefficient would have a positive sign instead 
of a negative sign ; and so far as the original deduction of the expression was 
concerned there was nothing to show which of the two angles was to be 
used in the expression of the virtual coefficient. The ordinary rule for 
estimating the angle between two vectors does, no doubt, distinguish between 
and 180" - 6. It fails, however, to distinguish between and 360° - 0. 
Unless, therefore, some further convention be established, the virtual co- 
efficient must have an ambiguous sign for its second term. Our immediate 
object is to establish the convention necessary so that in all cases the sign 
of the second term shall be negative. Fortunately it is possible to establish 
such a convention in the case of two vector-screws which do not intersect. 

I had already attempted^ to remove this uncertainty in the mode of 
specifying the angle between two screws; but as the result was not com- 
pletely satisfactory, I have returned to the subject. I am glad to say 
that the difficulty has now been overcome, and a great improvement in 
the foundations of the Theory of Screws is the result. I here set down the 
method of obtaining the virtual coefficient in the way 1 would desire it to be 
obtained if I were commencing to write the Theory of Screws over again. 

To the apparatus of the Theory of Screws as it lias hitherto existed the 
important addition of the geometrical conception known as the vector-screw 

* Trans. Hoy. Ir. Aciui., vol. xxv., \i\k 259-327 (1S74). 

t " Treatise," p. 17. 

; Trans. Koy. Ir. Acad., vol. xxxii., ]>\i. lO'J-11,) (1902). 


18 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadenvj. 

has now to be made. By a vector-screw, which is here defined for the first 
time, I mean a screw in the original sense of the word,* on the axis of which 
a unit vector is laid. Thus a vector-screw differs from a screw in that the 
former possesses an indication as to which of the two directions along the 
axis is to be regarded as positive, while there is no such indication of the 
positive direction in the latter. It must not be supposed that the vector by 
which a particular direction is indicated as positive on a vector-screw stands 
in any relation to the pitch of the screw. The sign of the pitch may be 
positive or negative, but is quite irrespective of the sense of direction 
imparted to the vector-screw when it carries a unit vector. Of 
course the pitch of a vector-screw may be zero, and two quite distinct 
vector-screws of zero or any other pitch may lie on the same axis with 
their unit vectors in opposite directions. 

Five data are in general sufficient to determine a screw ; but it would not 
be quite correct to say that five data suffice to determine a vector-scrcv:. We 
have just seen that every screw will be the seat of two distinct vector-screws 
according to the direction of the vector. Thus five data, though insufficient to 
specify a vector-screw complete, will yet show that the vector-screw must be 
one of a definite pair of vector-screws of the same pitch and on the same axis.t 

The distinction between a right-handed rotation? about a vector and a 
left-handed rotation about a vector is perhaps most becomingly based on the 
relations of the diurnal rotation of the Earth to the North and South Poles 
of the Elarth. We accordingly distinguish the right-handed rotation from 
the left-handed rotation as follows : — 

The Diurnal rotation of the Earth is said to be riyht-handcd about a 
vector from its centre to the North Pole, and left-handed about a vector from 
its centre to the South Pole. 

It is to be understood that when a body is said to have had a right- 
handed rotation about a vector it is implied not only — 

(1) That the body has received a rotation about that vector as an axis ; 
but also 

• "Treatise," p. 7. 

t It will be seen a little later that when a screw is represented by the rettor coordinates /i, A 
the geometrical fonn indicated is really a vector-screw and not merely a screw. Thus the 
quaternion method of representing Dynames is free from the present ambiguity. 

X See Hamilton, ''Lectures on Quaternions," art. 68; also Hamilton, "Elements of Quater- 
ninns," 2nd ed., edited by Charles Jasper Joly (1899), toI. i., p. 21.5, foot-note. It is this edition 
of the great work which will be referred to throughout this paper whenerer Hamilton's " Elements 
of Quaternions" is quoted. On the subject of the convention respecting the direction of a right- 
handed rotation about a vector, reference may be made to " A Manual of Quaternions " by Phnrles 
Jasper Joly, 1905, p. 7. This work will be quoted briefly as Joly's "Manual" in the frequent 
references made to it in the prCMrnt pap«r. 

Ball — Contributions to the Tlimri/ of Hcreivx. 10 

(2) That if wo conceived the vector to be lyhig upon the Eaitli's axis, 
and pointing in the same direction as the vector from the Earth's 
centre to the North Pole, then a right-handed rotation of the body 
will tnrn it in the same direction as that in which tlio liarth is 

As a convenient method of rememliering the relation of a right-handed 
rotation to the vector about which the rotation has been performed, we may 
note that the direction in which the numbers increase on the face of a watch 
is right-handed with regard to a vector from the dial to the hack. 

The conception due to Chasles, that any movement of a rigid body is a 
twist about a screw, is, of course, a fundamental principle in the Theory of 
Screws. The word " twist " was defined with regard to a screw at the 
beginning of the original memoir* with which the present series commenced. 
At present we are concerned with vector-screws rather than screws ; and it 
has become necessary to explain how the vector-screw introduced in the 
present paper for the first time enables an absolutely precise specification of 
a twist to be made, and thus attention is called to the fact that any 
specification of a twist with regard to a screw {i.e., not a vector-screw) must 
be necessarily defective in one detail. 

A twist may be completely represented by a vector-screw a (of pitch p^ 
and a scalar a which is termed the amplitude of the twist. The twist is 
produced by compounding — (1) a rotation, and (2) a translation. 

1. The rotation is right-handed or left-handed about the vector, 
according as the given scalar a is positive or negative. 

The angular magnitude of the rotation is o' radians. 

2. The translation is to be in the same direction as the vector, or in the 
opposite direction according as a''p„, is positive or negative. 

The linear magnitude of the translation is 

If ]y^ = 0, the twist is simply a rotation. If p^ = » and the twist is 
to be finite, then a = 0, and tlie twist is a translation. 

In the Theory of Screws, a is always regarded as a small quantity. 
When this is the case, the result of the composition of any number of twists 
is independent of the order of their application. 

If a rigid body is not at rest, its movement must be at every movement a 
twisting motion about some instantaneous vector-screw. 

An instantaneous twisting motion may be completely represented by a 
vector-screw a of pitch p^, which may be either positive or negative, and a 

Trans. Itoy. Iv. Auad., vol. xxv., p. 159 (1S71). See also "Treatise," p. 

20 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadenuj. 

scalar a' which may be either positive or negative, and which is termed the 
twist velocity of the motion. 

The instantaneous twisting motion is formed by compounding (1) a 
motion of rotation, and (2) a motion of translation. 

(1) The motion of rotation is right-handed or left-handed about the 
vector on the vector-screw, according as a is positive or negative. In this 
we see the advantage of the vector-screw over the screw. Had it not been 
for the vector, we should have had no means of indicating the direction of the 
rotation in the specification of the twist. 

The angular velocity of this rotation is a radians per imit of time. 
(2) The motion of translation is in the same direction as the vector, or iu 
the opposite direction according as a'^J^ is positive or negative. 

If a be the angular velocity with which a changes, then the numerical 
value of the velocity of translation is 

To show how the employment of the vector-screw enables all possible 
conditions of tlic twisting motion to be specified, we observe that 

If Pa> and a > 0, the rotation is right-handed, and the translation is 
with the vector. 

If y>. < and a > 0, the rotation is right-handed, and the translation is 
against the vector. 

If ;). > and a < 0, the rotation is left-handed, and the translation is 
against the vector. 

If /', < and u <. 0, the rotation is left-handed, and the translation is 
with the vector. 

The statement that a couple is right-handed about a vector implies not only 

(1) That tlie vector is normal to the plane of the couple, 
but also 

(2) That the couple tends to give a body a right-handed rotation about 
that vect<:>r. 

A wrench may Ije completely specified by a vector-screw a (of pilch p^), 
and a scalar a", which is termed the Intensity of the Wrench. The wrench 
is produced by the combination of (1) a force, and (2) a couple. 

(1) The intensity of the force is a" units of force, and its tendency is 
with the vector or against the vector, according as a" is positive or negative. 

(2) The couple is to be right-handed or left-handed about the vector, 
according as a"p. is positive or negative. 

The numerical value of the moment of the couple is 

]>Ai,i. — Contrihutiom to the Thcorj/ nj Scre/vx. 21 

If Pa is zero, the wrench is merely the force a". If 'pa is infinite, then a 
finite wrench is possible only when a" is zero. In this case the wrench 
rednces to a couple. 

We have now to lay down the rule for discriminating as to which of the 
two angles 6 or 360'^ - 8, between a pair of non-intersecting vector-screws 
shall be designated as the right-handed angle between those vector-screws. 

Let P be a point on one vector-screw a, and Qhe a. point on the other 
vector- screw /3, such that PQ is the common perpendicular to a and /3. 
Imagine o to receive such a right-handed rotation through an angle with 
respect to the vector from P to Q, as shall bring the unit-vector on a to point 
in the same direction as the unit-vector on j3, then is said to be the right- 
handed angle between (5 and the original position of a. 

If the two vector-screws were in the same plane, the vector PQ is 
evanescent, the construction would break down, and consequently our means 
of discriminating between the right-handed angle and the left-handed angle 
have vanished. 

A convenient practical rule for finding the right-handed angle between a 
pair of vector-screws may be obtained by the hands and the dial of a watch, 
it being observed of course that the hands are not coplanar. 

The hands are taken to be the axes of two non-intersecting vector-screws, 
the vectors of which point outwards from the centre along the hands. The 
hour indicated by the minute-hand (i.e., the uppermost hand) is subtracted 
from that indicated by the hour-hand. The difference turned into angle at 
the rate of 30° per hour is the right-handed angle between the two screws. 
For example, if the minute-hand was at III, and the hour-hand at Y, the 
difference is two hours, and the right-handed angle is 60°. If the minute 
hand is at I and the hour hand at X, the difference is 9 hours, and the right- 
handed angle is 270'. If the minute-hand is at XI and the hour-hand is 
at II, the difference is XII + II - XI = .3^, and the right-handed angle 
of the two screws is 90°. Finally, if the minute-hand be at XII, the hour- 
hand itself shows the right-handed angle. 

In a figure representing a pair of vector- 
screws parallel to the plane of the paper, the 
analogy of the hands of a watch suggests as a 
useful convention that the longer line OA shall 
be above OB. Of course in this case OA and 
0£ cannot represent the lengths of the vectors 
on the two vector-screws, for these by hypo- " P,q j 

thesis are both unit- vectors. 

The necessity for a clear understanding as to the ilistinction between the 

22 Proceedings of the Uoijal Irish Academy. 

right-handed angle and the left-handed angle between two vector-screws 
will be obvious from the following considerations : — 

The angle between two screws (i.e., not vector-screws) is an ambiguous 
expression ; the angle may mean B, or 180° - 6, or 180° + Q, or 360° - d, just 
as in the case of the angle between two lines. 

The angle between two vectors is not ambiguous to the same extent ; it 
can only be or 360° - 0, if we agree tliat we are to measure the angle 
between vectors diverging from their point of intersection. 

But it is worthy of special note that when the two vectors are not 
in the same plane, as, for example, when they are the vectors on two non- 
intersecting vector-.screws, we can distinguish geometrically one of the two 
angles whose sum is 360° as the riglit-handed angle, and the other as the 
left-handed angle. Thus the right-lianded angle between two vector-screws 
which do not intersect is free from all ambiguity; and it may be any angle 
between 0° and 360°. 

We are now to reconsider the fundamental problem which introduces the 
virtual coefficient. This lies, indeed, at the commencement of our subject ; 
but the expression of the virtual coefiBcient as it has been used Iiitherto lias, 
unfortunately, Iwen sometimes haunted by ambiguity as to wliich of tlie two 
angles between the two screws was to be understood. This ambiguity is 
henceforth removed. Tlie two screws involved each leceives the addition of 
the unit- vector, by which they are transformed into vector-screws ; and then 
the convention is established that the right-handed angle between the two 
vector-screws is the angle to be employed in the expression of the virtual 
coefficient. No doubt this had been to some extent implied in the paper* 
already referred to ; but it is now for the first time explicitly stated. The 
deduction of the expression for the virtual coefiicient will here be set forth 
not as it was originally given.t nor as it was given many years later in a 
general treatise^ on the Theory of Screws, but as it should have been 

The subject had been always troublesome ; and when I saw at last what I 
ought to have seen at first, it was plain that a difficulty had been removed 
from the foundation of the Theory of Screws. I therefore desire that this 
emendation shall have a place in the series of memoiis which the Academy 
have so kindly received from me for so many years. 

The problem is as follows : — It is required to find an expression for the 
work done when a body makes a small twist of amplitude a about one 

* Trans. Eojr. Ir. Acnd., Tol. xxxii., pp. 109-115 (1902). 
+ Trans. Roy. Ir. Acad., vol. xxv., p. 167 (1871). 
X "Treatise," p. 17 (1900). 

Ball — Contrihutiona to the Theory of Screws. 23 

vector-screw a, while at the same time tlie body is acted upon by a wrench of 
intensity j3" on another vector-screw /3. 

We denote by Q the right-handed angle between n and /3. We take P a 
point on a, and Q a point on j3, such that PQ is at right angles both to u and 
/3, and of course PQ = d is the shortest distance between a and /3. 

The wrench on /3 is composed 

(1) of a force of j3" units acting on Q, and in the direction of the vector 

on /3 ; and 

(2) of a couple of moment ^"-p^ right-handed or left-handed about the 

vector on /j, according as jS''^^^ is positive or negative. 

The couple may be represented by the two forces (5"pfid'^ separated by the 
distance d. One of these forces acts at P and the other at,Q; and they are 
normal both to (5 and PQ. We sacrifice no generality by making both /3" 
and pp positive, so that the couple shall tend to a right-handed rotation 
about |3. 

The original wrench on /3 is thus replaced by three equivalent forces, viz. : — 

ft" acting on Q, 
ft"ppd'^ acting on Q, 
ft"p^dr^ acting on P. 

As all the forces forming the wrench are thus brought to bear either at P 
or at Q, it follows that in the determination of the virtual moment we are only 
concerned with the displacements of the two points P and Q. 

The twist about the vector- screw a gives to P a displacement a'p^ in the 
direction of the vector on a. The same twist produces two displacements in 
Q, to wit, a'pay in the direction of the vector on a, and ad, which lies in the 
normal to a and PQ, and tends in the direction of a right-handed rotation 
about a. 

There is thus one virtual moment at P, but there are four at Q ; for each of 
the two displacements of Q will have a virtual moment with each of the two 
forces at Q. The algebraic sum of these five quantities expresses the vii-tual 
moment of the original twist and the original wrench. 

Fig. 2 shows the vector-screw a projected g 

down on the plane of the paper, which is 

supposed to contain ft, and to which QP 

is normal. The actual situation of a is 

above the plane of the paper; and this is '^ 

suggested in fig. 2 by making « longer than 

ft. With this agreement it is obvious from the definition that and not 

"iGO"- Q is the ririlit-handcd angle between the two screws a and ft. 

B. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVin., SECT. A. [4] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Fig. 3 is in the plane drawn through P and normal to PQ. Thus fig. 3 
represents a plane above the plane of fig. 2. 

Fig. 4 is in the plane of fig. 2 ; i.e., it is the plane drawn through Q and 
normal to QP. 

In figs. 3 and 4 we represent the three forces into which the wrench has 
been analyzed, and also the one displacement of P and the two displacements 
of Q. The displacements are shown by the dotted lines and the forces by 
continuous lines. 

As the body is translated through the distance a f^ ; in tlie direction of o 
this displacement must be assigned both to P in fig. 3, and to Q in fig. 4. 

The rotation a about a is without eflect on P, and therefore does not 
appear in fig. 3. But this rotation displaces Q, as sliown in fig. 4, through 
the distance ad. The dii'ection of this displacement in fig. 4 is determined 
by remembering that the rotation is right-handed about a, and that a is 
above the plane of the paper in fig. 4. 






Fio. 4. 

The directions given to the forces fi"p»'l'^ in figs. 3 and 4 are such as to 
make the couple which they form right-handed with regard to /3. 

The virtual moment at P is accordingly expressed by the single term 

- a' ^' paPfid-^ sind. 
The virtual moment at Q, fig. 4, is the sum of 4 terms. 
The virtual moment of /3" and «'/>. is + n'/3"/>.cos B, 
/3" ,. oV „ -a'/i'VsinO, 

„ /3'>W' " n'y. .. + u'ii"paPffi'' sin e, 

Assembling the five terms, which collectively form the virtual moment 
of tlie wrench on /3 and the twist about a, it is seen that the virtual 

Ball — Contributions In the Tlieori) of Screws. 25 

moment at J' is cancelled by the third term in tlie viitual moment at Q, 
and that the final result is 

«'/3"{(i'<. + Pp)cosO - dHinlll. (1) 

We have next to consider the efl'ect of an interchange which, instead fif 
assigning the wrench to /3 and the twist to a, makes the twist belong to /3 
and the wrench to a. The problem may be enunciated as follows : — 

It is required to find the virtual moment when a biody receives a twist of 
small amplitude j3' about the vector-screw (3 ; while at the same time it is 
acted upon by a wrench of intensity a" about the vector screw a. 

The answer is obtained by the interchange of a and (5 in the expression 
just proved for the virtual moment. It is first of all to be noticed that this 
interchange does not alter the expression 

(/'« + P^) '^os Q - tJ sin Q 

in any way whatever, for {p^ x pf^) is of course unchanged, and remembering 
the definition of the right-handed angle between two screws, it is easily seen 
that the right-handed angle between a and /3 is also the right-handed angle 
between /3 and o. Thus the interchange of a and /3 is devoid of effect on 0, 
nor is d altered, for this is a signless quantity. As the quantity 

(^)„ + i^p)cos & - (7 sin 9 

is unaltered by the interchange of a and /3, the only alteration in the virtual 
moment caused by the interchange of a and j3 lies in the factor outside the 
bracket, which becomes a"/3' instead of a'/3". Thus the required result is 


The virtiial coefficient is the name given to that symmetrical frmction of 
two vector-screws which is expressed by 

'^ap- + AfCl'a +2'/3)cos0- f^sinflj, (2) 

where is the right-handed angle between the two screws. 

This has of course been the expression so long used in the Theory of Screws. 
The particular point now brought out is that to make the virtual coefficient 
so written universally valid exactly as it stands, it is necessary that the two 
screws shall be vector-screws, and that Q shall be the right-handed angle 
between them. 

If the vector-screw /3 coincides with the vector-screw a, then p^ =• pa, 
6 = 0, d = 0; and, consequently, the virtual coefficient reduces simply to ^;,. 
That this reduction shall take place is the principal reason why the factor | 
has been introduced into the function which defines the vii-tual coefficient. 

26 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The convenience arising from our adoption of the right-haiided aiu/le 
between two vector-screws, as one of the elements indicating their relative 
position, may be illustrated by showing the inconvenience that would arise if 
we adopted another angle which may or may not be the right-handed 
angle, namely, the acute angle between the two screws. 

In fig. 5 the acute angle between a and /3 is 9, whether a be above /3 or 
/3 above a. But, in the former case, the wtual coefficient would be 

5 \(pa + Pp) cosO - d sin 0\ , 

and, in the latter, it can easily be proved that the virtual coefifi- 
cient would be 
F'°- 5- i ! (/?« + Pp) cos + rf sin e}. 

We avoid this change of sign in the second term by agreeing that the angle 
to be employed in the expression of the virtual coefficient shall be the right- 
handed angle. When a is above /3, this angle is 6 ; but when a is below fi, 
the angle is 360' - 6. Thus the sign of the second term in the virtual 
coefficient is always to be negative, and ambiguity is escaped when the 
angle is understood to be the right-handed angle between the two vector- 
screws. Of coui-se ambiguity would have been equally escaped by consistently 
taking the loft-handed angle for 0. Wc have preferred to take the right- 
handed angle, because the form that it gives to the virtual coefficient is that 
with which wc liad already been familiar. 

Owing to the symmetry of the virtual coefficient as respects the two 
screws to which it relates, we are enabled to make the following statement : — 

If a wrench on a screw /3 does not disturb the equilibrium of a body only 
free to twist about a screw a, then, conversely, a wrench on a screw a will not 
disturb the equilibrium of a body only free to twist about /3. 

In both cases bj.^ = 0, and the screws a and /3 arc said to be reciprocal.* 
It is abundantly shown in the precetling memoirs that the doctrine of 
reciprocal screws is fundamental in the present theory. 

We have hitherto been discussing the right-handed angle between two 
wrfar-screws; but we may sometimes find it ctmvenient to introduce tlie 
notion of the right-handed angle between two screws (i.e. not necessarily 
vector-screws), presuming only that in this more general case the right- 
handed angle may Ije ambiguous to the extent of any integral number of 
multiples of 180' ; whereas the right-handed angle between two vcdor-Bcrev/H 
never becomes ambiguous so long as they do not intersect. (Of course we 
do not now count integral multiples of 360°.) 

• "Treatise," p. 26. 

Ball — Conlributions to the Theorij of Screws. 2t 

Let 1', Q bo the two points in wliiuii any two screws « and /3 are 
respectively intersected by their common perpendicular. If we imagine a 
to be rotated in a right-handed direction about the vector PQ until it 
becomes parallel to /3, the angle tlirough wliicli a has been turned is the 
right-handed angle between /3 and the original position of a. But if we then 
continue the rotation of a for another 180° in the same direction, it will, in 
the absence of the indicating vectors, resume precisely the same position 
with regard to /3, so that 180° + 9 has just as much claim as to be regarded 
as the right-handed angle between the screws a and |3. If in the expression 
already found for the virtual coefficient (2) we increase 9 by 180°, the 
magnitude is unaltered though the sign is changed. 

Thus the virtual coefficient of two screws is definite in magnitude but 
indefinite in sign. In this respect the virtual coefficient of two screws offers 
a parallel to the cosine of the angle between two lines. 

The virtual coefficient of two vector-screws is definite in magnitude and 
not indefinite in sign. This is, of course, parallel to the case of the cosine 
of the angle between two vectors. 

The only indefiniteness in the right-handed angle between two screws 
which do not intersect is an integral multiple of 180°. 

If two vector-screws are reciprocal, they will remain reciprocal if the 
directions of either or both of the vectors are reversed. In speaking of 
reciprocal vector-screws we may therefore omit the word 'vector'; for tlie 
relation indicated is irrespective of the sense of direction on either screw. 

II. — On the Composition of T'wisis or Wrenches on Vector-Screws. 

Let a', j3', 7' be the amplitudes of the twists on three vector-screws 
a, j3, 7 ; the relations between the three amplitudes and the three screws 
being such that the body after the last twist is restored to the same place 
which it occupied before the first. 

Let »)" be the intensity of a wrench on any fourth vector-screw »;. Then 
the virtual moment of this wrench wliile the body receives the twist a' is 
'2i]"a'wa.-^. Hence the total work done in the course of the tliree twists is 

2»)"a'ra„,, 1 2i("/3't3^, + 2ij"7'-53^,. (3) 

As the body is restored to its original position after the completion of the 
three twists, the expression just written must be zero, whatever be the surow ij 
or whatever be the magnitude >)" : we therefore have* 

a''^„n + /3'to^, + 7'3J„ = . . . (4) 

• "Treatise," p. 18. 

28 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

From this we can prove the following fundamental theorem : — 
If twists of amplitudes a, /3', 7' about three vector-screws a, j3, 7 neutralize 
each other when applied to the same rigid body, then wrenches of intensities 
a", /3", y" on the same vector-screws «, /3, j will be in equilibrium when 
applied to a rigid body of 

,." : /3" : 7" : : ■•' : ^' = l'- (5) 

This is a consequence of the symmetry of the virtual coellicient of two 
vector-screws with regard to these vector-screws;* for, from the condition 
stated (5), the equation (4) may be written 

a'-^ar, + i3"wp, + 7"ct„ = 0. (6) 

If »)' be the amplitude of a small twist about n, then (6) may be expressed 

2,'a"ta., 4. 2.,73"np, + 2„'7"^v. = 0- (7) 

This shows that three wrenches of intensities a", /j", 7" on the vector-screws 
n, /3, 7 do collectively no work when the body receives a twist about any 
screw whatever. It follows that three wrenches must equilibrate, and the 
desired theorem has been proved. 

It thus appears that twists and wrenches are comjJounded by laws which 
can be derived from (4) and (6) by merely attributing to 1/ various jiositions 
and pitches.t Wo may commence by showing that wlien wrenches of inten- 
sities 11", /3", 7" respectively on three vector -screws a, /3, 7 equilibrate, tlicn 
the line intereecting two of those screws perpendicularly must also intersect 
the third pei-pendicularly. 

We observe that tlie virtual coellicient of two screws wliicli intersect at 
right angles is zero; for then botli f/ = and cos = 0. If therefore wo take 
for I) any screw on the common perpendicular intersecting a and /3, we have 

ro., = and w^, = 0, 
and therefore from (6) 

We cannot satisfy this by making 7" = ; for then the two wrenches on 
o and /3 would have to equilibrate, which is not possible unless o and /3 are 
identical screws : rejecting this case, we have 

If as usual d is the shortest distance between 7 ami ij, and fj Lhu right- 
handed angle between them, we infer that 

(Py + Vr,) C03 9 - d sin = 0. 

• Klein, Math. Ann., vol. iv., p. 413 (1871). 

t Of course these laws are already well known (" Treatise," p. 18), but their derivation from 
formula) (4) nnd (6) will be useful in what foUowF 

Ball — Contributions to the Theory of Scretvs. 


But this must be true for all values of i\ whence 
cos 6 = and d = Q, 
and accordingly ») must also intersect 7 at right angles. 

We shall now investigate generally the conditions which must be satisfied 
if a body having received three twists of amplitudes a, /3', 7' about tluee 
vector-screws a, j3, y respectively is to be restored by the third twist to the 
position it occupied before the first. 

It has just been shown that the conditions require o, /3, 7 to be 
intersected at right angles by a common axis which we shall suppose to be 
normal to the plane of the paper at 0, fig. 6. 

^ \ 



' 1 1 

' I 1 
/' ' ' 

Fio. 6. 

We now take a screw jj which is subject to no other limitation than that 
it shall also intersect the same axis at right angles. 

In drawing the figure I have made 

Or, > Oa > 0(5 > Oy, 
as has been already indicated. This is the conventional device for indicating 
that Ot] is higher above the plane of the paper than Oa, that Oa is liigher than 
Oj3, and that 0/3 is higher than Oy. 

By 0^ we may understand the angle measured from XII on a watch-dial 
in the direction of increasing figures to Oij which is the projection of i; on the 
dial. Similar meanings attach to 6^, 0^, 6y. 

As I) is above a, the right-handed angle between rj and « is 

IjOa = 0„ - By. 

The respective distances of »» and a above the plane of the paper' are «, and :r„, 
and as the former of these is the greater, the shortest distance between 7; and « 

30 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

We thus obtain the ^dl•tual coefficient of r\ and a by the following equation, 
which is succeeded by the two similar equations for ?) and /3, and »; and y: — 

2z3,„ = {pa. +-1\) cos ((^, - 0,) - (s, - Za) sin ((/„ - «„ 

2.^,3 = {p^ f 2;,) cos (03 - e,) - (t, - 2p) sin («3 - 0,) • (8) 

^''w = (Fy + Pi) <^os (9y - 0,) - (~~,, - ~y) sin (ff^ - 0„) . 

As the three twists are to neutralize, we must have from (4) 

a'TO,a + /3'w,p + y'jn^ = 0, 

and by substituting in this tho values just found for 

"'r\a' "JilP- ''lY' 

we see that 

= + aXpa cos 0„ + c. sin 0„) cos ft,, 

+ /3'(i5p cos 6^ + Zfi sin 6^) cos tf,, 

+ >'( Py cos Oy + 2y sin tf^) cos 6,, (9) 

+ a'(jp„ sin 0„ - s„ cos 0.) sin 0„ 

+ /SXp/s sin 63 - >^ cos flp) sin 0,, 

+ -/'( Py sin 0^ - ^v cos Oy) sin 0,, 

+ (a' cos 0, + /3'cos 03 + 7'cos 0y) ( 2', cos 0, + s, sin 0,), 

+ («' sin 0, + /3'sin 0^ + y'sin 0^) (2:*, sin 0, - 3, cos 0,). 

This equation must be satisfied for all values of 2^,, for all values of 0,, and 
for all values of r, . These conditions will be fulfilled if, but only if, the 
following four equations are true: — 

+ a'( Pa cos 0. + 2a sin 0,), 

+ {i'ipfi cos 03 + Zfi sin 03), 

+ y'[ Py cos By + Zy SlU 0^) = 0. (10) 

+ a'( p. sin 0a - 2a cos Wa), 

+ ^'{p^ sin 03 - Zp cos 03), 

4 7'(/>y sin -y^ - 2^ cos 0^) = 0. (Uj 

a'cos 0. + /3'cos 03 + y'cos »y = 0. (12) 

a'sin 0a + /3'sin 63 + y'sin 0^ = 0. (13) 

The foiTuulffi (10), (11), (12), (13) express the necessary relations of the 
positions and pitches of the three vector-screws, and provide a determination 
of the amplitude-ratios of the neutralizing twists. 

From (12) and (13) we obtain 

a' : /S' : 7' : : sin (^3 - By) : sin (By - 6.) : sin (6, - ^3). (14) 

Ball — Contributions to the Tlieorij of Screws. 31 

Thus we leani that when tliree twists on tlirce vector-screws neutralize, 
the amplitude of each twist is proportional to the sine of the angle between 
the other two.* When the signs of the amplitudes are also required, tlie 
formula (14), taken in conjunction with fig. 6, must also be attended to. 

It remains to investigate the way in which the three vector-screws 
are related. It will be convenient for this purpose to suppose that the two 
screws a and /3 are given so that i\, p^, 0^, 0^, 2„ z^ are all known ; and 
we shall seek the equations connecting these quantities with jiy, 0y, z^. As 
7 is now regarded as a current vector-screw, we shall write ji?, 6, z for 2\, 0y, ~r 
We can eliminate z by multiplying (10) by cos d and adding it to (11), 
after multiplication by sin 6. If at the same time we substitute for a, /3', 7' 
from (1-4), we obtain 

p sin (Op - 6'„) = -H Pa cos (6'„ - 6) sin (6^ - 0) 
+ Pp cos {9^-6) sin {0 - 0,) 
+ s. sin {0, - 0) sin {0^ - 0) ^ ' 

+ zp sin (0p - 0) sin {0 - 0„). 

If we introduce three new quantities. A, B, C, which are constant so 
far as 2^ ^^^ ^ ^i'® concerned, and defined by the formulae 

A^- Pa sin 0^ cos 0p + pp cos 0„ sin 0^ + {z^ - z^) cos 0^ cos ^,3, (16) 

2B ^ (pp - Pa) cos {0a + 0^) + {z^ - Za) sin (^„ + 0^), (17) 

C = + Pa cos 0a sin 0p - pp cos 0^ sin 0a + (j„ - z^) sin 0a cos 0^, (18) 
with this substitution we may write equation (15) as follows 

p sin {0^ -0a)== A sin= + 2B sin cos 6* + C cos^ 0. (19) 
If ^ be a maximum or minimum, then of course 

{A - C) sin 20 + 2B cos 261 = 0. (20) 

There are thus two values of differing by 90°, of which each gives a 
stationary value of 2). We shall take these screws of stationary pitch for 
a and /9, and we shall so adjust the line from which is measured that 
^„ = and 0^ = 90°. The formula (20) must thus reduce to sin 20 = 0, 
whence £ = 0. If we substitute in the general expression for 2B, (17) we 

«3 - 2« = 0, (21) 

from which we learn that the two screws of stationary pitch in the cylin- 
droid, or in what we may also call a two-system of screws, intersect at 
right angles. 

The general expressions also give in tliis ease A = pp and C = p^, 

* "Treatise," p. 21. 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIU., SECT. A. [6] 

32 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and thus we have the following remarkable expression for the pitch of the 
screw corresponding to 6, viz. 

^ = cos' Op^ + sin' Opp. (22) 

This is of course an elementary result in the Theory of Screws * but tliis 
method of obtaining it from the virtual coellicient has not been given in the 
pre\'ious papers. 

We can introduce much simplification into the formula (10) and (11) 
by taking as origin the point wliich is so obviousl}' suggested by being 
the intei-section of the two screws of stationary pitcli. We then have 
2a = 2/3 = 0. and as 5. = and 6^ = 90°, we find (14) 
a ■.^' -.i : : COS ^ : sin Q : - \. 
Thus formulie (10) and (11) become respectively 
p^ cos d - p cos 6 - z sin = 0, 
j)f^ sin Q - p sin Q ^ z cos 5 = 0, 
whence c = (/>„ - p^ sin cos 0. (23) 

If the line wliich all llio screws intei-sect is the axis of z, the surface on 
which all tiie screws lie, so well known as llie cyliuihnid,! has as its e(iuation 

2 (a,-* 4 y') = (;>, - p^) xy. (24) 

This is perhaps the most satisfactory method i4 investigating the 
equation of the cyliudroid so far as the Theory of Screws is concerned. 
In the deduction of the equation of the surface previously giveuj I assumed 
tliat tlic two principal screws of the cyliudroid intei-sected at light angles. 
No doubt the legality of this assumption was subsequently justified, but the 
method here followed seems not open to objection. 

As a further illustration of the formuhe connected with the virtual 
coefficients, we may prove tiie following tiieorem : — 

If in a 2-sy8tem ;j,, p,, y, are the pitches of three vector-screws 1, 2, 3, 
which make right-handed angles fl,, 0,, 0, respectively with a standard vector- 
screw also perpendicular to the axis of the 2-system, show that we have the 
following three equations : — 

px sin (0, - e.) + a,, sin (fl, - 0,) + ra„ sin (0, - fl.) = 0, 

w„ sin (0, - 0,) + p, sin (0, - «,) + S3„ sin (0, - 0,) = 0, . (25) 

Wis sin (0, - 0,) + -On sin (0, - 0,) + p^ sin (0, - 0,) = 0, 

* "Trcilise," p. 19. 

tThc relation of this surface to the Theory of Screws wm first given in Trans. K.I. A., 
vol. XXV., p. 161 (I87I). The discovery of the siirraco is, himevcr, due to Hamilton (1830) : see 
"Treatise," pp. 510-11. 

I " Treatise." p. 10. 

XiAh}.— Con tn'/iui./on.'i to Ihc Thcurij nj hicrctvs. 33 

in which 

2m,, = (/-, + p,) COS (03 - 0.) - d2, sin (03 - 0.), ' 

2^31 = {ih + Ih) COS (03 - 0,) - d,, sin (03 - 0,), - (26) 

2ra,= = {ih + ZJs) cos (0. - 0,) - d,, sin (0, - 0,). ^ 

The three equations (25) are obtained immediately by expressing that 
three neutralizing twists on 1, 2, 3 respectively can do no work against a 
wrench on 1, or on 2, or on 3. 

In the first group of equations (25) the quantities 

sin (03 - 00 sin (0, - 03), sin (0= - 0,), 

being the amplitudes of the three twists which neutralize, are formed by 
taking the angles cyclically. For this purpose, the planes in which the 
different vector-screws lie are not material. 

It might hastily be assumed that the quantities 

sin (03 - 0.), sin (03 - 0,), sin (0, - 0,), 

which occur in the equations (26) as the coefiicients of d,^, d,,, d,2, should 
also be formed by taking the angles 0,, 02, 03 cyclically. But to do so would 
have made the formula erroneous. The angles here involved are in each 
case the right-handed angles between the corresponding pair of vector-screws. 
The order of superposition of these vectors — that is to say, the relative posi- 
tions of the planes in which they lie — have to be carefully attended to. It 
will, of coui'se, be remembered that in obtaining the expression of the virtual 
coefficient, it was particularly specified that the angle introduced into the 
expression must invariably be the right-handed angle between the two vector- 

Bight-handed and left-handed Pairs of Lines. 

A pair of lines which do not lie in the same plane and are not at right 
angles may be distinguished as right-handed or left-handed. 

A disc LM, being supposed to be inserted between the two lines AB and 
A'B' in fig. 7, and between PQ and P'Q' in fig. 8, enables us to represent that 
AB lies over A'B', and that PQ lies over P'Q'. 

As a convenient mnemonic we may fancy the right arm AB crossed over 
the left A'K to form fig. 7, and the left arm QP crossed over the right Q'P" 
to form fig. 8. Thus we may appropriately distinguish the two figures as 
right-handed and left-handed, so long as the two lines of each paii" do not 
intersect, and so long as the angles AOA' or POF are both acute. Suppose 
L AOA' was increased up to 90°, then a critical stage is reached ; and the 
distinction between a right-handed pair- and a left-handed pair will at that 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

moment vanish. If AOA' exceeds 90°, then the Imes AB and AB' (fig. 7), 
having passed the critical point, have become left-handed instead of right- 
handed. By reflection from a looking-glass, a right-handed pair of lines will 
appear as a left-handed pair, or vice versa. 

We have now to prove two general properties of a cylindroid, which may 
be thus stated. 

The generator which contains the .screw of greatest pitch on the cylindroid 
makes a left-handed pair with every other generator on the surface. 

The generator which contains the screw of least pitcli on the cylindroid 
makes a right-handed pair with every other generator on the surface. 

We have from tlic formula (23) 

= = (Pa -Pfi) sine COS 0. (27) 

^8 Q Q- 

Fto. 7. — Right-lianded. Fio. 8. — Lofl-liandod. 

If J'a>Pfi a»d ^ ^l- 90°, then 2 is positive : hence, observing tlie 
direction in which is measured (fig. 6), and that z is above the plane of 
the paper, it is obvious that the generator defined by z and is above the 
plane of the paper ; and from the position of this generator is plainly left- 
handed with regard to a, for which ^ = 0. 

If, however, ^ 90'^, then the corresponding screw is below the plane 
of the paper ; but it is still left-handed with regard to a. 

Thus the generator of the cylindroid which contains o is left-handed 
with regard to every other generator on tlie surface. Of course, as a and /3 
intersect at right angles, that particular pair are both right-handed and left- 

In like manner it can be shown that the generator of the cylindroid 
which contains /3, the screw of least pitch on the surface, is right-handed 
with regard to every other generator on the surface. 

Ball — Contributions to the Theory of Screws. 



X - 




|0 1 
1 J 




M 1 ^' ~-, 

Fio, 9. 

It is instructive to prove tlio same thooreius geometrically as follows : — 

Let AA', BE', CC, DD' (fig. 9) be a cube of which is the centre, 
and draw LM through ami || AA', BE', 
CC, DD'. Draw XY through and || CB', 
C'B, AD', A'D. Let AB and CD be the 
bounding screws of the cylindroid, with 
centre at and axis LM. We shall sup- 
pose that the cylindroid has been made 
canonical — i.e., that the pitches of the 
bounding-screws are both .zero, and that a' 
the pitches of the two principal screws are 
equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. 
Any cylindroid can of course be made can- 
onical without any other alteration than the 
addition of a certain magnitude, positive or negative, to the pitches of all the 
screws it contains.'* 

From the fundamental property of the cylindroid we see that a twist 
about any screw on the canonical cylindroid can be resolved into rotations 
about AB and CD. A rotation about AB does not alter the position of any 
point on AB, and consequently the effect of any twist on the cylindroid 
upon the point L will be the same as if the twist were produced merely 
by a rotation about CD. But remembering that the amplitude of the twist 
is a small quantity, this is the same so far as L is concerned as a displace- 
ment of L along AB. In like manner it is shown that the effect on M 
produced by a twist about any screw on the canonical cylindroid can never 
be anything but a displacement of M along CD. 

Consider now the effect on the point L produced by the combination of 
a right-handed rotation round the vector XY, with a translation parallel 
to XY. If a be the amplitude of the twist, and p^ be the pitch of the 
screw on XY, and if m be the semiaxis of the cylindroid and equal to OL, 
then LL. = ma is the distance through which L is moved by the rotation. 
As, however, the total effect of the twist on Z is to move B along AB, we 
see that the movement LL2 on one side of AB must be compensated by 
another displacement to the other side of AB. This is of course ZLi = a'p^, 
and consequently foi' a twist about the vector-screw a, the translation ZZ, 
must be that of a right-handed screw — i.e., p„ is positive. 

But AB and XV form a left-handed pair, as do also XY and CD, and 
thus the desired theorem has been proved. 

" "Treatise," p. 47. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadenvj. 

If, however, the two bounding screws of the cylindroid had been CD' 
and A'S", it is plain that LLi and J/J/j must tend in directions opposite 
to those given in the figure. In this case the pitch of the screw on XY 
must be negative. "We thus obtain the general result that has been already 
otherwise proved on p. Si, \\i. : — 

The screw of smallest pitch on the cylindroid makes a right-handed pair 
with everj' other screw on the surface. The screw of largest pitch on the 
cylindioid makes a left-handed pair with every other sci-ew on the surface. 

This theorem may be generalized in the following way, which will show 
how any one generator on the cylindroid is related as to right-handedness 
or left-handedness to all the remaining generators. 

Let APP'P" (fig. 10; be the circular representation* of the several screws 
on a cylindroid. ML is the axis of piteh, and A is the point corresponding 
to the screw of greatest pitch on the surface. Let P be a point on the circle 
corresponding to any other screw on the cylindroid. 



Fio. 10. 

M L 

Fio. 11. 

Draw PP' (fig. 10) perpendicular to ML, and draw the diameter PP". 
It follows from the principles of the circular representation that P' 
corresponds to that screw on the cylindroid which intersects the screw 
corresponding to P, while P" corresponds to the screw on the cylindioid 
which is perpendicular to P. It is plain that P will have a relation as to 
right-handedness or left-handedness with every other screw on the cylindroid 
except the two critical screws P' and P" when the relation vanishes because 
P and P" intersect, and P and P" are at right angles. 

Let ff, Khe the bounding screws of the cylindroid. We shall suppose 

rrcatiw." p. 4-7 and p. 120. 

Ball — Contrihutions to the Theorij oj Screws. 37 

at first that F lies on the semicircle HAK\ as already shown, each pair of 
screws are left-handed which lie in that region of the cylindroid defined 
by HAK. 

Let X be a variable screw on the cylindiciid which we shall suppose to 
move in succession over every generator on the surface ; and we shall follow 
the relations as to right-handedness or left-handedness with the other screws. 
So long as X is in HAK then /-" and X are a left-handed pair, and there will 
be no breach of continuity in their condition until X, moving in the direction 
of the arrow from P towards P', reaches P'. When X has attained this 
position, the screw corresponding to P and the relation of right-handedness or 
left-handedness vanish. Thus P' is a critical point, so that when X crosses 
P' and enters P'P", PX becomes right-handed. This condition remains till 
X reaches P", which is another critical point ; for there the two screws P 
and X are at right angles. As X passes to the other side of P" into the 
region P"H, it again forms a left-handed pair with P; and this condition 
remains while X moves through the semicircle P"HAP and returns to P. 

Thus we see that in fig. 10 the screw corresponding to P makes a right- 
handed pair with each of the screws on the cylindroid whose representative 
points lie between P' and P", while, with every other generator on the surface, 
P makes a left-handed pair. 

If the circumstances had been those represented in fig. 11, then the 
screws corresponding to P and X would have formed a right-handed pair. 
This condition would have continued as X advanced in the direction of 
the arrowhead until the critical point P" was reached ; and PX would be a 
left-handed pair so long as X was moving from P" to P'. At P' another 
critical stage is passed ; and P and X would be a right-handed pair as X 
moved round through P'KP. 

Thus we see that as fig. 11 is drawn the generator corresponding to P 
makes a right-handed pair with every generator on the cylindroid except 
those represented by the points on the arc P"P' . 

In both figures we see that P and any screw in the hatched portion of 
the circumference form a left-handed pair, while P and any screw in the 
cross-hatched portion form a right-handed pair. 

As a particular case, we note that, if P coincides with A (fig. 10), then 
P' coincides with P" , the cross-hatched portion disappears ; and consequently 
every screw on the cylindroid makes a left-handed pair with P. 

On the other hand, if P coincides with B (fig. 11), then P'P" vanishes; 
and the circle is completely cross-hatched : hence we see that the screw of 
least pitch on the cylindroid forms a right-handed pair with o\<'ry olliin- 
screw on the cylindroid, 

38 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

These theorems ought indeed to have been incorporated with the 
earliest parts of the Theory of Screws; but I never noticed them until 

We can now see how to construct a system of pitches on the cylindroid 
when the ruled surface merely has been given. 

Let 2m be the length of the axis of the cylindroid, and let p^ be any 
linear magnitude, positive or negative. 

One generator, but only one, can be found on the surface which is right- 
handed with regard to every other generator on the surface. To this generator 
we attribute the pitch p,, - m. 

One generator, but only one, can also lie found on the surface which is 
left-handed with regard to every otlier generator on the surface. To this 
generator we attribute the pitch ^„ + in. 

The two generators thus indicated fonn the two principal screws on the 
cylindroid ; and the pitch of any other screw on the surface whicli makes an 
angle with the screw of maximum pitch will be 

(p, + w) cos'fl + (po - "i) siu'0. 

We may here notice the following extension of the theorems just given to 
the case of the 3-.9ystem : — 

The screw of smallest pitch in a S-system forms a right-handed pair with 
respect to every other screw of the S-system, and the screw of greatest pitch 
in the S-system forms a left-handed pair with respect to every other screw of 
the 3-sy8teni. 

Let (1), (2), (3) be the three principal screws of the S-system where 

Let be any other screw of the 3-system, and 0,, Q,, 0, its coordinates 
with respect Lo the three principal screws. 

The two wrenches 0,", 0," compound into a single wrench on a screw ^ 
lying on the cylindroid (12), and therefore cutting (3) at right angles. 

It is obvious that ij, and (3) are the principal screws on the cyhndroid 
(<l>, (3j), and that must lie on this cylindroid. As p, is the smallest pitch 
on any screw of the system, we must have p^> Pi', hence (3) is right-handed 
Willi regard to every screw on this cylindroid among which 0, and therefore 0, 
is included. 

In like manner, if ;/, be any screw on the cylindroid (2), (3), we have 6 
a screw on the cylindroid (1), \p ; and as ^, is the greatest pitch of the 
3-system, we must have the screws (1) and 0, forming a left-handed pair. 
Thus the required theorem has been proved. 

As an illustration of various principles in this section, we may obtain the 


> Y 

Ball — Con fribtif ions to the Theory of Screws. 3& 

locus of the screws of a 2-system, and the law of distributiou of tlie pitch in 
the following simple maiiuer : — 

Let OX, F be vectors along the two rectangular A 

screws intersecting at with pitches p\ and pa i;espec- / 

tively (p, > p.). / 

Let OA be the projection in the plane of XY of / 

the vector-screw a, which intersects the axis OZ /" 

normal to the plane of the paper. As OX has the '. 
greatest pitch ^j,, it must, as just shown, form a left- 
handed pair with a ; and consequently a is ahovc the ^l 
plane of the paper at the distance z. 

Let us imagine another screw on OX to which o" \^ 

the pitch - pi is attributed. Then this is reciprocal Fia. 12. 

to the screw on OX with pitch + p^ ; and it is also 

reciprocal to the screw on OY, inasmuch as OJTintersects OF at right angles. 
Thus the screw of pitch - pi on OX must be reciprocal to a ; because, when- 
ever a screw is reciprocal to two screws on a cylindroid, it is reciprocal to 
every screw. 

Observing that a is above the plane of the paper, the right-handed angle 
between OX and a is 360° - Q ; and hence we have, from the condition of 

(jy - p,) cos (360° -B) -z sin (360° - 0) = 0. 

In lilve manner, observing that a must be reciprocal to a screw of pitch -pi 
lying on OY, and that 90° - is the right-handed angle between a and OY, 

(p - ih) cos (90° -Q)-z sin (90° - 0) = 0. 

But if X, y, z be the coordinates of a point on a, we have tan = yjx. 


a; (2? - pC) + yz = 0, y Qj - 2h) -xz = 0; 

and, eliminating jj, 

z(x^ + y-) = (pi -2h)xy 

is the equation of the cylindroid ; and 

2^ = 2h cos'6 + 2h sin'-0. 

The figure is drawn so as to keep in view the suggestive measurement 
of d by the watch dial, OX points to XII, and OY to III. As p^ > p,, 
we see that when x and y have the same signs z is positive. Thus the 
surface rises above the paper at OJ^ to meet the paper again in Y. — 

R. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIir., SECT. A. [6] 

40 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

7\ 7^ f) 

III. — On the Pitch Operator —- + ;^ + • ■ • + ;:r- • 

Let 01, 02, ■ ■ • 0« be 7i-screws belonging to an (n - l)-sj-stem. If 
0i' 0/ . . . 0,,' be the corresponding amplitudes of ?! -twists which neutralize, 
then the work done by a wrench on any screw r] in the course of the 
appUcation of these ?i -twists must be zero, and consequently 

0.'^^, + 0:-:=^ + + ^.'^ft., = 0. (28) 

Indeed the necessaiy and sufficient condition that the ?!-screws shall belong 
to an (71 - 1) -system may be expressed by saying that in such a case it 
must be possible to find a system of quantities, 0/, 0i, . . . 0„', independent 
of -q, which shall make this equation true for all possible screws ij. 

If (28) is to be satisfied for all screws »;, it must of course be satisfied ; 
if while 1) remains otherwise unchanged, we change jy^ into p^ + h, where 
A is any linear quantity. 

As p^ only enters into the virtual coefficients w#„ in the several com- 
binations {p, + p^), (p,+ p,), . . . (/), + p,), it is plain that the efiect of 
changing ;>, into }\ + h is just the same as to leave />, unaltered, but 
to change p,, pt . . . Pu into (j>, + h), (jh + h), . . . {p„ + h] respectively. 

Thus we have a result already well known in the theory of screws,* 
that if ^1 ... ^, be n-screws belonging to an (n - l)-8ystem, they will 
still belong to an [n - 1)- system if these pitches pi, . . . p„ be each increased 
by the same quantity h, where h may have any value whatever. 

As the simplest example we recall that if jj be the pitch of a screw on a 

cylindroid, we know that 

p = }h cos' B + pt sin' 0, 

which may of course be written thus 

/> + A = (/), + /i) cos' + {p, + h) sin* 0. 

We can now define the pitch-operator 

and from what we have just proved, it follows that if /* = be any general 
equation connecting n-screws, which belong to an {n - 1) -system, then 

^F = 0. 
If this operation A is applied to w„, the virtual coefficient of two screws 
(1) and (2), it gives 

Ats„ = cos (121, 

» " Treatise," p. 2S8. 

Ball — Contributions In tlic Theory of Screws. 41 

where (12) is the right-liainlcd angle between the screws 1 and 2. This is 
obvious from the fact that 

^^^ = 'Ailh + )h] cos (12) - (I,, sin (12) I . (30) 

By the help of the pitch-operator, we are able to obtain many formuUe ; 
and we proceed to give an illustration. We shall first prove the following 
theorem : — 

Let (1), (2), (3) be any three screws of a 2-system — i.e., a system of 
vector-screws about which three twists can neutralize — it is required to show 

2h2h2h - Pi^'23 - Z'sT'^l - ^Wl2 + 2^2373311512 = 0. (31) 

If a, /3', 7' be the respective amplitudes of the three neutralizing twists, 
and if i/ be any other screw whatever, then, as already shown, 

a'wi, + /S'toj,, + ^'^3^ = 0. 
If we allow the screw 17 to come successively into coincidence with (1), 
(2), (3), we have the three following equations : — 

api + /8'-CT,2 + 7'to,3 = 0, 
a'CTji + /S'^Jj + 7'w,3 = 0, 
a'ra,! + /S'ot,., + y']h = 0, 
whence, on elimination of a, ;8', 7', we obtain the desired result. 

The equation (31) must remain true if operated upon by A ; and we thus 

Pijh + Ihlh + Ihlh - ra^3 - w-si - •^5^2 

- 22?i cos (23) ^23 - 2252 cos (13) ts^i - '2ih cos (12) 13,2 (32) 

4- 2 cos (23) TO3, rai2 + 2 cos (31) zs^ j^u 2 cos (12) zs^i 7^33 = 0. 
But this must remain true if again operated upon by A, whence we get 
Ih sin= (23) + ih sin' (31) + p^ sin' (12) -1- 2^23 (- cos (23) 
+ cos (31) cos (12)) + 2oti3 (- cos (13) + cos (23) cos (12)) 
+ 2!3,, (- cos (12) + cos (31) cos (23)) = 0. (33) 

Finally the third operation by A gives 

1 - cos2 (23) - cos' (31) - cos' (12) + 2 cos (23) cos (31) cos (12) = 0. (34) 

Of course (34) merely proves the well-known law that the screws (1), 

(2), (3) must be parallel to the same plane ; assuming this to be the case, 

we may make 

L (12) = 0,-d,; L (31) =0, «. ; z (23) = d,-ii,; 

and with this substitution (33) becomes after a little reduction 
^1 sin' (02 - hi) + ly. sin' (^3 - 0,) + ih sin' (0, - #3) 

+ 2ct,3 sin (03 - Wi) sin (0, - «,) + 2rjn sin (0, - i)^^ sin (0, - 0,) 
+ 2ro,2 sin (0., - 03) sin (0, - 0,) = 0. (35) 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

If we uow substitute for the virtual coeflicients 

2^,3 = {J>. ^ Pi) cos (03 - f^O - f?23 siu [0, - 6,), 
2ir3, = (pi + p,) COS (0, - fts) - ^31 sin {d, - e,), 
2t-,2 = (2h +Pi) cos (0o - 0,) - (^12 sin (9. - 0i), 

where attention should be paid to the right measurement of the angles as 
explained in connexion with fig. 6 ; it will be seen that the terms involving 
Pi, Pi, Pt disappear ; and assuming that no two of the screws coincide, 

the equation reduces to 

f7,3 + f/,3 = (7,3. (36) 

This of course proves no more than the well-known property of the 2-system 
that the common perpendicular to (1) and (3) also intersects (2). 

It is instructive to observe how the original formula (31), taken 
in conjunction with the pitch-operator, gives at once the fundamental 
characteristics of the cylindroid. 

Let (1) and (2) be the two principal screws of the cylindroid, then toi2 = 
and also Aw,, = cos (12) = 0. Thus the formulae (31) and (32) become 

PilhPa - Pi -^""a - pi ^\> = 0, 

;>,/>, . 2>j/'i + 2''P' ~ =''31 - ^''» - '2piV3iCOsd - 2;j,irjj8in(? = 0, 

where 360° - 6 is the right-handed angle between (1) and (3). 

We have 

2xj, = (^jj + 2)i) cos + d sin 

-r„ = (j), + Pj) sin - d cos ; 
substituting these values in (37) we obtain 

(Pi - Ih cos' - 2h sin' 0)' ■¥ \d - (p, - /?,) sin cos 0}' = 0, 
whence the well-known fundamental equations 


d = (j), - 2h) sin B cos ti, 
Pi = pi cos' + />, sin' 0. 



In like manner if four screws belong to a S-system, we must have 


/'I S^l; 

■r-3, ""jj 2'» 





as a general relation to be satisfied by the pitches and the virtual coefficients. 

If a screw belongs to a 3-system, it must fulfil three conditions; for 

example, it must be reciprocal to three screws of the reciprocal system. 

Ball — Contributions to the Tlicori/ of Screws. 


Suppose that (1), (2), (3) be three given screws defining the system, then 
equation (39) is one of the conditions that (4) shall also belong to the 
system. The conditions will be expressed by 

when A is the pitch operator. 

If (1), (2), (3) be three coreciprocal screws, then 

r„ = 0, 

0, ^31 = 0: 

and representing (4) by 0, we have the equation fT" = in the form 

1 1,1., 

Ih Pz Ih 


If as usual we denote by 0i, 02, di the three coordinates of B with respect 
to the three coreciprocals, then* 

pfii = '^le, Ihfii = ^19, Ih^z = ^.<e, and ^'e =i^i^i' + l^f^i' + Ih'L', 

which is the well-known expressionf for the pitch of a screw of a o-system 
expressed in terms of its coordinates. Similar remarks may be made with 
respect to freedom of the fourth and fifth orders. If six screws belong to 
a system of the fifth order, there is then only a single condition to be 
satisfied, which may be written 

U ^ 

ro-j, 2}-. 

•zzr,., w". 

K I 

h ^-.u ^2S. ^'ai 

Wj I ^i2 SJ", 

13 lU 

•sj'ii 3^11 

'ifsi ^Si Wm W, 

51 2^' 


Wg[ Wgj OT53 w^ -arg^ 2h 

In this case, as there is only one condition to be satisfied, the formulae 
A?7= 0, A'U - 0, &c., can be only identities if Z7 = 0. The determinant 
here given is already known in a different form as the sexiantj of the six 
screws, and a quaternion expression of the same function is given further on 
in the present paper (equation 93). 

" Treatise," p. 34. 

t Ibid., p. 3G. 

tlbid., pp. 37, 248. 

44 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

IV. — Applications of Quaternions to the Theory of Scrcivs. 

One of the most useful discoveries of Hamilton, at least in so far as our 
present subject is concerned, is contained in the following proposition* : — 

" Any infinitely small change in the position of a rigid body is equivalent 
to the alteration of each of its vectors a to another of the form 

(1 + Sa = a + £ + Viu, (42) 

£ and i being two arbitrary but infinitesimal vectors which do not vary in 
the passage from one point of the body to another." 

This formula is the representation by vector-analysis of the fundamental 
principles on which the Theory of Screws is based. The vector-conception 
of a twist which is here indicated shows by its conciseness, elegance, and 
lucidity that there must be intimate relationship between Quaternions and 
the Theory of Screws. 

The lat€ Professor Charles J. Joly, the editor of " Hamilton's Elements 
of Quaternions," has contributed an admirable series of original memoirs 
on Quaternions to the Transactions of the Koyal Irish Academy .f These 
memoirs relate very largely to the Theor}' of Screws. A concise account of 
Joly's researches on the application of the Theory of Quaternions to the 
Theory of Screws has been given by him in the appendix to vol. ii. of his 
edition of Hamilton's " Elements of Quaternions," pp. 390-397 (1901). But 
the subject has been much more fully dealt with in Joly's " Manual of 
Quaternions," 1905, a most instructive and useful book, to which, as already 
indicated, we refer briefly as Joly's " Manual." 

The proof by vector-analysis that the most general displacement of a 
rigid syst«m must be in all cases what we understand as a twist about a 

'"Hamilton's £lemeoU," toI. ii., p. 287. 

t(l) "TheTheory of Linear Vector FuncUoiu": Traiu. B. I. A.,, pp. 897-047 (1894)- 

(2) '• Scalar InTariants of two Linear Vector Functions" : Trans. R. 1. A., vol. xxx., pp. 709- 

728 (189.5). 

(3) " The Interpretation of a Quaternion as a Poinl-syinbol " : Trant. It. I. .\., vol. xx«ii., 

pp. 1-16 (1901). 

(4) " Quaternion Arrays" : Trans. R. I. A., vol. xxxii., pp. 17-30 (1901). 

(5) " Reprewntation of Screws by Weighted PoinU": Trans. R. I. A., vol. xxxii., pp. 61-92 


(6) "The Quadratic Screw System : a Study of a Family of Quadratic Complexes" : Trans. 

R.I. A., vol. xxxii., pp. 15.5-238 (1903). 

(7) " The Geometry of a Three-system of Screws" : Trans. R. I. A., vol. xxxii., pp. 239-270 


(8) " Quaternions and Projective Geometry," communicated by Joly to the Boyal Society, and 

published in the Philosophical Transactions, Series A, toI. 201, pp. 223-327 (1903). 

Ball — Contributions to the Theory of Screws. 


screw, is at ouco deduced* from Haiiiillmi's I'niKlauuiiital tlieoveiii, expressed 
in (42), which cau be written in the form 

(( + 8« = a + iSii'^ + Vi {a - Vii-^). 


This shows that the displacement of a point P (fig. 13) is produced 
by a rotation of the system through 
a right-handed angle Ti, round tlie 
line of which the equation is 

p = Ffi-i + (i, 
(where t is a variable scalar) accom- 
panied by a translation parallel to 
i and equal to Sti'K 

The following fundamental prin- 
ciple is well known in quaternionsf: — 

Let /3 and - /3 be a pair of vectors 
coincident with the lines of action 
of the two forces of a couple PF' and 
QQ' respectively. Let T(5 be the 
magnitude of the force on PP' or 
on Q(/. Let a be a vector drawn 
from any point on PP" to any point 
on QQ', then the couple is completely 

represented by Fj3a. For the couple is right-handed about Fj3a, and TVjia is 
the moment of the couple. Thus everything about the couple is expressed 
by Fj3a. 

Wliatever be the forces applied to a rigid body, they may be completely 
expressed with regard to a given origin by two vectors X, fi. The first 
vector A represents the resultant of all the forces when transferred in 
parallel directions to 0. The second vector fj. expresses the resultant of all 
the couples introduced by transferring the forces to 0. 

If (fi, X) be the vector-moment and force of a system of forces with 
respect to a point 0, then at a point 0', such that 00' = p, the vector- 
moment and force of the same system will be p. + VXp, A. 

The expressions just obtained lead in the simplest and most direct 
manner to the conception of the central axis, and from thence to the 
foundations of the Theory of Screws. 

Fia. 13. 

* See Joly, in Hamilton's "Elements," vol. ii., p. 390. 
t Hamilton'3 " Elements," vol. ii., p. 281. 

46 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The plane of the resultant couple will be perpendicular to the resultant 
force if ^L ^ VXp = p\, (44) 

where p is some scalar. In this case the moment of the resulting couple 
is pTX. 

The intensity of the resultant force is TX ; hence p is the ratio of the 
moment of the couple to the intensity of the force ; i.e. p is the pitch of the 
screw on wliich the given system of forces forms a wrench. 

From the equation (44) we have 

^\-' + T^p.X-' = /), 
whence taking scalai-s ]} = .S'/iX"'; (45) 

and we obtain the instructive result thus stated. 

If (ji, A) be the resultant couple and resultant force of any system of 
forces applied to a rigid body, then the resultant wrench is on a screw of 
which the pitch is S/iX'K 

We can now expi-ess the vector-perpendicular from on the screw in 
question. If /] be this vector, then the equation (44) may be written 
n + V\p 4 S\p = p\, because SXp = 0. 

We thus have 

/« + Xp " pX, or X-'n + p ^ p, or p ^ - VX'^fi = Vfi\''; (46) 

we thus have another result also of the greatest importance in our present 
subject, which may be thus stated : — 

If (/i, A) be the resultant couple and resultant force of any system of 
forces applied to a rigid body and with respect to any point, then the vector 
from the origin perpendicular to the screw on which the system of forces 
forms a wrench is expressed by V/iX'K This result, as well aa the corre- 
sponding value of the pitch, (45) is due to Joly,* though they are essentially 
deductions from Hamilton's quaternion expression for a system of forces.f 

The coordinates (ji, A) define not merely a screw, they define a vector- 
screw ; for UX will indicate which of the two vector-screws on the same axis 
is to be understood ; and TX expresses the intensity of the dyname of which 
the vector-screw is the site. Thus the completeness of the quaternion re- 
presentation of the dyname by the two coordinates (ji,X) leaves nothing more 
to be desired. 

We can now obtain the quaternion equation of the screw on which the 
dyname with coordinates (/*, A) is situated. As the screw is parallel to A 
and as F^iiA"' is a point on the screw, we must have for the vector p to any 
point on the screw p = Vp-X'^ + t\ (47) 

where < is a variable scalar. 

• " Manual," p. 156. t "Elements," toI. ii., p. 285. 

Ball — Contributions to the Theory of Screws. 


We might have obtaiued this result by immediate solution for p from 
formula (44), which may be written 

/J. - p\ -^ SpX = p\, (48) 

and multiplying into X-' 

fM\-' - p + \-hS\p = p ; (49) 

taking the vector and denoting the scalar SpX'^ by t we have the desired form. 
The equation (42) may be written 

Sa = £ + F/t? + Vi (a - v)- (50) 

Thus we see that the displacement of the system may be represented by a 
small right-handed rotation about the vector i drawn through any point 17 
if accompanied by the translation e + Virj. 

If /J,, X be each increased in the ratio of a given scalar m so as to become 
mfi and mX, the pitch SfiX'^ and the vector-perpendicular F/^X"' from the 
origin on the screw are alike unaltered. Each different value of m cor- 
responds to one of the singly infinite number of wrenches which may have 
one and the same screw as their site. 

Of course, where fi, X are both known, not only is the screw determined 
(which requires 5 data), but also the intensity of the wrench is known. 
Thus a knowledge of /i and X gives six data, expressing everything about 
the force system. 

Perhaps the most useful theorem in the application of quaternions to the 
theory of screws is that which is enunciated as follows* : — 

If a rigid system acted upon b)" a wrench, represented by the pair of 
vectors (/ai, Ai), receive a small twist, represented by the pair of vectors 
(/^j, Xa). then the work done is 

- S{fj,iXn + /u.Ai). 

The following proof of this important expression of 
the virtual moment may be given : — 

A wrench [fi, X) can in an infinite number of ways 
be replaced by two forces jSi and /3a (fig. 14) acting 
at points a, and a-, respectively; /3i maybe transferred 
to the origin with the introduction of the couple repre- 
sented by the vector Fai/3i. In lilvc manner we can 
transfer /S2 to the origin with the introduction of the 
couple Fao/3j. We thus have 

/3, + /3. = X,. (52) 

VaS, + Vd^, = /x,. (53) 



Fio. 14. 

* Joly, in Hamilton's " Elements," vol. ii., p. 390; also "Manual," p. 204. 
K. I. A. PROO,, VOL. XXVUI., SECT. A. [7] 

48 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The twist will move the point indicated by a, through the vector /*, + VXm^, 
and the virtual moment of this displacement and /3, is 

- -S^, (jtr -r TA-a.) = - Vj3. - S\. Va^i. (54) 

In like manner the work done by yS. is 

-S^.ijL.^ FA^O = - Sfi^ - 5A, Fo^,. (55) 

Hence the total work done by the wrench (/*,, Ai) in the course of the twist 

(fuA.) is 

- S^ '/9, + /80 - 5X, ( VaS^ - Va^,) = - 5 (/x.A, - /^A,). (56) 

This expression for the virtual moment of a twist and a wrench may be 

transformed as follows : — 

"We have, in general, 

p = pa'^a (57) 

= (iipa* + Vpa'^ia 

= uSpa' + !>.-' . a. (58) 

We shall now make 

/», = -S'/i.A,-', u, = I'^M.V, (59) 

p, = .ST/ijAr', <.': = V/tX-': (60) 


/»i = piX, + *>,A„ /J; = ^'jAj -r irfsAi, (61) 


- S{fi,X, + /isA.) = - S{pX + *.,A,) A, - S(}hXt t «u,A,)X, 

=■ - (/»! + Pt) SXiXz + 5(»», - a.,) A, A, 

= - iPi ^ p.) ^X ^ S(,^- w,) I'X.X^ (62) 

We have now to substitute in this expression as follows : — 

SXX. = - n.TA. cosO, (63) 

S{wt - «,)A,X, = - rA,rA,.rf.sinfl, (64) 

where B is the right-handed angle between the two screws, and d the shortest 
distance between them. 

The first of these equations is obvious. As to the second, we may observe 
that, without any loss of generality in the expression S(un - (i>,)X,Ai, we may 
take <i>i and w, to correspond to the points in which the two screws are inter- 
sected by their common perpendicular, so that u/- - «ki = the product of d into 
a unit vector directed from screw 1 to screw 2. If the two screws form a 
right pair, this vector coincides in direction with FA,Ai, and 

5 (*^ - «,) X.X. = s(^ - •,,) r\x 

is a negative quantity, and sin 6 is positive, as of course it should be ; for in 
this case the right-handed angle is i 180°. But if the two screws form a left 
pair, then m - wi and FXiAi, though on the same axis, are in opposite directions, 
and accordingly sin 6 is negative. 

6all — Contributions to the Throrij of Screws. 49 

With this substitution, 

- >S'(,x,A, + Aa/x.) = T\^ T\, j {p, + ih) cos - r/ sin 0| . (65) 

Hence we have the quaternion proof that in all cases 

i I (Pi + V'^ coa9-d sin i (66) 

is the virtual coefficient of two vector-screws of pitches jh, Pi, and distance d, 
where is the right-handed angle between them* 

The condition that two screws (^iXi), (/^jAj) shall be reciprocal is now very 
simply expressed by stating that their virtual coellicient vanishes or 

S{,m\, + nX) = 0. (67) 

We have from this the quaternion proof of the well-known property thus 

If a screw {n\) be reciprocal to two screws (juiA,) and (juaAs), it is reciprocal 
to every screw on the cylindroid which passes through (juiAi) and (jujAs) . 

For, if hi and A-j be any two scalars, we may represent the typical screw on 
the cylindroid by 

[kiHi + hjx^, (/o,Ai + /:jA=) ; 
and if 

<S(/iXi +iui^) = 0, and .S(,(A2 + /iA) = 0, 

S\fi{l:iXi + A-jAj) + \{kiiii + hfi2)\ = 0. 

More generally, we have the following theorem : — 

If a screw {n, A) be reciprocal to each of the n screws 
(fi,, Ai) ; {fi2, Aj) ; . . . (/^„, A„), 
it will then be reciprocal to aU screws of the group 

[kifli + h_Hi . . . knfln), (JCiXi + AvAa . . . + InK), 

whatever kik, . . . may be. 

We may enunciate the same principle in a still more general manner which 
includes the whole theory of reciprocal screw systems as follows : — 

If each of the m screws 

(yui. A.i), (^2, A-) . . . (/i,„, A,„) 
is reciprocal to all of the n screws 

then all screws of the type 

{k,ni + A-2JU2 . . . + k„fi,„), (kiXi + k-iX. . . . + k,„X^) 
will be reciprocal to all possible screws of the type 

{kifMi + k-zfl.' . . . + k,n'lXm), (A'/Ai' + A-/A,' . . . + km\„,'], 

whatever may be the values of the scalars 

fcl, Ki . . . A"„„ A"i , A"2 ... A"m . 

* See Joly, in Hamilton's " Elements," vol. ii., p. 391. 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

A pail- of screws (^i, Ai) and {in, Xj) will of course completely determine 
the cylindi'oid which passes through theni. "We now 
propose to determine p the vector from the origin to 
C, the centre of the cylindroid. 

Let i, j be vectors along the two principal screws 
of the cylindroid through C Let a, b be the pitches 
of these screws, and pi, 5, the intensities of the two 
wrenches upon them which are equivalent to A,, ni. 

We liave now to express that the force Ai at 0, 
and the couple //, are equivalent to wrenches of inten- 
sities 2h and q, respectively on i and j. 

Draw CL (fig. 15) equal, parallel, and in the same 

direction as OA, and di-aw CM equal and opposite to 

CL. Then OA is equivalent to CZ, and the couple whose vector is VX^p. 

We thus have 

IXi + V\,p = ;7,rti + Qibj. (68) 

X,=p,i + q,j. (69) 

If in like manner wrenches of intensities p^, qi on the two principal screws of 
the cylindroid are equivalent to /i,Xj, we must have 

/i, + VX2P =p,cii + qjjj. (70) 

A, = /j,i + y,/. (71) 

From (69) and (71) wo see that r,/, A,,Aj are coplanar; whence multiplying 
(68) and (70) by F"AiXa, and taking the scalars, we have 

SkiX^i + ,S'( TA.A, . A, . /)) = 0. (72) 

.S^.X,^, + S{ V\X .\,.p) = 0. (73) 

A third equation is obtained thus. By multiplying (68) and (71) 

A,;i, + AjFAip = {p,i + q-,j) {p,ai + qfij), 

whence taking scalars 

SkiH\ - SXi\ip = - apxjH - hqiqt. (74) 

By multiplying (69) and (70) 

A, //J 4^ X, FAap = (;)ii' + q\j) {pifii + qjyj) 
whence as before 

S\\)ii + S\i\tp = - ap^p, - hqiqi; (75) 

and by subtracting (75) from (74), 

i (-SAvi, - <SA,^,) = Sk\'p. (76) 

Ball — Contributions to the Theorij of Screws. 51 

In the fundamental quaternion formula 

pSafiy = aSpjiy + jiSapy I ySaft/i, 
we now write 

a = A„ ft = A=, J = KA.X,, 

pSkxX^VXiX, = \,S (pX.VXiXi) + XiSihpVXA.) + VX,\,SXXp, 

whence from (72), (73), (76) we obtain 

P (FAiX,)^ = A,SA.A,ju= - Aj.SA.A:^. + h {8X2/11 - SX^ft^) FA.X, ; (77) 

and thus p, the required vector from the origin to the centre of the cylindroid, 

has been determined. 

In the deduction of the equations (72) and (73) it wiU be noticed that no 
use has been made of the fact that the screws on i and / are at right angles. 
So far as these two equations are concerned, p might be the vector to any 
point of intersection of two screws, i.e. to any point on the axis of the 

If, therefore, t he a, variable scalar, 

p iVXiX,y- = A,.S'A,A.M2 - X.S\,X,ix, + tVXX. (78) 

is the equation to the axis of the cylindroid defined by (fiiXi) and (/UjA;), and 
the origin will lie on the axis if SXX.Hi = and SXX/i, = 0. 

To complete the account of the cylindroid defined by (niAi) and {112X2) it 
remains to find the values of the pitches of the principal screws. These are 
obtained as follows : — 

If X be a variable scalar, a screw on the cylindroid wiU be represented 
by {/ii + Xfii), (Ai + xXi), and its pitch ^j will be S (jii + .r/uj) (Ai + .cAj)"' ; 
from which we easily find 

_ SfiiXi + X (SfijXi + SjuLiXi) + x-Sfi^Xt 
^~ Ar + 2a;^,A, + ,7;%/ ' ^'^' 

but the pitches of the two principal screws are a maximum and a minimum, 
and accordingly we find for 2' the two values j)^ + m and p^ - m, where 

Po = mkxy ^ ^^'^' ^'^'"'^' ^ '^'"''^'^ " xrSfiX - x^SfiX), (so) 

™' = ,^ .,.,Vx ^ M {SXX (Ar5>,A= + A:^5;u,A,) - Ai%'-(S^iA, + 8fiX)y- 

■iAi'Au" ( y AiAjJ 

- iXrX.^iVXM ^'^^^"^^""^' ~ ^■''^''=^')'- (^1) 

The length of the a.xis of the cylindroid is 2m,; and the condition that 

the cylindroid shall be canonical, i.e. that the screws of zero-pitch shall be 

the bounding-screws of the surface, is found by equating the value just found 

for Pf to zero. 

52 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

If the cylindroid reduce to a plane, then vi = 0. But if this is the 
case, both of the terms in the expression of »»" must be zero ; for as ( V\i\tf 
is negative, neither of the terms can ever be negative. Hence, we must 

SKiX^iX^S^tzX, + Ar«/«,Ai) - ArA,' (S^,X. + «SjujA.) = 0, (82) 

Aj=S^,X, - Ai'S/ujA: = 0. (83) 

The fii-st of these means that (/«iAi) and (/ijAj) must intersect, and the 
second means that their pitches are equal. 

If (/iiAi) and (/ijAa) be a pair of screws which determine a canonical 
cylindroid, then from the fonnula; already given it is easy to show that the 
length of the axis of the cylindroid is 

^■i S^XS^,\^ ( FA.A,)' - (A.'^/i,A. - X,'SM.\,)' )i 

r (FA.A,)'(SA.A,)' )• ^^*^ 

It may Ije here remarked that in general any two cylindroids can be so 
placed that all the screws on cither are reciprocal to all tlic screws on the 

This condition will be secured if each of the two screws of zero-pitch on 
one of the cylindroids intersects both of the two screws of zero-pitch on the 
other, for as two intersecting zero-pitch screws are reciprocal, the condition 
stated provides that each cylindroid shall contain two screws reciprocal to 
the other. 

y. — Use of QttaUmions in the Theory of Reflected Screws. 

The subject of reflected screws has been already discussed in these 
memoirs,* so I need here only repeat that if a standard plane be taken, 
and if to the reflection of any screw from that plane a pitch be assigned equal 
in magnitude but opposite in sign to the pitch of the original screw, then 
the screw so formed is said to be the reflection of the original screw. 

The methods of quaternions present the vector coordinates of a pair 
of reflected screws with extreme simplicity, as is shown by the following 
statement : — 

It (fi, A) be the vector coordinates of a screw, then the reflection of that 
screw from the plane Spi = has (/*', A') for its vector coordinates where 

IJL = - i/ii and A' = iXi. 

We first observe that if two lines intersect at right angles their reflections 
will also intersect at right angles, for as the distance between two points is 

• Truu. Boy. Ir. Acad., vol. xxxii., pp. 119-127. 

Ball — Contrihitions to the Theory of Scretos. 63 

equal to the distance botweeu their rellectioiis, a rij^ht-aiij^led triangle will 
rellcct into a right-angled triangle, and accordingly, the right angle haa not 
been altered by reflection. 

We may see this otherwise by observing that, as siiown in the paper 
already referred to, any two reciprocal screws reflect into reciprocal screws. 
But two screws intersecting at right angles are reciprocal whatever be their 

It is hence plain that, if the origin lies in the plane of reflection, the 
perpendicular from the origin on a screw will reflect into the perpendicular 
from the origin on the reflected screw. 

We know that F/a'/A', F/i/A are respectively the perpendicular vectors 
from the origin on the reflected screw and the original screw ; and accordingly 
from the well-known quatei'uion relation of a vector and its reflection where 
i is the unit vector 

A A 

= - VifiX-H-' = - Vifdi-^X-H-' = - f!^% 

As the pitch of a screw is equal and opposite to the pitch of its reflection, 

S^, = - S^ = -ST'/xA-' = &>X-i 
A A 


= - SifiiiX-H = - Sifirn\-H-' = -,5^; 


AAA, *A« ^A^ %Xi 

but A' = iXi, ) 

and consequently t^' = - '>fii- ' 

It is easy to verify that the virtual coeflicient of a pair of screws (/i,. A,) 
and (/ij, X>) is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the virtual 
coefficient of their reflections. 

The virtual coefficient of the two screws is ^6'(^,Ao + /(.A,), and the virtual 
coeflicient of their two reflections is 

- ^S{inin\ni + ip,iiiXii) = - ^S(i.ti\i i /xoA,). 

The screw whose equation is 

p = F ^ + .rX 

pierces the plane Spi = at the point whose vector is 

^ A -S-Ai ' 

54 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

as this vector coincides with its reflection ipi = /), or 

.„ u, . SaX'^i .. . -^ iu,i SuX'H .. , 

'^ X SXi iM Ski 

thus verifying that the two screws intersect in the plane of reflection at the 
point whose vector is p. 

We may note that the reflection of a canonical cylindroid is also a 
canonical cylindroid. 

This is obvious from the fact that in the canonical cylindroid the bound- 
ing screws are the screws of zero pitch, and that the reflection of a screw 
of zero pitch is also a screw of zero pitch. 

But it may be useful to verify this from the expressions previously obtained 
for the coordinates of a reflected screw. We have already found that, if 
(Xi/ii) and (X,/ij) be the coordinates of two screws, the cylindroid they define 
will be canonical if 

(SAiXj(<S)iiAj + SftiX,) - Xi'fS/ijAj - Aj'jSyiiAi = 0. 

As to S(fXi\i + /ijA,), we have already seen that the effect of substituting the 
coordinates of the reflected screw is merely to change its sign. jS'AiAa is 
unaltered, and - Ai'iS/zaA, and - Aj'<S)uiXi both change sign, so that the 
equation is satisfied by the reflected cylindroid if satisfied by the original 
cylindroid. The cylindroid determined by the two paire of screws (/iiAi) and 
(/ijA,) will be altered by reflection from any plane into another cylindroid 
which will be identical with the original cylindroid (though, of course, 
difl'erently placed) if the pitch of every screw on the reflected cylindroid be 
augmented by the common quantity 

(y\ \ ^7 {"^^i^j (S^tfti + SXjfi,) - Ai'iS'Aj/ij - As'(SAi/u,). 

For the two principal screws of a cylindroid are reflected into the two 
principal screws of the reflected cylindroid. The original pitches were p^ + m 
and Pa - m. The corresponding pitches in the reflected screws are - p„ - wi 
and - fo + m. The addition of 2p^ to these will bring the reflected pitches to 
the original pitches. Note, however, that the screw of maximum pitch 
reflects into the screw of minimum pitch. With this is connected the fact 
that the screw of maximum pitch is left-handed witli regard to every other 
screw on the cylindroid. But reflection changes a left-handed pair into a 
right-handed pair, so that the maximum pitch must reflect into the minimum. 
If ft, A be the vector coordinates of a screw before its reflection from the 
plane defined by the equation Si(p -a) = 0, then, after leflection, the 
coordinates of the screw become 

- {(i,ti + 2Sai. VM), i\i]. 

Ball — Contributions to the Thcorij of Screws. 55 

For if be the origin, and 0' the point indicated by the vector a, then the 
coordinates of the screw with respect to the origin 0' are {(/x + V\a), X.). 
Hence the coordinates of the reflected screw with regard to ff are 
- i{n + V\a) i, iXi. We have now to transfer these coordinates back to the 
original origin ; and we have 

fi' = - i [ji + V\a) i - ViKia = - i/ni ~ i{ VXa) i - ViXia 

= - ifxi - ViXai - ViXia = - i/xi + 2 Sai V\i 
X' = iXi. 
It is easy to verify this by showing that the reflected screw again reflected 
reverts to the original screw. 

VI. — Quaternion Investifjatio7i of the Screw reciprocal to Jive given Screivs. 

If Hi, Xi ; fii, Aa ; JU3, A3 ; fii, Ai be the coordinates of four screws, and 
if Xi, Xi, X3, Xi be any four scalars, then the four-system defined by the four 
screws will consist of all screws with the coordinates 

(Xifjii + x^Ui + Xifii + Xifii) ; (oJiXi + x^X^ + x^X^ + «iAi), 

where a.',, x,, x^, a'j have all possible values. 

Let fi, X be any screw on the cyliudroid reciprocal to the four-system ; 
then, since this must be reciprocal to every individual screw, we must have 
for all scalar values of Xi, x^, x^, Xi and for every screw {fi, \) on the reciprocal 

S\X {xifii + Xifx^i + x^fXi + Xifi^ + (I (a-'iX, -t- it'jAj + a'sAj + roiAi)] = 0. (86) 
As this is to be true for all values of Xi, x^, Xz, Xt, it will be true if 

Xi — 0A2A3A4 J X2 = — OA,3A4Al J .1*3 = /SA1A1X2 ', Xl = — 0A1A2A3. 

It is, however, a well-known formula in Quaternions that if A,, Ao, X3, \ be 
any four vectors, then 

X,SX.XX, - X,SX,XX + X,SX,XX - X,SXXX, = 0. (87) 

Accordingly the equation (86) becomes 

SX (JU1/SA2A3A4 - /liSXiXiXi + fiiSXiXiXz — fXiSXiXiXs) = 0. 
Thus we prove that each generator of the reciprocal cylindroid must be at 
right angles to the vector 

fxiSXiXsXi — /xaSAaAjAi + fiiSXiXiX-, - fuSXiXiXs, (88) 

and consequently this vector must be parallel to the axis of the cylindroid 
reciprocal to the four screws (juiAi), {1x2X2), (jusAj), (JU1A4). 

If (p, A) be also reciprocal to a fifth screw fi^, A5, then it must be at right 
angles, not only to the vector (88), but also to any similar vector (89) obtained 
by taking any other combination of four screws out of the five, for example, 
^(2>SA3A4A5 - lizSXiXiXz + fiiSXiXiXa - fuSXiXiXi. (89) 

B. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIII., SECT. A. [8] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



Hence, X must be parallel to the vector part of the product of these two 
vectors X and Y. iat which we have the expression 

F;i,^ (234) (345) 1 

r,fc^ (341) (452) - (345) (412) 

F^,j,. (412) (523) - (123)(452) 


Fm^, (234) (234) 



F^^, (234)(314) 

V^,^ (314) (523) - (123) (354) 

F;i^,(234)(532) j 

where for b^e^-ity (234) is written instead of SkO<^. 

In its present form this expression is not symmetrical, though it is obvious 
that the vector parallel to the screw reciprocal to five screws should be 
symmetrical with regard to those five screws. The desired form can be 
obtained by the following formuke, easily verified by well-known rules in 
vector manipulation: — 

5A,A.A,.5X^J(. - .SAjX^k, . 5A J^.A, = 5AAA4.5AsA,A.. 
SX^,A,..SA^:Aj - .SA.A.X,.5A.A»A, = ^A.XA. - 5A,X.A„ 
-SXA.X, . 6A»A,A, - 5A»A,A« . S\,\X = ^XJ^A. . 6'X,XiXj- 

Introducing tbeae values into (90), and rejecting the factor ^,X>X4, because 
we assume that the problem has not doners ted by ha\-ing three of the five 
screws parallel to a plane, we obtain the symmetrical expression 

X = ♦• I'^i/ij. SA)X,Aj 
+ F|ujuj. .9A,AjX, 
^ F/i^i . SX^iX] 
+ VutfLi. •S'A,A»Xi 
+ F|Uj^, . SA^jA, 

- Vft^fi^. SXjXjA, 

- Fju^, . SX,X«X, 

- y^Litli ■ SA,XiX, 

- Fjut^. SA,A^s 

- yfuni . SAjXiA] 

The order of the euttices in the several terms in A will be seen as follows : — 

Writing the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 round the circumference of a circle con- 
secutively, we notice that in each of the five positive terms the five digits 



Balk — VonirlbulioiiH l<> Ihc Thcirji of S'l-fira, 


> . 


succeed each other simply as written round the circle ; e.g. in tlio third, the 
suffices are 3,4, 5, 1, 2. Thus the positive terms can be written down at once. 

The terms with negative signs are obtained by omitting every alternate 
digit on the circumference ; e.g., commencing with 3, we omit 4; take 5, omit 1 ; 
take 2, omit 3 ; take 4, omit 5 ; take 1, and obtain 35241, the sequence in the 
suffices in the seventh term of the expression for A. 

We can find the value of fj, in like manner, and obtain (92). 

- FAsA, Sfit/icfJ-i 

- FA3X1 Sfli,IM,fl2 

- FX1A5 SfXi/J,,IJ,j 

- FAsAi SfJh/J-i/Ji'i 
+ FAiAj SfiiiJ,2tJ-i 

+ FA3A5 Sn2fi;Hi 

+ FA5A2 (S/ij/xi/ij 

+ FXiXi SfiifXifiz 

If, indeed, we could have written down the expressions of A and fi, the 
proof that they were the coordinates of the screw reciprocal to the five 
given screws would have been merely a verification of the condition of 
reciprocity; for example, using the values of fj. and A in the expression 
S(jXi\ + /iXi), we obtain 

Sfii/jti/Xi SXsXiXs + S/iiiiifjis SXiXiXi + Sfiifii/xi SAjAaAi 

— SfJiH^fi} 8X5X2X4 — Snifiifis iSAoAjAi - Sfj.ifiif.i2 8X4X1X3 

- SXiXiXo Sfi}fitfii - 8X4X2X3 8fji4fiifxi - iSAjAoAi iSjujjujjui 

+ (SAlAlAs Sflsfllfli + 8X4X3X5 Sfl2fl4fJll + 8X4X5X2 Sfi4fXifl3, 

which vanishes identically. In like manner it can be shown that fxX is 
reciprocal to each of the fonr other screws. We have thus obtained the 
quaternion solution of the problem of finding that one screw which is 
reciprocal to five given screws.* 

If the five screws belonged to a system of lower dimensions than five, the 
screw reciprocal to them would be indeterminate. For instance, if they all 
belonged to a 4-system, then any screw on a cylindroid reciprocal to four of 
the screws would also be reciprocal to the fifth. We thus see that A = 0, and 
^ = must always be satisfied if 

(jui, Ai) ; (ju2, Aj) ; {ft,, fi,) ; (//<, Aj) ; (jui, Aj) 
belong to a system of the fourth or any lower order. 

* This result, and certain other iluvelopments fiiot here reprodiieed), were coiumuniiated by me 
to the Australasiaa Assouialion for tiie .^dvaneement of Science, an i iitiblishi d in tlieir Kepoit (1809), 
p. 52. 


58 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

We can also obtain from (91) and (92) the conditions that must be satisfied 
if /i, X be the coordinates of any screw of an 7i-system. For convenience, we 
shall take the case of a o-system, and proceed as follows : — 

Being given the three screws which determine the 3-system, we take three 
screws of the reciprocal system, and let these last be defined by the coordinates 
(a*!. ^1)5 0*2, A3); (AI3, X3). We now take /ui, A, ; /i/j, Aj as any vectors whatever ; 
then, as fi,\ are given by equations (91) and (92), the screw /uA must be 
reciprocal to (/ii,A|); (/u:, A:); (^.„A3): and must therefore belong to the 
original 3-system; and, by giving proper values to jui, A,; ^us, A5, we can 
obtain the coordinates of any one of the screws of the system. 

Thus we are able to obtain the quaternion condition to be satisfied if six 
screws belong to a S-system ; in other words, we are to find the condition that 
must be satisfied by six screws so related that a body with simultaneous twist 
velocities about these sue screws shall still be at rest. In this case, the six 
screws must all be reciprocal to one screw. We tlierefore have merely to 
write the condition that the sixth screw (ju. A,) shall be reciprocal to {ji. A), 
which we have already found as the screw reciprocal to 

(/ui, A,); {jii,\i); (//I, A,); (//<, A4); (i/siAs). 

We have therefore merely to substitute for fi and X in the equation 

S(jji^ + ^,) = 0; 
the result is accordingly ; 

- SA^AjAb . Sfiiftifii + Sfiifjiifit. oAiAjAj = 0- 

- 'SAJA4A, . Sptiftifli + Sf^^f^lfJ^. SAiAjAj 

- SAiAiAf Snifu/Js + Sfiifiifi,. SX,\i\i 

- SAiAiX«. SfiiniHi + S/iifXifi,. SA3A4A5 

- SAjAjA* . Sfiifiifii + S/jLtfiifu • SAiAjAj 
+ iSAiAtA«. SfiiHtfii - Sftifiiftt ■ SAjAjAi 
+ 5A|A|A(. Sfitfufti - SfiifAifii . SA:A,Ai 
+ SXtXiX,. Sfiifiifti - Sftiftifu- SA,AjAj 
+ SAiAiA, . Sfl,f^^fi^ - Si^ifuft,. SAiAjAs 
+ SAjA»As . Sfii/u/it - Sfit/j^i . iSAiAtX« 

This is the ^formula for the sexiant obtained in a different manner by Joly 
(see Hamilton's Elcmcnt.% vol. ii, p. 393). It is of course the Quaternion 
equivalent of the formula already given in Equation (41) in one form, and in 
Treatise, pp. 37, 248 in another. 

It is worth while to note that the vector coordinates of five screws satisfy 
certain other formulae which are, no doubt, merely properties of five pairs of 
vectore quite unrelated. The proofs of these formulae will be derived at once 
from the theory of screws ; but we commence by defining four vector-functions 
A,B,C,D which are given by the following relations : — 


Ball — Contributions to the Theory of Screws. 

A^+ V(\,ii, t- ,iX)SX,\X = 0. 1 
+ V(\,iii + iiX)S\i\X 
+ V(\,m + iiiAi)SXtXX 

+ V{XiiJt, + fiX)s\xx3 

+ V(Xi,fii + ^iXO'SA^XaXi 

- V(Xiii3 + i.iiX3)SXiX2Xi 

- V(X3fjis + fiiXi) SXXXi 

- V{XiiJi2 + nsXi)SXiXiX3 

- ViXzi-u + nzXijSXXXs 

- V{Xiiii + fiiX,)SX3XiX2 

B ^+ VXXSX3XX = 0. T 

+ vxxsxxx, 





- F^XaAs 18X3X1X1 

- F^X6X2iSXiXiX3 

- vx^x^sxxx, 


C = - VXXi^XiXifi!, + SXi/mX + SfiiXX) = 0. 

- F'XiX3((SXiXs/ii + SXifiX + SfiXXi) 

- VXX{SXX/i2 + SXii^X + S/iXXi) 

- VXXiSXiXsfXi + SX2nX + SfiiXzXi) 

- VXX{SXXiJ.3 + SXifiiX3 + SfiXX3) 
+ VXXiSXsXs/ii + SXifiiXi + S/xXXi) 
+ V^XsXb^SXiXifii + SXifxX + SjuaXjXi) 
+ F^X6X2(<SX4XijU3 + SXif^iX + 5^1X1X3) 
+ FX2Xi(/SXiX3jU5 + iSXi^sXs + SfiXXi) 

+ J^XiXi(<SX3X6jU3 + SXajUsXj + 8^3X5X2) 

D = + V XX(SX3fnfi5 + S/xsXiftt, + SfisfjiX) = X. 

+ VXiXsiSXi/jisiJii + S/iXiJii + SfitjiiX) 

+ VXX{SXbH\fi3 + iS'/uoXi^uj + S/iifxX) 

+ VXiXi{SX\i.iifi3 + SiiiXfJ3 + 'S'/iiyujXa) 

-r VXX(SXi/i3fu + SfiiXsfjii + Sfii/jizXi) 

- VXX{SXbH2fn + SnXifXi + Sfii/iX) 

- V X3Xb{SX2fiifi\ + Sfi2Xif.ti + SfitfiX) 

- VXX{SXiii,ix3 + S/^iX/Js + SfiinX) 

- V XiXi(SXifj.3Hi + SnXfXi + SfiifjLsXi) 

- VXX{SX3iJiifX2 + SfjiiXifjLi + Sfi3fiX) 






60 Pfoceedinffs of tJie Royal Irish Acaihmj/. 

The desired relations are proved by making use of the well-known 
property that the screw reciprocal to five screws, a, |3, 7, S, t, will retain 
the same relation to a, (3, y, S, t if, instead of pe, the pitch of 6, we write 
Pe - k ; while, instead of jj., 2^^, Py, Ps, Pt, we write ;;„ f k, p^ + k, p^ + k, p^ + k, p, + k 
respectively, where k is any scalar ; this follows at once from the fact that, if 
6 is reciprocal to a, 

(Pe + I'a) cos 9^ - d sin 0, = 0, 

where tf„ is the right-handed angle between B and a ; but of course this 
equation may equally be written thus 

l(i'» - ^0 + O^a + k)\ cos Oa -d sin 0. = 0. 
If tlie pitch of the screw with vector coordinates {n, A) be increased by k, but 
without any other change, then the coordinates merely become |(/u + AX), Xj. 
This is obvious from the fact that 

FCm + AX)/X = V^IX and S (ji + kX)/X = S^/X + k. 
If the pitches of the five screws be increased by k, but no other change is 
made, then their vector coordinates become 

I Oil + A-X,), X.l ; . . . K/u, + kXi), X.|. 
If we substitute {/i, + AX,) . . . Oi, + kXi) for /i, . . . juj in the expression for 
X in (91), and denote by X, the value which X then assumes, we have, as is easily 
seen, X. = X + A-^ + k'B, (98) 

where A and B are the vectors in (95) and (96). 

In like manner when the same substitutions are made in (92) we have for 
fik the value which /u then assumes 

,xk ' ix - Dk ^ Cn<? - Bk*. (99) 

But, as just pointed out, the screw (jn,, X*) can only differ from the screw 
{p, X) in that the pitch of the second is A- less than the pitch of the first. 
It follows that liiJi, + kXjt), X*! is a screw identical with (/u, X). Thus (fi, X) 
and I l/x + A: (X - D) + A:* (-4 + C)|, (X + kA + k'B)] must be the vector 
coordinates of one and the same screw whatever be the value of k. Hence 

we must have 

A = 0, B = 0, C = 0, D = X. 

The^e properties of the vector expressions are of course easily verified 
by direct calculation. 

We see that -4 = by writing separately the terms involving /u„ which are 

Vn: iXiSXJ^X - X.SXtXX + X,SX^»X, - XsSXiXjX.). 
But from te known quaternion formula the quantity in the bracket is zero. 
In like manner each of the other groups of terms is zero. Thus A is verified, 
and this includes .B = by interchanging /i and X. 

Bam. — Contrilmlionn to the Tlieori/ nf Scrctvs. 61 

To verify C = we may take the group of terms involving fi^ ; they are 

+ S/usXjXiFAiAj + (S/ujXiAa f'^AoX4 + Sfi^K^iVX^i. 

If we substitute for Xi the expression oX, + IX^ + cXi where «, h, c are scalars, 
this expression is seen to vanish identically. In like manner for the terms 
involving ^,, fj., ^3, ut- 

The last identity Z> = A (97) is somewhat remarkable. If we take the terms 
only involving n^ in X, we have 

X = VfjifJsSXiXiX, + VfiiHiSX^XiX^ - F^s/us^^XjA, - Fjus/jjiSXiXiXs. 

The terms involving jus in I) are in number 12, of which three are 

VXiX^SXi/ii/jis + VXtXiSX^iiifis + F^XaXi&'XjjUjjus; 

but this is equal to F/UjiuSXiXoXj, because from a known vector formula 

00X1X2X3 = K X1X2 . 5X30 + J^XjXa . 'S'XjO + F^XsXj/SXjfi. 

Thus we show that each term in X equals the sum of three terms in D ; 
and the verification is complete. 

VII. — Ecpresentation of Screiv Systems of the third order hy Linear Vector 


There is, perhaps, no part of the theory of quaternions of greater interest 
to the student of mathematical physics than the theory of linear vector 
functions introduced by Sir William Hamilton.* This beautiful theory 
exhibits in the most lucid manner the geometrical element common to 
many investigations in varied branches of mathematical inquiry. It is 
known that the strain of an elastic body displaces any vector of that body 
into another vector which is a linear vector function of the original vector. 
It is also known that the vector expressing the impulsive moment applied 
to a rigid body free to move about a point generates a twist velocity 
which is a linear vector function of the original impulsive moment. These 
are elementary applications ; and, as instances of more recondite uses of the 
linear vector function, we may mention its employment by the late Pi-ofessov 
Willard Gibbs, and, more recently, in the important investigations of Professor 
Conway in molecular mechanics. 

Of course, to speak strictly, the theory of linear vector functions does not 

* "Plemente," vol. i., p. 486. 

62 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

exactly come under the head of quaternions. The notion of a quaternion as 
the quotient of two vectors is not immediately involved in the theory of 
linear vector functions ; but it will probably be agreed that there is hardly 
any part of Hamilton's wonderful " Elements of Quaternions " more instructive 
and more useful than the chapters dealing with the functions of which we are 
now speaking. 

After the lamented Professor Charles J. Joly had acquired that mastery 
of quaternions which made him so appropriate an editor of Hamilton's book, 
his attention was turned to the theory of screws, with results to which 
reference has already been made several times in the present paper. In his 
many writings, and in his correspondence with the present writer, he has 
developed with abundant illustrations the intimate connexion between 
quaternions and the theory of screws. Probably the most important and 
instructive part of this work has been his exposition of the relations of the 
screws of a system of the third order to a linear vector function. He has shown 
how these theories are coextensive, and how every theorem with regard to the 
screws of a S-system has as its counterpart a theorem with regard to a linear 
vector function. The perfection of this analogy lies in the circumstance that 
iu each case the theory is of the most general type. The theory of a system 
of screws of the third order of the most general type corresponds to the 
theory of a linear vector function of the most general type. The signilicance 
of this circumstance will be appreciated if we remark that in the case of the 
impulsive vector and the instantaneous vector already referred to, the linear 
vector function which arises is not of the most general type. It is of that 
special form which is known as self -conjugate. It seems therefore reason- 
able to point out that the screw system of the third order is a geometrical 
equivalent coextensive under all circumstances with the linear vector 

In illustration of this statement, we may recall that nine data are required 
for the complete specification of a 3-system ; for example, three data are 
required for the centre of the pitch quadric, three more for the directions of 
its axes, and three more for the pitches of its three principal screws. That 
nine data are also required for the definition of a linear vector function is 
also well known. Indeed the name of nonion has been proposed for this 
function in consequence of the significance of this circumstance. 

Let (Xi, fix) ; (Xi, /u) ; (Xj, ft») be three pairs of vectors defining three screws 
of a 3-sy8tem, and let a;,, Xi, x, be any three scalars: then /i, X will repre- 
sent another screw of the same system if 

X =• x.X, + XjXi + -TiXi 

H = Xi^i + Xiflt + Xifl. 

Ball — Contributions to the Theory of Screws. 63 

Multiplying the llrst by VXAi, VX^X^, and FAiAj respectively, and taking 
the scalar, SX\0<i = '16' A 1X2X3, 

SXAaAi = .'(^SAiXaXa, 

<SXXiX-> = a'3iSX 1X2X3 ; 



6'XiXsX3 (81X1X2X3 <SiAiX2X3 

But the expression on the right hand is a linear vector function of X of the 
most general type.* If we denote it by ^X, we have 

H = ^\. (101) 

Another proof of this important theorem may be noted as follows : — 

If /iX be a screw reciprocal to the three screws (yuiX,), (jUjXa), (jUaXj), we have 

S{n\x + VO = 0, 8{fi\^ + Aju,) = 0, S(//Aj + A/^3) = 0. 
But, by a fundamental quaternion formula, 

^SXiX^X, = FA2A3 . SXmx + FA3A, . SX,n + FAiAs . SX^in. 
Whence from the three equations of reciprocity just written, we have 

/uSA.AaXa = rX,X,8^x^X + rXiX^Sfi^X + VX2X,Sfi,X, (102) 

again showing that ju is a linear vector function of A. 

Being given any linear vector function ^, then by taking different vectors A, 
the pair of coordinates (^A, X) will trace out the screws of the 3-system 
corresponding to (p. This theorem is due to Joly,t and it is a discovery of 
much importance in the theory, inasmuch as it shows the perfect correspon- 
dence between the 3-system and the linear vector function. 

When A is given, then /a = (A) is known ; and thus we see that in a 
3-system there is always one screw parallel to any given direction. The 
pitch of the screw is S^X . A"', and the perpendicular from the origin on 
the screw is V(j)X . A''. The equation of any screw of the 3-systeni is 

p = V^X . A'' + X X. 

Jolyf has also shown that if (^A, A) represents a 3-system, then (- ^'A, A) 
represents the reciprocal 3-system, where as usual ^'A is the function 
conjugate to <^A. This beautiful theorem shows the intimate connexion 
between the theory of reciprocal screw systems of the third order and 
the properties of the linear vector function. 

In conclusion I add a few illustrations to show how the Theory of Screws 
responds to treatment by the methods of Quaternions. I shall assume that 

* See Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Soifince. Dublin, I90S, p. 611. 
t Hamilton's " Elements," vol. ii., Appendix, p. 391. 
tliiil., p. 392. 

B.I. A. PROC, vol.. XXVIIl., SKCT. A. [9] 

(54 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the reader is acquainted with the principal properties of linear vector 
functions and also with the geometrical properties of the 3-system.* 

"We shall first prove the following general proposition : — 

If <^ be a linear vector function, then 

p ^ \{V,^\ .\-^ - V<^'\ . X-') + .rX 
is the equation to a diameter of the pitch-quadric of the 3-system defined 
by the function ^. 

A screw q parallel to A can of course be found in the 3-system S and 
its pitch p is 5^X .X"'. A screw % parallel to X can also be found in the 
reciprocal 3-system ^ , and its pitch is 

- iyX . X' = - S^\ . X'. 
Hence the pitches of the screws parallel to X in the S-system and its 
reciprocal 3-system differ merely in sign. These two screws are therefore 
parallel generators of the hyperboloid which expresses the locus of the screws 
of pitch /> contained in the system S. A parallel to these generators drawn 
through the point midway between them must therefore be a diameter of 
the />-pitch-quadric, and therefore of the zero pitch-quadric, for, whatever p 
may be, the ^-pitch^uadric is concentric with the zero pitch-quadric. 


Pio. 16. 

Let the plane of the paper pass through the origin and be perpendicular 
to the two screws ij and £ which meet the plane in ^, ^ respectively 
(fig. 16). The point C bisects AB, and the line through C perpendicular to 
the plane of the paper is therefore a diameter of the zero pitch-quadric. As 
OA is the perpendicular from the origin on 17, we must have the vector OA 
equal to F^X . X''. In like manner OB Sa - F^'X . X"' ; and by completing 
the parallelogram, we have for the vector OC 

OC = \{V^\.\-' - FfX.X-), 
and this ia the vector from the origin perpendicular upon that diameter of the 

See •• Trwuise." pp. 170-194. 

Uall — Contributions to the Theory of Screws. 65 

pitch-qiiachic whicli is parallel to A. Hence (>, the vector lo any point on the 
diameter, is given by the equation 

p = h(V,p\. X-' - V<t,'\ . A-) I .'A, (103) 

where x is a variable scalar. 

It is easy to see that this may be written in the more concise fonn 

p = i^'' i<t>'>^ - '/'^) + ^^^• 

Multiplying by A and taking the scalars, and supposing A to be a unit vector, 

we have x = - Sp\. 

If therefore i,j, Jc have their usual siguification as any three unit-vectors 

which are mutually rectangular, and if p be the vector to the centre of the 

pitch-quadric, then 

p = ^iifi- ijt'i) - iSpi, 

p = hj{i>j-i>'j) -y%'. 

p = ^K {<pJc — (f> Jc) — kSplv. 

Adding these three equations, and remembering the well-known quaternion 


p = - iSpi - jSpj — kSph, 
we have 

2p = i (i0z +y^y + ^(^k) - -i {iip'i +j<p'j + kij)'!;:) 

= |- V{:ifi +j(t>j + krpk) - i V(:i<p'i +j<p'j + k,p'k). (104) 

We now make the following characteristic transformation, derived, of 
course, from the wonderful manipulations of his symbols introduced by 
Hamilton : — 

- i V(i'(l>i +j(p'j + kf'k) 

= h ViWi + ^H'J +M'^) = h V{l>'i Vjk + ^'j Vki + ^'k Vij) 
= IkSj^'i - ySk^'i + ^iSk,t,'j - likSi<p'j + ySif'k - iiSj<t,'k 
= I kSiipj - ySitpk + J iSj(j)k - ^ kSjcpi + ySkfi - i iSk<ltj 
= l(jSk<{,i - kSjipi) + i(kSi<pj-iSk<pi) + h{iSj(f>k -jSi(t,k) 
= i Vjk<pi + i Fki(j)j + h Vij<pk = ^ V{i(pi +j<j>J + k<j>k). 

Hence we obtain from (104) the result* 

p = ^ V{i<l>i +j<t,j + l><pk). (105) 

This shows how the vector from the origin to the centre of the pitch-quadric, 
or rather of the system of ^-pitch-quadiics, is expressed in terms of the 
linear vector function. 

It is easily seen that if \, fi, v be any other set of unit vectors at right 


jS(i^i +j<j)j + k(pk) = S{\(pX + p(pn + v>j,v). (106) 

• Joly, " Manual," pp. 97-159. 


66 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

This proves that the sura of the pitches of three mutually rectangular 
screws in a 3-system is constant. Of course this can be easily shown by the 
ordinary geometrical theory of the 3-system, as given in " Treatise," p. 170. 
I would, however, like to state that I had never noticed this theorem until it 
recently presented itself as the natural geometrical meaning of the constancy 
of S{ifi+j^j+ kipk). tn general wc may state that - S(i<pi+j<l)j + /><j)I;) is 
not only the sum of the pitches of three screws that are at right angles, but 
it is also the sum of the pitches of three screws which can be drawn through 
a point. That this is constant is a well-known property of the 3-system.* 

Tiie fundamental theorem which expresses the relation of the system of 
pitch-hyperboloids to the linear vector function has been given virtually by 
Joly ;t but the following demonstration may be noted : — 

Let p be the vector from the centre of the system to some point on the 
7>-pitcli-quadric, wliere ^j is the variable scalar expressing the pitch of a screw 
of the system, and where if, is the linear vector function by which the system 
is defined. 

Through any point p on the ^-pitch-quadric two generators can be drawn ; 
and we shall suppose them parallel to vectors A and /u respectively. The first 
of these with pitch p Ijelongs to the original 3-systeni, and the second when 
it receives the pitch - p is a screw of the reciprocal 3-8ystem. 

The equation of the generator parallel to A is 

f, - r.^A.A-' + ./A, 

where j; is a variable scalar. 
This may be written 

p = ^A.A' - S^A.A' + rA, 
= ^A . A'' - ^ + .j-A, 
or pA = ^A - 7>A + .rA', 

whence FpA = ((f,-p)X. (107) 

This is anotlier form of the equation of the generator parallel to A. 

To find the corresponding equation of the generator parallel to p which 
Itelongs to the reciprocal system, we are to note that as the origin is now at 
the centre, the function ^ is self-conjugate, and accordingly we have 

P = - V<pii.,r' + yp, (108) 

= -</>/'• m'' + S<pn . p-' + 7Jp, 
" - <p^ . /J.-' + p + y^ ; 
whence - Fpp = {<p-p)n. (109) 

As (^ - ;)) is an operator which produces a self-conjugate linear vector- 

• " Tiwitue," f. 176. t Joly, " Manual," p. 165. 

Ball — Contributions to the Theorij of Screws. 67 

function, we have in general by hhe known properties of aeif- conjugate 
linear vector-functions 

{<i> - p) { V{^ - p] X (0 - p) ,^ I = m,,V\n. (110) 

where nip is a constant, so far as X and n are concerned, depending only 
on 2^, 'T-nd t^® coefficients of the latent cubic appropriate to <p. The actual 
value of m.„ is thus found. Multiply (110) by any vector v and take the 
scalar. Then the first side of (110) becomes 

s{'i> - p)i vii, -p)x (<i.-p)fi]v = s(^-p) v\ Vi<p -p)\ i<p-p)i^\ 

= S(i,-p)\.(i,-p),i.(i,-2})v. 
The second side of (110) becomes when the scalar is taken 

mpSVXfi.v = nipSXuv. 
Thus we have 

_ S{<p -2} )X.{<t>'P)n.(<p~p)v _ 8{i, - p) i (0 -p )j{i>-p)Jc 

because of the very remarkable property of linear vector functions which 
affirms that itip is unchanged whatever three vectors be chosen as X/n'. 
Substituting for (107) and (108) in (110) we have 

{<t> - p) VVpX . Vpiii = - vip VXfi ; 
but WpX .Vpfi = - pSXftp, 

and consequently (^ - p)pSXfip = mp VX/i, 

whence multiplying by p and taking the scalar 

Sp{,^ - p]p = mp. (112) 

It is indeed astonishing to find that so concise a formula as this should 
contain the theory of the 3-system of screws. 

Much further development no doubt awaits the investigation of the 
relations of the Theory of Screws to Quaternions. 

68 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


In the Treatise on the Theory of Screws, Cambridge, 1900, I have given 
an Appendix of Bibliographical Xotes on works known to me which bear on 
the Theory of Screws. I add here a few later references, though I know the 
list is very incomplete. 

(1) " Zur Schraubentheorie von Sir Robert Ball." Von F. Klein in 

Gottingen. Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik und Physik, 47 Band, 
1902, 1 und 2 Heft, pp. 237-265. 

(2) " Sir Robert S. Ball's lineare Schraubengebiete." Von A. Griinvvald 

in Prag-Bubentsch. Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik und Physik, 
48 Band, 1902, 1 Heft, pp. 49-108. 

(3) " Zur Veranschaulichung dcs Schraubenbiindels." Von Anton 

Grunwald in Prag-Bubentsch. Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik 
und Physik, 49 Band, 1903, 2 Heft, pp. 211-245. 

(4j " Darstellung aller Elcmcntarbewegimgen eiues starren Korpers von 
beliebigcm Freiheitsgrad." Von Anton Griinwald in Bubentsch 
bei Frag. Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik und Physik, 52 Band, 
1905. 3 Heft, pp. 229-275. 

(5) " Geometrie der Kriifte." Von H. E. Timerding, Professor at the 

University of Strassburg. Leipzig, B. G. Teubner. 1908. pp. i-xi 
and 1-381. 

(6) In the Encyklopadie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften (Leipzig) 

reference may be made to Professor H. E. Timerding's section 
entitled " Die ersten Satze dor Kinematik des staiTen Korpers 
und die Ballschen Schrauben." Band iv., 1 Teil, pp. 142-158. 

[ ^'^ ] 



Read April 11. Ordered for PublicatioQ ArRii 13. Published October 18, IDIO. 

The object of this paper is to show how the eliminant of any two binary 
quantics may be expressed in a syrdbolical form by the aid of certain 

Let u and v be the two c[uantics whose eliminant we desire to express 
symbolically, and let us suppose that it is of the wi"^ degree, and v of the %"' 
in X and y; and further, let the roots of the equation u = 0, be »,/v/i, 
x^liii, . . . x„,/y,n ; and those of v = 0, be ?,/.;„ ?„/,,o, . . . g„/,,„ 
we may then write 

(1) u {x, y) ^ A^"> + A,x"'-'y + . . . + A,„y„, 

^ (xy, - yx,) (xy.. - y.v.) . . . (p:y„, - yx,,,), 

(2) V {x,y) ^ B,x« + JB,x"-hj^ + ...+ B„y" 

^ (^jji - ySi) i^m - 2/?«) . . . {xrjn - yl.), 
where u and v are written without binomial coefficients. 

It is well known that a binary quantic or a covariant quantic can be 
derived from a certain term called the source of the quantic as well as from 
the leading term of the quantic by certain operative processes, which we 
now proceed to discuss. 
If we write 

d d d d d d 

(3) ; 

d d d ^ d ^ d ^ d 

dyi dUi dy„, d,u f?i)2 dt)„, 

thus giving to the well-known operative symbols a wider meaning than 
that usually attaching to them, and consequently a wider application, the 
reader will readily perceive the truth of the following equations : 

dAr = (m + 1 - /■) A,..u dB, = {)i + 1 - s) Bs.u dA, = 0, dB, = 0, 


[AA,. = {)•+ l)Ar,u AB, = (.s f 1) ;?,„, AA,„ = 0, AB„ = 0. 

R.I.A. PROC, VOL. XXVItl., SKCT. A, [lOj 



70 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

It then appears that u (x, y) can be written in the following forms : 

In like manner we may write 

(6) v{x,y) ^ ifeo'B,, ^ x»e^B,. 

The quantics ?t and v being then completely defined by and derivable from 
their respective sources, we may denote the eliminant of « and v by tlie 
symbol E(A„,B„), and write 

{E(A„,B„) = u (£,, jj,) 7t (g„ I,,) . . . « (S„, ,,„), 

/j) . . . i; (3-„, y„). 

Substituting now in the above results for « (?i, i|i) and v{Xi,y), and 
their values in terms of a-,, yi ; a-j, y, . . . r„„ y„. ; ?,, i), ; li,r\t; ... £„, /u„ ; 
it is evident, on inspection, that 

(8) E{A,, B„) = (- 1)-" E(B„, A,.,). 

We now write 

E(A^, B.) - \A,.nr + yi™.,.,,-"-'?, + ^„-„„"'-'5,' + . . . + ^„$,"') 

X {yl„n3" + vl„.,.h"-'?j + yl,„-:,i7,"-'53' + . . . + ^o?,") 

X [A^n." + >!„-,»,,-'?,. + A„.tt,„''-'V + . . . + ^o?,,""}, 
and if we agree to denote the various symmetric functions as follows : 


25i ?»•/!. . ij» = 2|,i, 2£i'£3ij2t|)' • • In' = 22,1, &c., &c., 
we find i-eadily, on expanding the above form of E(A„„B„), 
(10) E(A^, B.) = A^-B," + A^"-' (.B,--'^„.,2. + B,''^A„,.a, + .. . + ^„2™} 
+ ^."-' (^o'"-'-4'„.,2„i + .B„"-'^„-,^„.,2,,, + . . . + yl/2,„,„.} 

+ An" ' [Bi," A m.i'Sififi + Bq" Am.tA m-\2iltl)l + ■•■ AQiimniDm] 

+ &c., 

4 (-- 1)''B„E(A„.,,B„), since t),»u . . • >j., = .Bg, 
and $,?,.. „„ = (- 1)»5„. 

It is endent, then, that if we regard the eliminant as a homogeneous function 
of the .4s of the »i"' order, the coefficient of any term Am-r-Am-fA„.t will 
be 2r,«, », and consequently if we know the eliminant in terms of the As 
and the Bs, we can find the symmetric function 2r,„(. 

lloBKKTS — Tlic S'l/Dibolicdl Expression of EUvtiiKinls. 


We have then, in general, on expanding the eliniinant in terms of Am, 
(11) E{A„„ B„) = A„;'B,'" + A„r'X, + A„r'X, + A„r'X, + . . . 

+ A^-X„.^ + A,„X„., + {- l)"B„E{A,„-u B„), 
where Xi, X2, . . . &c., are functious of the coefficients of both quaulics and 
independent of A„,. 

We now introduce two new operators, which we denote by Q and w, and 
define as follows: — 

If m be equal to or greater than n, we write, where r = m - n, 


^'- = -^0 TIT + Bi -=-; + . . . + i>„ -y-r- ', 

and if n is equal to or exceeds in, we write 

(13) Ws = A„ -r^ + Ai -TTT- c . . . + A„ 

where s = n - m. 




It is clear that if we form the eliminant of u + Jcv and v the 
result must be independent of k; hence we must have E{A,n + IB,,, B„) 
independent of k. 

Now, the coefficient of k is evidently Q,rB {A„„ B„), and consequently 
9)1 being greater or equal to n, we must have 

(l-±) a,n.».E{A„„ B„) ^ 0. 

If we now operate with Q,. on the form of B {A,„, B„), given in 
equation (11), we obtam 

(15) £lrE{A„„B„) = nA„r'BnB„"' + {n - 1) ^„."~'5„X. + {n - 2) A„r'X, 

+ ... + 2A,nB„X„., + A,n"-'arX: + A„r-Qr^2 + A,„"-'QrX, 

+ ... + AMrXn.i + B„X„,, + ... + (- \)"BnE{A,„.u B„) 
= ^„."-' (?i5„5o'» + QrX,) + A„r- ((« - 1) B„X, + Q,.Zj) 
+ A„r' ( (« - 2) ^„Z= + Q,.X3) + ... + A,,, {2B„X„., 

+ QrX„.:) + B„{X,^, + {-l]"EA,n,,,B„) - 0. 

Now, since Q„E{A„„B,) is identically zero, we are led to the series 
of equations 

AVi + (-l)"Q,.^(J„,.„^„) = 0, 

2^„2'„.= + Q,X„_, = 0, 

3^„jr„,3 + Q,2'„.2 = 0, 

&c., &c., 

{)i - i)BnX„x, + ax, = 0, 

nB„Bo'" + Q,X\ = ; 




Proceedings of the Ro>jal Irish Acadenvj. 

and from these we easily obtain the following 





[i?^,- = (-ir^^^ = ^. 

where h = (- 1)- and E = 2:(^«.„.g,). " 

If we now introduce these values into the value of E {A^ B^, as given 
in (11), we obtain 

(18) EU..B,) - A^.j^-l;^^^-^S^'-t^'f:S ^ ••• 

+ (- 1)' 

AJ" Q,-F 



B^ 1.2....;.) 

where E! = E{A^^,B,) and A = (- 1)". 

We have therefore determined E{Am,B.) by the application of the 
operative process given above, and can write, in general, 


E {A., B.) = hB/ ■»• "^ (^.-,. B.). 

(20) E(A^,B.) = hB^ 

we can consequently write 

In a similar manner E {Am^, B.) is expressed by the formula 


■ Cim-m.1 

(21) £(A.,B.) = hB.'c "- e * E(A,.„B.); 

and finally E{A^,B,) is seen to be derivable by an operative process 
from E {A^ B.). 

We now commence with the eliminant of two quadiatics, and we shall 
show how all other eliminants may be derived from it. We write 

(22) E{A^ B,) = (^A^,y - (A,B,) (AtB,). 
where (AiB,) = A^B, - A^,, 

(A^,) = AyB, - A,B^, 
(A^,) = A,B, - A J!, ; 
and we propose to find E {!}%, At). 

RoUKiiTS — The SijinbolicitL Bxpressioii of Eliiiiiuunis. 73 

Now, if 
we have, by what precedes. 


it is therefore necessary to find (o^E {A2, Bz). 


w, {A,B,) = - A,-, 
wi iA,B„) = - A,Au 
^ (.), (A.B^) = A^Ai - Ai- ; 


u,E{A,,B2) = - 2 {A,B,)A,A. - {A^Bo) {A.A^ - ^.=) + {A^B:) A,A, ; 
and consequently we find 
(23) E(B,, A.) = BMo' -B,\-2 {A^Bo) A,A, - {A,B,) {A,A, - A,') 

+ (J,B,)(^„^,) + A.[{A,B,y - (A,B„)(AzBO]. 
To find E{A3,B3) we employ the formula 

E{A3,B,) = - B^c ^' E{B3,A,), 




a^a dAi 



and we now proceed to find the value of BiC Ar, where r has any 

integer value from to 2. 

We have B,e ^^ ' A,. = bJa,- - Az^ 



c " {AyBs) - {A,Bs), r and s being any two integers 
since QioiArB,) vanishes identically. 
We have consequently 

I B^e ^' "Az = - (.Ja^.), 


B,e ^' J, = - (^3^.), 

B,i ^' 'a, = - (^3^0), 

c~^'^ \a.B\) = (A,.B.,). 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acaclcmi/. 

If we now write 

A = A + pU,^ + ^ ^ + ^ .-, „ + 


c^"«F= F + pQ„r + 

p"-Q,:Y p'Q,'Y 

+ ... &c. 

1.2 1.2. 

we have, on multiplying to^^A' by c^oY, 
{cpD„Xj [c^QoY] = ZF + p(rQ„A' + XGo^O 

+ -^ ( FQo'.-r + '2Q,J:QoY + AQiY) + &c., . . 

= (.YF) + pQ,{Xl^ + -^-Q/(Xr)f, &c., ... 

where JT and F are any two functions whatever ; hence we see that 
(25) {<f^A') (cf^Y) = C^'o^A'Y). 

And if we now let p = - yr> it follows that we have 
B,'c ^' A,- = - (AJiX 


B,'e (A^, - ^.') = (A,B,) {A,B,) - (A,B,y, 




£.'« - A,' = {AJi,)\ 




B,'c A,A,^iA,B,)(A,B,). 

- — flo 
I B,c "' A, = (A^,). 

Wo ai-e consequently led to the following value of JE(A,, B,) : — 

(27) E (A„ B,) = (A^,y + (A^^y {A,B,) + (AyB.y (A,Bo) 

+ (A,B,y(A^,) -2(A,B„){A^0(^2B,:) 
- {A,B,){A,B,)(A,B,) - {A,B,){A^^){A^B,). 

Tlic six functions {AtUi){AiBi), &c., are not independent, but are connected 
by the relations 

(28) {A^B,) (A^B,) - (A,B,) {A,B,) + {A^,) {A,B,) = 0. 

The value of E(Aj, B,) should be such that when operated upon by 8 or A, 
as defined in the earlier part of this paper, it should vanish identically ; and 
this we find to be the case which the reader can easily verify for himself. 

RoBKKTS — The Symbolical Expression of Eliminants. 75 

We can now make E{Ai, B^) a starting-point, and from it find all elimi- 
nants included in the formula E[A,„, B^) by an operative process as follows : — 

E{A„ B,) = - By 



E{A„ B,), 


Ar, Ai 

E{A„B,) = B,'c ' c ' E{A,B,), 

-^6 » ^5 _ At 

--^ns -jr0.i -j-^' 

E(Ao,B,) = -B^e ' c " c ' E{A„B,); 

and so on by the method above indicated. 

In order to find E{Ai, Bt), we must first find the value of E(B,, A.t), just 
in the same way as when seeking the value of E^A,, Bi) we first found the 
value of E(B„ A,). 

We have then, by a similar process of reasoning, 



E(Bt,A,) =-A,c 



E{B„ A,), 


E{A„B,) = B,e- E{B„A,). 

E(A,, Bi) is then in its turn made a starting-point for the evaluation of all 
eliminants included in the formula E(A„„ Bi). 

The generality of the method is now obvious, and the application of it to 
any two given binary quantics will present no difficulty. 










The Acadejiy desire it to he understood that tliey are not 
aimverable for any opinion, rep-cscntation of fact^, or train of 
reasoning that may appear in any of the folloioiw) Papers. The 
Authors of the several Essays are alone responsible for their 






Adams (John), M.A. : — 

A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae, with some additional Records 

and Observations, 167 

Adams (John), M.A., and Geokge H. Pethybridge, Ph.D., B.Sc, M.E.I.A. :— 

A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi, ... ... 120 

Cole (Grenville A. J.), F.G.S., M.R.l.A. :— 

The Picture-Eock or Scribed Rock near RathmuUan in the County 

of Donegal, 113 


See %mder King (.James J, F. X.). 

King (Jajies J. F. X.), F.E.S., and J. N. Halbert, M.R.l.A. ;— 

A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland, 29 

Knowlks (Matilda C.) and E. A. Phillips : — 

On the Claim of the Snowfiake (Leucojum aestivum) to be native in 

Ireland. (Plates XX.-XXIL), ...... 387 

Pethybridge (George H.). 

See under Adams (John), 

Phillips (R. A.). 

See under Knowles (Matilda C). 

ScHARFF (Robert Francis), Ph.D., M.E.I.A. : — 

On the Evidence of a former Land-bridge between northern Europe 

and North America, ........ 1 

Simpson (James J.), M.A., CSc. : — 

A Revision of the Gorgonellidae : 1. The Juncellid Group. (Plates 

I.-XIX.), 247 

Southern (Rowland), B.Sc, M.E.I.A. :— 

The Marine Worms (Annelida) of Dublin Bay and the adjoining 
District, 215 



Pago 130, 2nd column, line U from bottom, /or £nerthcnema re/id Encrtliencina 

Page 133, column 1, lino 26, delelt Sclerotinia parasitica Car. L2 

Page 134, column 1, line 4 from bottom, /oi- I{vi>onKUUATAceA rend IlYroDKiiMATAcKAF. 

Pago 167, line 24, /or Eryaibc riad Erycipbe 

Page 164, column 1, /or Cystopus, . . . Ill rend Cyitopm, . . . 131 








By E. F. SCHAEFF, Ph.D., M.E.I.A. 

Read November 8. Ordered for Publication Novembeu 10. Published November 13, 1909. 

When I enunciated the theory some years ago that north-western Europe 
and north-eastern America had been connected with one another by hxnd 
within comparatively recent geological times, my views were ad\'eisely 
criticized by a reviewer in Natural Science.^ What particularly gave 
rise to these criticisms was my statement that the reindeer had probably 
utilized this land-connexion in gaining access to Europe from its supposed 
American centre of dispersion. My reviewer urged that he failed to perceive 
any evidence for a land-connexion between North America and Europe by 
way of Greenland at the time when the reindeer flourished in the British 
Islands — that is to say, during or just previous to the human peiiod. 

Another reviewer — Dr. L. Stejneger — disapproved of my suggested laud- 
bridge between northern Norway and America by way of Spitsbergen 
and Greenland, while advocating at least a discontinuous one further south.' 
He thought that Dr. Nansen's oceanographic results in the Polar basin 
militated against my views. Dr. Nansen's detailed treatise, since published, 
shows that in this he was mistaken. Further studies, nevertheless, have led 
me to the conviction that a second and more southerly land-connexion, 

' Review of Schiirff's " European Fauna," Natural Science, vol. xv., p. 358. 
- Stejneger, L., Sclinrtfs " History of the European Fauna," p. 107. 


d Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

joining Scotland, Iceland, and Greenland with America, must have existed in 
later Tertiary times. This does not materially alter the general i^rinciple 
of my original ^dews ; and I still adhere to the belief in a North Atlantic 
land-bridge between Europe and America during the lifetime of the reindeer. 
(Fig. 1.) In defence of my opinion I propose to enlarge the scope of my 
arguments by bringing forward some additional pieces of ev-idence. 

The testimony in favour of my theory is of a twofold character. It is 
based on an investigation of the sea-floor, and on a study of the plants and 
animals of the countries supposed to have been joined to one another by 

In 1897, Mr. W. S. Green gave us the results of his expedition to the 
Kockall Bank. SuiTounded by deep water on all sides, this bank is of an average 
depth of 100 fathoms, and lies far out in the Atlantic to the west of Scotland. 
Dredging on the bank yielded only such shallow-water species of molluscs 
and other marine invertebrates as could not have lived there under the 
present conditions. IMoreover, as all the specimens were dead, it was con- 
cluded that the bank had only subsided to its present depth within com- 
paratively recent times.' In 1900 the Danish ' Ingolf ' expedition to Iceland 
likewise reported having met littoral molluscs near the island at considerable 
depths where these animals could not possibly have lived. That such cases as 
these are due to accidental dispci-sal by floating icebergs containing shells in 
the ice-foot or by floating seaweeds, had been suggested ; but the view that 
the occurrence of shore forms of animal life in deep water implies a depression 
of the land seems to meet with more general favour, especially as no icebergs 
are known to stray to the Rockall Bank at present. 

It has been demonstrated by Sir Archibald Geikie that a considerable 
subsidence has taken place in the area between the west of Scotland and 
Iceland since the time of the volcanic eruptions that produced the great 
basalt plateau of north-western Europe.' 

Many other geologists, notably Professor de Lapparant and Professor 
M' Kenny Hughes, have directed attention to the evidences indicating a 
sinking of the land in the same region. But the subject was also studied 
from another point of view. It was Mr. Austen, I believe, who first brought 
under our notice the continental shelves or platforms of submerged land 
surrounding the British Isles.' 

' Or«n. W. S., " Note, on Rockall Island." 

= Geikie, A., •'Tertiary Basalt Plateaux of .Nurlh-wcalcrii Europe," p. 391). 

' Austen, R. A. C, •* Valley of £ngUsh Chaanel," p. 94. 

ScHAKFF — Former Land-Bridge between N. Europe and N. America. 3 





4 Proceedings of the Roiial Irish Academji. 

More recently, in a series of interesting articles, Professor Hull lays stress 
on the occurrence of channels in these platforms, and urges that they repre- 
sent the drowned river-valleys and cations of an ancient land-surface. By 
means of the Admiralty charts he succeeded in tracing the course of the 
Eiver Shannon for a hundred miles beyond its present mouth, right to the 
edge of the continental platform, while he followed the continuation of the 
Eiver Erne for a distance of eighty miles from the Irish coast.' 

In America similar researches have been conducted, chiefly by Dr. Spencer.= 
He maintains that the drowned channel of the Hudson Eiver is clearly 
traceable across the submarine shelf of the continent for over a hundred 
miles, but that the exact course of the ancient Laurentian valley cannot be 
located with certainty. These submarine valleys, he thinks, were sculptured 
on the great continental slopes by atmospheric agents, and these features are 
considered by him to be more recent, in point of age, than the remnants of 
the Miocene accumidations of the coastal plains. 

Professor Hull advocates an elevation of the land during the early part of 
the Glacial period of 7000 to 8000 feet. Dr. Spencer even suggests an ujilift 
of 12,000 to 15,000 feet. 

A more cautious attitude on these oceanographic problems is adopted by 
Mr. Huddleston. He concedes tliat some sort of a bridge across the Atlantic 
may have<l during portions of tlie Tertiary era; Iml, he does not 
believe in an uplift lieyond 2000 or 3000 feet.^ 

The subject of continental shelves has lately received renewed attention 
from Dr. Nansen, and is discussed Viy him at great length. At several places, 
lie argues, there is weighty evidence for the sujiposition Ihat the drowned 
river-valleys have been sculptured after the formation of the continental 
shelves. The latter consequently have been dry land after their formation.* 

When the basaltic plateau so graphically described by Sir Archibald 
Geikie towered about 1500 feet above sea-level, the Faroes and Iceland, 
according to Dr. Nansen, were probably connected with one another by land 
(p. 173). He believes the continental shelf of Iceland to have been formed 
chiefly in Pre-Glacial times during the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods 
(p. 172). 

Dr. Thoroddsen's ideas are similar, in so far as he strongly repudiates the 
suggestion of a Post-Glacial land-connexion.' 

' Hull, E., " Submerged Terraces and River Valleys. " 

' Spencer, J. W., " Submarine Valleys," p. 224. 

' HudiUcston, W. H., " Eaatcrn Margin of Norlh Atlantic Basin," p. 148. 

' Nansen, F., " Xorth Polar Expedition," p. 192. 

' Dr. Stejneger very kindly directed my attention to this paper. 

ScuAiM'F — Forme)' Li/ml-Bruh/e hcltveen N. Fjuvopc dtid N. Ainrricn. -j 

The remarkable circuniHtaiico thai Ihe siibiiiarinc tjord-valliiyH on the 
European and on the American .side, and likcwiHe the Hiibmarine ridges 
connecting the two continents, are situated at about the same deptli makes it 
probable that the whole area luul once been raised simultaneously, and had thus 
become connected by land. This was not Dr. Nansen's opinion only (p. 1 7."). 
Professor Dana long ago urged that tlie refrigeration of the climate at the 
close of the Tertiary era was connected with a period of high-latitude elevation.' 
Dr. Wright and Mr. Uphani, tw(j well-known American authorities on glacial 
phenomena, expressed the view that the northern lands must have been 
gradually elevated in Pliocene times, becoming continuous before the Ice Age.^ 
They assume that North America thus became joined to northern Asia 
across the area of the shallow Bering Sea, while land extended from Norway 
to the Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland. 

Incidentally Dr. Wright warns \is that a cautious attitude of agnosticism 
with re.spect to the cause of the Glacial period is most scientific and becoming. 
Nevertheless I venture to think, and cannot refrain from expressing my 
opinion, that the Glacial period was primarily due to the diversion of 
oceanic currents produced by changes in the distiibution of land and water. 
This again is no new suggestion. It was put forward, among others, by 
Dr. Wallace,' and has, I believe, been adopted by many naturalists. With 
every respect for the views of those who hold difl'erent opinions, it seems 
to me that the peculiar phenomena connected with the Ice Age in western 
Europe, and especially the apparent survival of southern species of plants 
and animals in Ireland through the Glacial period, are best explained by 
such a theory as that just stated. No doubt astronomical causes, as Sir 
lioljert Ball has so clearly demonstrated, have afl'eeted the temperature of 
the northern liemi.sphere conjointly.* However, as it is not my intention 
to engage in the speculative discussion of the causes of the Ice Age, I nuiy 
as well turn to the biogeographical evidences for the former existence of a 
North Atlantic land-bridge. 

It is especially the teachings of Edward Forbes and A. E. Wallace that 
led to the recognition of the significance of the present geographical distri- 
bution of animals and plants as an indicator of the changes which have taken 
place in the arrangement of land and water. They believed that many terres- 
trial animals and plants require a continuous land-surface for tlieir dispersal. 

' Dana, J. D., "Manual of Geology," 3rd edition, p. 'i-lO. 

• Wriglii, F., and W. Upliam, " Greenland Itefields," p. 331. 
3 Wallace, A. R., " Island Life," pp. luO-161. 

* Ball, R., " The Cause of an Ice Age." 

6 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academ;/. 

Yet the diversity and compaiative lichuess of the fauna and flora of some of 
the oceanic islands, and the depth of water intervening between them and the 
mainland, had to be accounted for in some other manner. Neither "Wallace 
nor Darwin was inclined to admit extensive geogi-aphical changes within 
the period of existing species. The distribution of plants and animals by 
" accidental," or what Darwin called " occasional," means of dispersal seemed 
to furnish them with a clue to the world-wide dissemination of certain 
species. With his wonted indomitable industry and pei-severance, Darwin 
collected every possible fact that might V>e of service to him in demonstrating 
the dispei-sal of species by accidental means. He endeavoured to show by 
the most ingenious experiments how certain plants and animals might be 
floated by marine currents across many miles of open sea from one country 
to another. He demonsti-ated that many kinds of seeds may retain their 
vitality for several days in the crop of a freshly-killeil bird, which might drift 
away to a distant island during that period. A pellet of earth adhering to 
the leg of a Eed-lesged Partridge contained seeds from which eighty-two 
plants germinated after having lieen kept in a (hied condition for three years. 
He proved experimentally that yming frcsliwater molluscs are apt to attach 
themselves finnly to the feet of ducks, and that they might thus ea.sily be 
transported from one pond to another.' 

Darwin's experiments have found many imitators ; and vahiable observa- 
tions tending to show that at any rate .some of the more minute animals 
and plants are liable to be conveye<l by occasional means of dispersal, have 
been made. Thus the winter-eggs of Cla<locera (water-fleas) have been found 
adhering to the feathers of wild ducks and other water-fowl. It has l>een 
demonstrated that alga- are sometimes earned by water-beetles from pool 
to pool, and that water-bugs, during their flights, occasionally transfer 
larval water-mites from one ditch to another.' 

The most practical e.xperiments of all are those unintentional trans- 
mi.ssions of seeds, insect.^, and otiier terrestrial invertebrates, and even of 
vertebrates such as the mouse and rat, which we witness every day from one 
country to another, from island to island, across vast expanses of territory, 
and from one climatic extreme to another. 

Beyond these we know very little of what actually happens in nature 
without man's intervention. Many people have speculated on the possible 
means of accidental transport. Yet their theories do not afford us any 
real guidance as to the manner in which animals and plants are actually 

' Darwin. C, " Origin of Species," pp. 316-362. 

' Zacbanu, O., ■■ Tier- und Pflaozeowelt d. SiiMwaiwn," pp. 306-308. 

ScHAKFF — Former Land-Bridge between N. Europe and N. America. 7 

disseminated. We do not even know that the experiments conducted in the 
workroom are repeated under natural conditions. Mr. Kew, in liis well- 
known work on the " Dispersal of Shells," has to acknowledge : — " Unfor- 
tunately I do not know tliat any observation clearly indicating the 
transportal of Molluscs or their eggs with drift-timber, &c., has ever been 
made. The creatures have never been found, as far as I have ascertained, in 
the crevices, or under the bark either of trees encountered upon the sea, or 
of those stranded on foreign coasts.'" We jiossess, moreover, \xn-y numcrou.s 
records of intentional introductions of species by man having cither entirely 
failed to establish themselves, or having become extinct after several years 
of apparent success. I have already had occasion to quote an example which 
has come under my notice, and which is of particular interest, as it relates to 
a species which seemed to Darwin to possess special facilities for dispersal, 
viz., Ci/clostoma clegans.^ This snail is provided with a lid or operculum. 
When, as Mr. Darwin tells us, a dozen of them were immersed for a fortnight 
in sea-water, eleven specimens survived the treatment.' Being endowed with 
an exceptional device for resisting the action of sea-water on its delicate 
organism, and being abundant all over the western parts of Continental Europe, 
we should expect Ci/clostoma clcgans to have been cou\'eyed by marine currents 
to the Canary Islands, Madeira, or even to Ireland. None of these islands is 
at too great a distance from the mainland to be beyond easy reach of a floating 
object ; and yet it does not inhabit any of them. This is of particular interest 
as regards Ireland ; because dead shells of this species have been picked up on 
the Irish coast, indicating that marine currents do carry specimens, and ha\'e 
probably transported living ones to that island for centuries. That C'l/clostoiua 
clcgans has nevertheless failed to establish itself in Ireland seems to justify 
the belief that other animals or even plants arriving in a similar manner 
may find it equally difficult to do so. 

A more striking fact against the theory of " accidental or occasional " 
introduction is furnislied by the land molluscs inhabiting the I'acific islands. 
These are tenanted entirely by the most primitive groups of snails ; while 
the more highly organized genera and even families which occur on the 
neighbouring continents of Asia and America are unrepresented. " It is very 
easy," remarks Dr. I'ilsbry, " to show that snails may ha\e been carried 
from place to place by a hurricane, a fioating tree, or floating island, or their 
eggs may find room in the pellet of earth clinging to a bird's feather ; Inil ii 

■ Kew, H. W., " Dispeisal of Sliolls." p. KiS. 
■•' Sulmrtt', U. F., " Eiuopuau Aiiinmls,"' |i. t. 
^ Umwin, C, " Oriyin of Speuies," p. 353. 

8 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadenvi. 

is iucumbent upou the theorist who peoples the Mid-Pacific islands by such 
means to show why such domiuant groups as the Helicidae, Buliminidae, 
Ehytididae, Streptaxidae— in fact, the whole Holopoda and Agnathomorpha 
with the higher members of Aulacopod families, as well as the higher 
operculates — should have utterly failed to take advantage of these means of 

In counexion with the well-known fact that many invertebrate species 
have acquired an immensely wide distribution, it is well to recall what 
Darwin already told us, that within each great class the lower organisms 
change at a slower rate than the liigher. Consequently they will have had 
more opportunity for dispersal, while still retaining the same specific 

But even Darwin had no conception of the remoteness of the date of origin 
of most of our common genera, and even of species of land and freshwater 
shells. Pahi'ont" 'logical discoveries have revealeil e\'en in ilesozoic deposits 
certain species which are still living at the present day. Genera like 
C'lausilia have now been traced to the Cretaceous period. Their dispereal to 
remote regions may have taken place in tlic dawn of tlie Tertiary era, when, 
as we know frDUi independent rcscarche-s, the allocation of land and water 
was vastly ditlerent from what it is now. 

And yet the influence of accidental or occasional means of dispersal upon 
the fauna and flora of a country is considered by many zoologists and botauists 
to i»e of profound importance. Until recently tlie e^^dence tliat could be 
adduced in favour of their theory was almost unsupported by any actual 
demonstration in the field, as we might say. At last the longed-for evidence 
has been discovered in the shape of an island whose fauna and flora are 
alleged to have been completely destroyed by a volcanic eiuptiou, and subse- 
quently entirely reintroduced by accidental means. Dr. Ernst's account of 
it made quite a sensation. The terrible outburst of fire and ashes from what 
was lookeil upon as an extinct volcano on the i.sland of Krakatau (Krakatoa) 
occurretl not verj- many years ago — in 1883. Half the island sank beneath 
the ocean ; the remainder was covereil with a layer of glowing stones and hot 
ashes, reaching an average depth of 100 feet. In some parts of tlie island, 
however, as the author tells us, not more than two mouths after tlie eruption, 
subaerial ilenudation had alreatly carved out of the loose strata deep valleys 
and gorges. " In the \acinity of the peak," as he puts it, " where the newly- 
formed deposit must have been thinnest, patches of the original rock-surface 

■ PiUbry, H. A., '• OenesU of Mid-Pacific Faunas," p. 572. 
' Darwin, C, " Origin of Spede*," p. 369. 

ScHARFF — Former Ldiiil-Bridfie between N. Europe mid N. America. 9 

protruded here and tliere, exposing the blasted and carbonized remains of 

Within sixty days after the eruption the ashes had been washed away 
to such an extent as to expose the original surface in certain parts. I wonder 
how many stems of the tropical forest alluded to were crowded with insect 
life, and to wliat temperature tlie interior of these tree-trunks when the 
external parts were charred, or to what deptli of soil the heat of the hot 
ashes penetrated ? I should have imagined that multitudes of insects or 
their larvae, and countless seeds, would have survived the ordeal thai 
Dr. Ernst so vividly describes. At any rate, I can fancy a naturalist, 
imbued with Darwin's methods of research, eager to root up these dead 
tree-stumps in order to examine what seeds and what insects were still 
living in the soil beneath or in the adjoining rock-crevices. Nothing of the 
kind was attempted ! We are simply informed that all organic life had been 
destroyed. It is well known that such seeds as can stand desiccation are 
extremely resistant to heat when dry, and may not be injured by the tempera- 
ture of boiling water. Would the lieat of the hot ashes penetrating into 
the soil destroy all vitality among the seeds contained therein ? I think 
not. And yet we are led to believe that three years after the volcanic outburst 
in 1886 the pioneers of the new vegetation which reached the island by 
accidental dispersal from elsewhere were seen stretching from the shore to the 
peak of the mountain. Seven years later the whole island was covered with 
a dense, almost impenetrable thicket, and numerous insects and even lizards 
were noticed. If dispersal really proceeded on those lines^ the study of 
geographical distribution may be abandoned — at any rate so far as the main 
principle of Wallace is concerned, that the study of zoogeography enables us 
to map out the islands and continents of former epochs. That Wallace's 
maxim has been adopted by Messrs. P. and F. Sarasin during their explora- 
tion of Celebes, and carefully applied in their treatise on the geological history 
of that island, implies that they do not attach much importance to accidental 
distribution, though their labours were conducted not far from and in about 
the same latitude as the volcanic island of Krakatau.^ 

It would be idle to deny that the seeds of certain plants are carried to 
great distances by wind ; that many others are undoubtedly transported by 
ocean currents; that some seeds are even scattered here and theie by birds. 
My contention is — and I concur in this opinion with many eminent botanists — 
that onlya small percentage of plants are disseminated and actually established 

' Ernst, " L\ew Flora of Kriikatau," p. 4. 

■ Sarasin, P. and F., " Geol. Gescbichtc d. Insel Celebes." 

R.I. A, PROC, VOL. XXVin., SECT. B. [C] 

10 Procccdim/s of the Royal Irish Academy. 

in that manner. JMost of them require for their dispersal a solid and 
continuous expanse of soil. They will proceed on it slowly, and step by step 
as it were. 

To return to the subject under discussion, Sir Joseph Hooker evidently 
believed that the flora of Greenland had travelled across from Europe by a 
land-bridge in Pre-Glacial times. He considered the existing plants of the 
country as certainly older than the Glacial period ; for he argued that the 
severity of the climate destroyed many species, while the remainder took 
refuge and survived in tlie southern parts of Greenland.' 

Professor James Geikie maintains that a land-connexion between 
Greenland, Iceland, the Farcies, and Scotland must have existed, because the 
plants could only have migrated from Europe over a land surface.- 

To Professor Geikie the idea of a survival of plants during the lee Age in 
Greenland is inconceivable. He therefore argues tliat the land-bridge could 
only have existed in Post-Glacial times. Hence the Glacial period and its 
supposed adverse influence upon the flora of northern Europe has now become 
tlie mainspring of most speculations as to the former presence or absence of 
a northern land-bridge. 

Professor Nathoret concurs with Professor Geikie in so far as he believes 
in the extinction of the Greenland flora during the Ice Age. He had formerly 
advocated a Post-Glacial land-bridge, and now regards it as somewhat 
doubtful.' Anotlier Scandinavian botanist, Professor Wanning,* admits 
that the mass of the Gi-eenland flora survived the Glacial period in 
the country. The remainder arrived more recently by various modes of 
occasional transjiort, and with this view Sir Henry ITowortli agrees." In 
his " Botany of the Fari>ea," Professor Warming argues that the entire 
flora of the islands is due to accidental dispersal. Yet, in the same volume, 
Ur. Ostenfeld expresses himself very strongly against Professor Warming's 
tlieiiry. Only ^^'\ per cent, of the flora, he maintains, are adapted for dissemi- 
nation by the agency of wind. The ocean currents seem to be as unfavourable 
as possible for the Faroes. A strong extension of the Gulf Stream flows 
south-east of the islands; and as it comes from the open Atlantic directly 
south-west of the Faroes, and has not touched land since the West Indies, 
the only seeds it could possibly convey are tropical. The current thus forms a 
regular barrier between Scotland and the Faroes. Any seeds coming from 

' Hooker, J. D., " Dutribiition of Arctic PUnt«," pp. 252-5.'j. 

' Gcikip, James, " Prehistoric Europe," p. 520. 

' Xathor.-t, A. 0., "Geachichtc d. Vegetation Oronlands," p. 214. 

* Warming, E., " Ceber Gronlanda Vegetation," p. 403. 

» Ho*orth, H., "Geological History of Arctic Lands," p. 500. 

SoHAiti'T — Former Land-iSridfie between N. Europe and N. America. 11 

Scotland are caught up and carried towards the iiurtli-oaHl right away from 
the Faroes. 

Since Darwin's classical experiments, birds have always boon quoted as 
very important factors in the transmission of si^eils from tlie mainlaTid to an 
island. Nevertheless, actual examination of birds (hiring their migratory flights 
had never been made. Now we know, at any rate, that the migration of birds 
fronr Europe in tlic direction of Iceland is inconsiderable. Secondly, for at 
least four or five years the alimentary canals, the beaks, feet, and feathers of all 
the migratory birds caught at Danish lighthouse stations have been thoroughly 
investigated, with the result that the birds were found to migrate on an empty 
stomach, and were almost always clean externally. Dr. Knud Andersen, 
who conducted these inquiries, is of opinion that migratory birds are hardly 
of any importance as disseminators of plants. 

A summary of the above arguments leads Dr. Ostenfeld to the conclusion 
Lliat the principal portion of the flora of the Faroes must have travelled from 
the mainland of Europe on a bridge of continuous land. But assuming that 
the Ice Age destroyed the flora of the islands, he takes for granted, with 
Professor James Geikie and Mr. Simmons, that this belt of land was Post- 
Glacial in age, notwithstanding that the disappearance of Glacial conditions 
in Europe is often synchronized with the submergence of the land-bridge.' 

Much the same view is advocated by Professor Drude, except that he 
places the age of the land-connexion further back — to the Glacial period 
itself. = The theory of the existence of an ancient land-bridge between 
northern Europe and North America has likewise been adopted by 
Dr. Schulz,' who argues that an immigration of plants from arctic America 
to Europe took place by means of two laud-connexions. One of these 
joined Greenland with Iceland, the Faroes, and Scotland ; the other with 
Spitsbergen, Franz Joseph Laud, Novaya Zemlya, and northern Eussia. 
He contends that these land-bridges existed during the greater part of late 
Tertiary times until the beginning of the Pliocene period. 

The question of the supposed survival of plants through the Ice Age in 
Greenland largely depends on the problem whether or no tlie glaciers of that 
country had a vastly greater extension formerly than they have at present, 
and covered the whole of the land now free from ice. That the latter has 
never been entirely invaded by ice has been clearly demonstrated by the 
leader of the German Greenland Expedition, Dr. E. von Drygalski. The 

' Ostenfeld, C. H., •' I'hyto-geographionl Studies," pp. 115-118. 
-Diudc, 0., " PflanzenReographischo Anhultspiinktc," p. 329. 
^Sclmlz, A., " Pfliinzenwelt Mitteleuropas," p. 1. 

12 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academij. 

greater extension of ice in former times no doubt can be proved, he remarks; 
yet glaciers certainly never reached the cliffs and rock-pinnacles which 
abound on all parts of the coast-lands of Greenland.' No reason, therefore, 
can be adduced vihy the flora of Greenland should not have survived the Ice 
Age in that country, particularly as we have some grounds for the supposition 
that the land in the Arctic Eegions then stood higher than it does now. 
Indeed, Professor Yanholl'en, who describes the plants and animals observed 
during the expedition, adopts this attitude. He not only believes in the 
survival of the flora of Greenland through the Ice Age, but he argues that the 
great mass of the fauna is indigenous to the country. Though he does not 
tleny the possibility of organisms being accidentally carried by birds, he pro- 
tests against the assumption tliat the fauna of Greenland owes its origin to such 
a mode of transport.' This quite harmonizes willi tlie views of Mr. Hart, 
who was attached, as naturalist, to the British Polar Expedition of H.AI.S. 
" Discovery." It is quite possible, lie thinks, that migratory birds, currents of 
air or water, or other agents may, in some rare cases, introduce mature seeds 
to a soil prepared to receive them ; but it should always be kept in mind tliat 
much importance ought not to be attached to the dispersal of plants by such 

It would be wrong to suppose that plant migration to the Faroes and 
Iceland lias proceeded altogether from Europe. A stream has likewise advanced 
from the "piwaile direction. Thus in the Faroes we find at least seven 
plants uuix'presented in the British Islands. These came from Greenland 
and arctic America. Many others no doubt succeeded in invading the British 
Islands and the Continent, after utilizing the same land-bridge. Professor 
Asa Gray long ago pointed out that no less than twenty-four species were 
common to America and Europe, while unknown in Asia." These were reduced 
subsequently by Professor Eugler to ten species, because he argued that the 
remainder either had since been found in Asia, or might originally have been 
introduced by man from the one continent to the other. Ten species may 
seem very few ; but, supposing a plant originated in Europe and subsequently 
passetl to America by the direct land-bridge, it would probably be an ancient 
species. Hence it must have had many opportunities for invading the 
neighbouring Asiatic continent as well, and would not therefore come under 
tlie category alluded to. Plants of East American origin would have had a 
much more arduous journey to reach Asia; and it is on that account that most 

' Urygalski, E. tod, "tironland Expedition," toI. i., p. 33.5. 
' \ anhuffen, £., " GrunUnd Expedition," vol. ii., p. 174. 
^ Halt, H. C, " Botany of Polar Expedition," p. 10. 
♦ Gray, Asa, " Planu of United Slates and Eurnpe, p. 173. 

SciiAHFF — Former Land-Bridge between N. Europe and N. America. 13 

of the ten species alluded to are apparently of American origin. One, 
however, the common European Ling {Ca/luna vulgaris), certainly has its home 
in Europe. It is restricted in North America to a few localities on the coast 
of Newfoundland and southward. . I sliall allude later on to some animals 
with a similar range. A few of the other plants have rather a confined 
distribution in Europe. Some, like the Water Lohelia {Lobelia Dortmanna), 
are widely disseminated over the western parts of our continent.' 

Fig. 2. — JEriocaiiloii septangnlarc, growing in its native habitat in tlie West of Ireland. 

A'. Welch, Photo. 

A small group of plants is of particular interest to Irish botanists, as 
being almost exclusively confined to the "West of Ireland and North America. 
According to Messrs. Colgan and Scully, five species of plants occurring in 
Ireland belong to this group, viz., Spiranthes Bomanzoviana, Sisyrmchium 
angustifoliv.m, Eriocanlon septnngnlare, Naias flexilis, and ■Tunms tenuis. Two 
of these, the Sisijrinchiiim and Juncus, may possibly have been introduced. 
But Messrs. Colgan and Scully express the opinion that no doubt has ever 
been raised as to the indigenous standing of the remaining three.^ All of these 
plants are discontinuously distributed. An interval of more than 200 miles 
separates the northern and southern stations in Ireland of the rare orchid 
Spiranthcs Eomanzoviamc. The water plants Eriocaulon scptangidarc (fig. 2) 

'Eiigler, A., '' Entwicklungsgescliichte d. Floiengebiete," i., p. 15. 
• Colgan, N., and K. W. Scully, " Cybele Hibernica," 2nd ed., p. 71. 

14 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and Naias Jlexilis inhabit not only some of the western Iiish lakes, they 
occur also in Scotland. 

If we regard these plants as ha\'ing been accidentally introduced from 
America through the agency of wind, waves, or birds, they must have been 
transported repeatedly to different parts of Ireland. Su- "William 'ITiiselton 
Dyer only alludes to Eriocaidon, and seems convinced that it was brought 
across the ocean by birds.' Messrs. Colgan and Scully do not explain the 
presence in Ireland of these plants as being due to any such accidental 
transport. They believe them to have reached Europe by means of an ancient 
northern land-connexion. Mr. Praeger likewise comes to a similar conclusion 
with regard to the origin of the American plant group in Ireland. He does 
not favour the theory of accidental dispersal. A land surface, long since 
destroyed, of I^-Glacial age, appeals to him as a more likely explanation of 
the presence of the American plants.' 

The number of plants common to Europe and North America is really 
far greater than we imagine, though very few, as we have seen, are quite 
confined to these continents. Of those which also occur in Asia there are 
many, like the Orchid Listcra cordata, which grows only in a few localities 
iu the extreme east, that are apparently absent from the greater part of the 
continent. It is probable that all these have found their way from America 
to Europe by a direct passage. Including the horsetails and ferns with the 
flowering plants, about 575 species are identical in Canada and Europe, and 
only 330 in Canada and Japan or the Amur district of eastern Asia. Many 
of these are possibly modern introductions. On the other band, we know 
from Professor Drummond's researches that of seventy species of fossil 
plants observed by him in the Pleistocene clays of Toronto in Canada, 
twenty occur at the present day l>oth in that country and in Europe.' 

This seems to indicate that during the Pleistocene period, the great mass 
of the flora common to America and Europe had already found its way from 
the one continent to the other. Altogether our available botanical evidence 
iu favour of a fonner land-connexion between Scotland and Labrador, by way 
of Greenlaml and Iceland, can scarcely be considered as ver)' weighty ; yet, in 
conjunction with the preceding factors, it acquires greater significance. 

The zoological testimony in support of this view is of a much more pro- 
nounced character. The intei'est aroused in Ireland by the discover^' of the 
American plants has led to research in other directions. Thus, in 1895, three 

' Drer, W. ThUellon, " Geographic*! DUiritmtion," p. 289. 

' Praeger, E. LI., " Imh Topographical Botany," p. 22. 

' DmmmoDi], A. T., " Planta common to Europe and America," p. 53. 

SciiAKFi'' — Former Land-Bridge hchuecn N. Europe mid N. America. 15 

species of freshwater sponges were detected in various lakes at some distance 
from the sea on the west coast. Only one of tliese sponges, viz., Tnhrlla 
pennstjhanica, has since liecn observed in another European locality, in 
Loch Baa in Scotland, but all of tbcia are identical with American species.' 
Dr. Hanitsch identified them as Ephydatia cratcriformis, Heteromeycnia 
Rydcri and TuhcUa pcnnsylvanica. Being unaware of the theory advanced 
by botanists as to the existence of a former direct land-bridge to America, 
he speculated on the origin of these freshwater sponges by appealing to 
accidental means of transport, such as winds, ocean-currents, and birds, and 
argued that any of these modes of conveyance might have carried tlie 
gemmules across the Atlantic. 

Of all the occasional means of transmission, only that by birds deserves, 
to my mind, serious consideration. The two others are clearly out of the 
question as far as the gemmules of freshwater sponges .are concerned. As 
I shall endeavour to show later on (p. 21), birds probably never fly directly 
across the Atlantic ; nor is there any reason to believe that they set foot on 
the west coast of Ireland first on reaching Europe. That they imported the 
gemmules of the freshwater sponges on their feet or feathers, from the 
mainland of America, is therefore extremely improbable. It is of interest 
to note that Dr. Stejneger argues in favour of a former discontinuous land- 
connexion between Scotland and Greenland from the route of migration 
followed by a bird. Because the large-winged race of the Common AMieatear 
{Saxicola cenanthe leucorhoa) is known to breed in Greenland and eastern 
arctic America, migrating in winter to the British Islands and France by 
way of Iceland, the Faroes, and Shetland Islands, he contends that greater 
land-masses than at present must have existed formerly along this migration 
route. He does not suggest a complete land-connexion such as I now 
advocate, but merely a series of large islands separated by ocean straits. 
He believes this incomplete or discontinuous land-bridge to have existed 
during part of the Glacial period. = 

In my more recent work on European Animals, I have incidentally 
dwelt on the past range of the Great Auk (Alca impcnnis) as indicating the 
presence of a former more continuous coast-line between the British Islands, 
Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, in all of which countries this bird 
was known to have been abundant.^ 

Yet, after all, the best evidence in favour of a North Atlantic land-bridge 

1 Hanitsch, R., "Freshwater Sponges of Ireland," p. 126. Annandale, " Freshwater Sponges 
in Scotland." 

^ Stejneger, L., " Scharfif s History of the European Fauna," pp. 107-108. 
3 Scharff, R. F., " European Animals," pp. 37-39. 

1 6 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academ//. 

is furnished by the iuvertebrates. Our special attention is drawn by Mv. Born 
to the importance of the " Iluuniug Beetles " of the genus Carabus. From 
tlie fact of their being wingless and usually found under stones or clods 
of earth, they are not liable to be transported accidentally by any of 
the means usually supposed to aid animals in their dispersal. Mr. Born 
claims that at least two European species of Carabus, viz. C. catenvlatus and 
C. lumwralis, have crossed the Atlantic by means of an ancient land-bridge. 
A third form — Carabus i/nvnlandicus Chant isson is — seems to ha^•e originated 
in America, and to have travelled from there to Greenland and Lapland.' 

Of another group of insects — tlie Collembola — Prof. Carpenter remarks : 
"It is of interest to find that the presence of not a few species of these 
wingless insects in America, in Greenland, in the islands to the north of 
Europe and Asia, and on the Euro-Asiatic continent, lends support to our 
belief in a I'lioceue or I'leistocene land-connexion to the north of the Atlantic 
Ocean — a lielief already upheld by so much evidence, both geological and 

The buttertiies and moths do not yield mucii evidence in favour of the 
view of a North Atlantic land-connexion. Yet Mr. Petersen cited no 
less than twelve species as occurring in arctic Europe and arctic America, 
while absent from Asia, He thought that this fact pointed to the possibility 
of a direct laniUbridge between the two continents.' At least three kinds 
of butterflies are known to breed in Greenland, and to go through their 
complex life-history within the confines of tiiat inhospitable country. 

Quite a number of naturalists lielieve that any resemblance between the 
European and the American fauna must have arisen, not from any direct 
intercourse iMjtween Europe and America, but by a migration across Asia 
and a Bering Strait land-connexion. Tlie supposition of an ancient nortiiern 
Pacific land-bridge presents fewer difficulties to them than the Atlantic one, 
and is preferred for that reason. Dr. Ilorvath, for example, who states that 
no less than 128 species of Hemiptera are common to the two continents, 
argues that they all must have crossed Asia in reaching the one from the 

But Dr. Horviith and those who t^ree with him were apparently unaware 
that certain freshwater species common to Europe and America are almost 
totally absent from Asia or western America. 

Let us take, for example, our common Perch {Perm Jlnvialilis), a variety 

' Bom, Paul, " Carabologij'cbe Studicn," pp. 8, 9. 
' Carpenter, G. fl., " Cullembola from Franz Joseph Ijind," p. 276. 
' Petersen, W., " Lepidopterenfauna der arktiscben Gebiete," p. 38. 
* Horrlitb, G., " Faunes b^mipterologiqucs," pp. 4-7. 

ScHARKF — Former Laml-Bridne hetivroi N. Europe and N. AvK^rica. 17 

K.I. A. I'ROC, vol.. XXVIU., SliCT. li. 


18 Proceedings of ihc Royal Irish Academy. 

of which also inhabits North America (fig. o). It is absent not only from a 
large part of Asia, but also from western North America. Certainly this 
looks like a case of direct migration from America to Emope. Kevertheless, 
those who favour accidental methods of dispersal may claim that the 
feet and feathers of birds had some share in this distribution ; for it is assumed 
that fish-spa%m may occasionally cling to birds alighting on water. It will 
scarcely be conceded, however, that birds have the power to select the 
spawn of Perch, and carry it across the Atlantic to the exclusion of that of 
all other species. For according to Mr. Tate K^an, to whom I am indebted 
for the map of distribution which I herewith reproduce, the Perch and the 
whole Perch family {Pcrcida!) are absent from western North America and 
largely from eastern Asia. An accidental transport of freshwater fish-eggs 
from land to land across the Atlantic, either by wind or waves, seems to me 
quite beyond the range of possibility. Human introduction is altogether out 
of the question, l>ecause, apart from the Common Perch, we have to deal with 
genera and species of Percidae found in the one continent and not in the 
other. These must have evolved from some remote ancestor, common to 
America and Europe, long anterior to the appearance of Man. 

Another example that I have had occasion to quote in my work on 
" European Animals " (p. 35) is the freshwater Pearl-Mussel {Margariiana 
maryaritifer). On our continent it inhabits the British Islands except 
eastern England, the mountain streams of Scandinavia, and the hill 
region of Central Eurof* except the Alp.s. Far to the east it reappears in 
a different fonn in the River Amur in eastern Siberia, in the island of 
Sakhalin, and in Kamtchatka. Another variety is met with across the 
Bering Strait in Alaska and in western North America generally. The type 
form occurs in the Quebec province of Canada, in the Lower Saskatchewan 
River, and in New England. The typical freshwater Pearl Mussel is only 
met with in ea-stem North America and in C€ntral and north-western 
Europe. America is undoubte<lly its original home. From it the mus.sel 
spread to Europe in an eastward direction, and not by way of Asia. As the 
fry of these mussels attach themselves to the gills of fishes, they are liable to 
wide dispersal within at least one river-system ; but fishes in this case could 
scarcely have aided them in reaching Europe. A land-connexion l>etween the 
two continents explains their distribution certainly better than any other 

The most striking piece of e%idence we possess in favour of a Pre-Glacial 
land-connexion between north-western Europe and north-eastern North 
America is the presence in the latter country of the snail Helix hortensis. 

SciiAKFF — Former Land-Bridge between N. Europe and N. America. 19 

A western species iu Europe, Helix hortcnsis, is remarkable for its exten- 
sive nortliom range. It occurs in Scandinavia, all over the British islands, 
in the Shetlauds and Faroes, and even in Iceland (fig. 4). It is 
altogether absent from Asia. Its occurrence in southern Greenland had 
generally been attributed to a recent human introduction ; but it has been 
taken in several different localities ; and we must, I think, look upon it as 
an indigenous species. Its presence in the state of Maine in North America 
has frequently been cited as a familiar example of the facility with wliich 
European species are introduced by human agency to foreign countries. 

Fig. ■!. — Map indicating tlie geographical distribution of ll.e t^nail ITcli.r hortenaia. 

Until the year 1864 no other theory was ever thought of. During that year, 
however, Professor E. S. Morse first discovered the shell of this snail among 
ancient "kitchen- middens " on some of the islands off the coast of Maine. 
This fact led liim to reconsider the generally accepted view of its being a 
recent introduction. It seemed to him much more likely that the snail had 
wandered along some ancient coast-line from the Old World across the 
North Atlantic. Dr. Binnoy, and more recently Professor Cockerell, 

20 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

concurred with Professor Moi-se's opinion, while the Eev. !Mr. "Winkley 
even suggested that Hdix hortensis arrived in North America before the 
advent of the Glacial period. With the latter theory, Mr. Johnson, another 
conchologist, expressed his agreement; and it is to his paper that I am 
indebted for the above-mentioned information.' 

The only one who adhered to the introduction theory was Dr. Pilsbry. 
He even aigued in favour of artificial importation by the ancient Vikings 
during their supposed visit to the American coast in the eleventh century. 

All doubts as to the claim of Helix hortensis being an indigenous 
American species are now set at rest through the discovery by Dr. Dall of 
the shell of this snail in undoubtedly Pleistocene deposits in the state of 
Maine.' Moreover, the species is now known to inhabit a much greater 
area than was formerly supposed ; for it has been collected in Labrador, 
Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and many other small islands where 
it could not possibly have been brought by man. It may therefore be 
considered as definitely established that Helix hortensis reached America in 
Pleistocene or Pliocene times without human intervention. That greater 
facilities may have existed for tlie occasional transport across the Atlantic iu 
those remote times than obtain at present might still be urged iu accounting 
for its presence in America. Such an hypothesis, however, is unsupported by 
any testimony, while the view advocated that it travelled across a laud-bridge 
to America is corroborated by other distributional facts, and meets with 
the approval of many zoologists. 

The discovery of Helix hortensis in Greenland is an important factor iu 
favour of the land-connexion theoiy. That this species should have survived 
the Glacial period in that country need not surprise us; for several other species 
of land and freshwater molluscs certainly must have done so. Flanoi-bis 
arctica, Limnaea Vahli, L. Wormskioldi, Succinea groenlandica, Vitrina 
nngelicne, Pupa Hoppii, and Ccmitlus Fabricii are almost all confined to 
Greenland, and no doubt originated there in Pre-GIacial times. 

I feel sure many other European terrestrial Invertebrates with a range 
similar to that of Helix horteiim are found in America. I know of such 
among the earthworms and woodlice, but there is no need to add to the 
above examples. 

Before summarizing the results of these investigations into the evidences 
of a former land-bridge between northern Europe and North America, I wish 
to mention the opinions of a few naturalists besides those referred to who 

' Johnson, C. W., " Distribution of Hrliz hortrniu," p. 73. 
» Dall, W. H., "Land and Fieshwatcr MoUuaks," p. 20. 

SciiARFF — Former Lund- Bridge between N. Europe and N. America. 21 

have expressed their agreement with this theory. Mr. Madison Grant believes 
that the distribution of tlie living fauna points to the existence of continuous 
land between Greenland, Spitsbergen, and Scandinavia in Pleistocene times.' 
Prof. Lobley'' assumes a land-bridge in Pre-Glacial times, extending from 
Europe to Iceland, Greenland, and Labrador; whereas Prof. Jacobi advances a 
similar theory in less definite terms, for he speaks only of a long-continued 
land-connexion between the New and the Old World by way of Greenland.^ 
Dr. Arldt considers the land-bridge to have existed since the Oligocene 
period, and to have been finally destroyed in Pliocene times.* 

Of all the theories which have been advanced in explanation of the 
occurrence of identical species on both sides of tlie Atlantic Ocean, only the 
following three have met with wide approval :— 

1. Migration from Europe across Asia and a Bering Strait land-bridge 

to America or vice versa. 

2. Occasional transport by birds across the Atlantic Ocean, 
o. Migration across a direct Atlantic land-connexion. 

If we consider the zoological evidence alone, namely, the absence of 
Helix horfensis from Asia and Western America, the distribution of the 
Perches and the freshwater Pearl Mussel, and that of the freshwater Sponges, 
the first of the three hypotheses is scarcely applicable to these instances of 
distribution, and does not therefore explain the presence of identical species 
on both sides of the Atlantic in a satisfactory manner. 

As regards the supposed conveyance by birds of seeds and invertebrates 
across the same ocean, the second theory must be applicable to a transport 
in two directions, both from America to Europe as well as vice versa. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke, of the Edinburgh Museum, who has made a special 
study of bird migration, informs me that in his opinion all the American 
species of birds that have made their appearance in Europe have travelled by 
way of Greenland and Iceland. All of them, he says, are birds of high 
northern summer range in America ; and they are mostly birds of the year 
which, instead of returning southward or westward in their autumnal flights, 
have taken an eastward course. All the other accidental visitors from 
America, he thinks, must have had an assisted passage across tlie ocean as 
cage-birds. There is only one point which I venture to think Mr. Clarke 
may have overlooked, namely, the possibility of some American birds having 

' Grant, Madison, " Origin of Mammals of North America," p. 12. 

- Lobli-y, J. L., " American Faiiua ami ils Origin," p. 27. 

■' Jacobi, A., " Lage und Form biogcographischi-T Gebiete," p. 'iOi. 

' Arldt, Tb., "Butwicldungd. Kouliuoute," p. 406. 

22 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

come to Europe without crossing the Atlantic Ocean at all. The circum- 
stance that a few, such as the American Eobin, seem to have occurred more 
frequently in eastern Europe than in the west, may imply that they have 
tiown across Bering Strait to Siberia, thus entering Europe from Asia. 

Altogether no less than sixty-eight species of American birds have been 
recorded from Europe by ]\Ir. Dalgleish, while only twenty American species 
are known from Ireland.' The claim of ten of the latter as genuine 
stragglers from America is considered doubtful, in so far as they may possibly 
be escaped cage-birds.- A large percentage of the si.xty-eight species have 
been observed in England ; but even on the small island of Helgoland, near 
the mouth of the Elbe, twelve species of American birds have been noticed.'' 

From these observations it is evident that the west coast of Ireland is 
by no means the region wiiere the American bird-visitors first set foot in 
Europe. Many apparently alight on the Continent of Europe, after com- 
pleting their perilous voyage across the North Atlantic from Greenland. 
Othei's liave only Ijeen recorded from Scotland or England. Ireland has not 
yielded any exceptional number of such records ; and they are not all from 
the west coast. 

From Mr. Freke's Catalogue we can gather some idea as to the frequency of 
European bird-visitora to America ; that is to say, of such species as are 
supposed to have crossed the Atlantic in the opposite direction. Only about 
one-fourth of the number of American visitors to Europe have made the 
voyage in the reveree direction, and most of the latter are such species as 
have been recorded from Greenland or arctic America.' Very few have 
passed southward into the United States. Mr. Praeger pointed out to me, 
and I quite concur with liim, tliat the comparatively small number of bird- 
visitoi-s from Europe to America miglit, to some extent, be due to the fact 
that the prevailing winds in the North Atlantic from west to east would 
retard the flight of birds in the opposite direction. 

The fact that both in America and Europe the indigenous species of plants 
and animals identical to the two continents are largely confined to the coast 
i-egion may appear at fii-st sight in favour of the theory of introduction by 
birds. Almost all the American plants, and all the American freshwater 
sponges at any rate, occur in the Ndcinity of the coast. It has been argued, 
therefore, that, after their long flight across the ocean, birds would naturally 
alight on the earliest opportunity ; and that it was for this reason that the 

' Oalglcish, J. J., " North American liirda in Europe." 

' Usaher, K. J., "List of Iri.-h Birdn." 

-* Frcke, I'eny, "Birds found in Europe und North America." 

ScnARFF — Former Land-Br'ul(ic hetween N. Europe and N. America. 23 

plants and animals common to tiie two continents were so largely confined 
to the coastal districts. Bnt from what has hecn mentioned we have no 
reason to infer that American birds do habitually alight on the west coast of 
Ireland on first reaching Europe. It seems highly probable that they cross by 
way of Greenland. We should therefore expect all the species of the 
invertebrates and plants common to the two continents to be found in 
Greenland as well. This is not so. Only comparatively few of them are met 
with in Greenland. The theory that the resemblance in the fauna and flora 
of eastern North America and western Europe is due to the action of birds 
is, I think, not supported by suflficient evidence. 

The third theory, that the identical species on either side of the Atlantic 
Ocean are the result of a direct land-connexion between Scotland, Iceland, 
Greenland, and Labrador, such as I have suggested in the illustration 
(fig. 1), appears to me to be well founded on geological, bathymetrical, 
and biological evidence. No decisive testimony, however, has as yet been 
brought forward to show during what geological period this land-bridge 
was formed and how long it lasted. The assumption that such geographical 
conditions prevailed during early Tertiary times is very widespread. That 
this state continued during the Miocene period is likewise maintained by 
many ; though Professor Dawkins and a few others do not admit the existence 
of the northern land-bridge in Pliocene or more recent times.' Sir Archibald 
Geikie's researches point to the production of the great basalt plateaux of 
north-western Europe in early Tertiary times. These plateaux formed a 
continuous tract of land, as far as the Faroes at any rate. He proves that 
in many places, such as Iceland, the Faroes, and the West of Scotland, 
enormous subsidence subsequently took place. Yet he gives us no idea of 
the approximate geological date of that event.- 

Once we admit that animals and plants were able to survive the Glacial 
period in northern latitudes, a land-connexion such as suggested in Pliocene 
times would readily account for the presence of all the animals and plants 
common to Europe and America. By many of those best able to judge, an 
admission to that effect has been made. Pliocene deposits are scanty in the 
British Islands; yet they yield valuable suggestions as to the geographical con- 
ditions of the North Atlantic. An examination of the fossil invertebrates 
contained in the St. Erth beds in Cornwall, which are of Pliocene age, showed 
that the fauna possessed a remarkably southern facies, and that there was a 
total absence of boreal or arctic species. This fact led Professor Kendall and 

' Dawkins, W. Boyd, " Early Man in Britain," p. 43. 

' Geikie, A., " Basalt Plateaux of North-'Westem Europe," p. 403. 

24 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Mr. Bell to the conclusion that at the period during which these deposits 
were laid down — that is to say, during the latter part of the Pliocene period 
— no channel or direct communication existed between the North Sea and the 
Atlantic Ocean, the Straits of Dover being closed in the south, while in the 
north the Tertiary volcanic chain formed a barrier across from the north of 
Scotland to Greenland by way of the Shetland Islands, Faroes, and Iceland." 

Mr. Eeid's contention that the St. Erth beds are older than Messrs. Kendall 
and Bell estimated — that they are, in fact, of early Pliocene age — is founded 
chiefly on the circumstance that the percentage of extinct species is about the 
same as that of the Coralline Crag. The consideration of the supposed 
climatic conditions does not seem to me of any particidar value ; and, as he 
remarks, the exact age of the clays is still doubtful.' Even if the St. Erth 
beds belong to the lower Pliocene, there are no grounds for the supposition 
that the northern barrier, alluded to by Messrs. Kendall and Bell, had ceased 
to exist in later Pliocene times. 

The change in the Pliocene fauna of the east coast of England, as we pass 
from the older to the newer beds, no doubt implies, as Mr. Harmer pointed 
out, an opening up of the area to the influence of the northern seas.' But 
we do not possess the slightest evidence for the assumption tliat the Atlantic 
Ocean was similarly aflected. Many of the facti, indeed, lead to the 
conclusion that the land on the Atlantic coasts of the British Islands stood 
highest in late Pliocene and early Pleistocene times, and that it was then 
that Hdix liortcnsis and many other European species must have made their 
way to America. 

Glacial conditions prevailed at this time on all the high mountain ranges 
surrounding the warm Atlantic Ocean, and yet the coast region must have 
supported an abundance of animal and plant life. The presence of a land- 
bridge between Scotland and North America by way of Greenland, and 
another between England and France, would have excluded the Gulf Stream 
from the Arctic Kegions. Professor Blytt's argument that under such 
conditions all the coast region, including Iceland and southern Greenland, 
would have had a higher temperature than at present, while the lands beyond 
were probably colder, seems irrefutable.' Yet Professor James Geikie believes 
that even the latter countries would then have had a more genial climate.' 

In my opinion it was during this epoch, in Pre-Glacial times, that the 

' KenUI, P. F., an.l K. Bell, " The Pliocene Beds of St. Brtb." pp. 20C, 207. 

' Beid, C, " Pliocene Deposits of Britain," p. 61. 

' Harmer, J. W., " Pliocene Deposits of QolUnd," p. 754. 

* Blytt, Abel, " Tbeorie d. veduelnden KUm&tf," p. 49. 

' Geikie, James, " Prehistoric Eorape," p. 520. 

ScHARFF — Former Lonl- Ilridfjehettvceu X. ICurojif (okI N. Ainen'ca. 25 

interchange between llic fauiui iuid llnru nf iKntli-wcslL'ni Europe and 
north-eastern America was effected across Ihc iKirlJunii land-bridges. 

Only one otlicr point needs to be commented upon. I have shown that 
most of the American species occupy the Atlantic coast region in the British 
Islands. Almost all the southern or Lusitanian species are found in precisely 
the same area in England, Ireland, and Scotland. This seems to me partly 
due to tlie fact that the temperature was considerably higher there during 
the Glacial period than in the more inland localities. Even now the plants 
are under more favourable climatic conditions on the west coast than further 
inland, and less exposed there to competition with the stronger eastern 
rivals. Moreover, almost the whole of Ireland and a large portion of 
England are thickly swathed in a mantle of Glacial clay. We can only 
suppose that the forces which controlled the deposition of this clay were less 
effective on the west coast, which may have extended far to the west of its 
present boundary, and have thus given rise to the preservation of many 
species of animals and plants which were destroyed elsewhere. 


Annandale, N. — Notes on some Freshwater Sponges collected in Scotland. 

Jonrn. Linnean Society London (Zoology), vol. xxx., 1908. 
Akldt, Th. — Die Euwicklung der Kontinente und ihrer Lebewelt. Leipzig, 

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[ 29 ] 



By JAMES J. F. X. KING, F.E.S., and J. N. HALBEET, M.R.I.A. 

(being the eighth ueport froji the fauna and flora coxcuittee.) 
(communicated by prof. g. h. carpenter, 

Eead June 14. Ordered for publication June 16, 1909. Published Januauy 7, 1910. 


It is now more than twenty years since one of us issued the first general list 
of Irish Neuroptera.' 

This catalogue contained records of some 211 species, comprising Dragon- 
flies, May-flies, Stone-flies, Psocids, Planipeuuia, and Caddis-flies. It was 
largely the result of original work, as comparatively little had been pre^dously 
known concerning the occurrence of these interesting insects in Ireland. 

Since then several additional species I'see page 31) have been observed 
which did not find a place in the old list. Many changes of nomenclature 
and arrangement are necessary in order to bring the Irish records into line 
with recent work on the Neuroptera. At the same time, our knowledge of 
the distribution of the great majority of the species has been considerably 
extended. It is hoped that the present list, including all the previous 
records, wiU form a useful standard of reference for futm-e observers of 
Irish neiu-opterous insects. 

It is to be regretted that the study of the Neuroptera has been greatly 
neglected in this country. Indeed we have had no resident collectors either 
in the south or west of Ireland, so that our knowledge of the fauna of those 
parts which we should expect to be the most interesting is almost entirely 
due to the excursions carried out from time to time by a few enthusiastic 

It is therefore not surprising that records of Neuroptera are distributed 
in a very unequal manner in Ireland. In order to show what has been done, 
we have prepared a list (page 37), giving the various localities, under the 
thirty-two Irish counties, where collecting has been carried on. In not more 

' a full bibliogra|/ny of papcra and uoUs referring to Irish neuiopterous insects will be iound 
on pages 39-42. 

R.r.A. PROc, \0L. xxvni., se-t. u. [F] 

30 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Aeademji. 

than six or seven of the counties is the neuropterous fauna tolerably well 
known ; for it should be pointed out that in many places only a few species 
were collected. It wiU be seen that extensive tracts of country in all of 
the four provinces are practically unexplored ; while from the counties of 
Longford, Meath, Leitrim, and especially Cavan, with its extensive chain of 
lakes, no records are forthcoming. 

The late A. H. Haliday formed a collection of local IKeuroptera; and a 
manuscript " Catalogue of Irish Insects," which he compiled, gives a fair idea 
of what was known of the Irish species in his time. This distinguished 
entomologist, however, did not devote as much attention to tlie Neuroptera 
as he did to other orders of insects ; otherwise there would certainly have 
been a more satisfactory basis to work on when the preparation of an Irish 
list was undertaken more tlian twenty years ago. Many of the species in 
the Haliday catalogue are recorded with reserve, and very few exact localities 
are mentioned; yet it was the means of supplying useful information relat- 
ing to the capture of such uncommon insects as Gomplms vulgatisdmiis' 
Ertfthromma nnjns, and Cliri/sops abbrcviata, which have not been observed 
in this country since Haliday's time. This manuscript catalogue is now 
preserved in tlie library of the Irish National Museum. 

It seems desirable to refer briefly to some of the changes and additions 
which it has been found necessary to carry out in the present list. 

Although our knowledge of the native Dragon-tlies is far from complete, 
there can be no doubt that the Irish fauna is much poorer in these insects 
than is that of Great Britain. Twenty-five species were included in the 
Irish list of 1889: it would appear, however, that one of these, Ortlietnim 
cancdlatum, was certainly included in error. A second species, Cordulia 
aenca, said to have been taken many years ago at Killarney, is, in our opinion, 
more likely to have been Sonwlochhra arctica, which is known to occur in 
that locality ; while a third species, LcMcs barharn, remained for many years 
on the British list on the strength of a supposed Irish sijecimeu seen by 
De Selys, as long ^o as 1845, in the Dublin University Museum. No trace 
of this specimen is now to be found ; and the record must be regarded as 
extremely doubtful. Allowing for these changes, there are reliable records 
of twenty-three species of Di^agon-flies in this country, including Lihelhda 
fulva, an Irish example of which has recently been brought to light in the 
collection of the late C. W. Dale. 

The Ephemeridae (May- flies) have been much neglected, so that there 
are few changes to record. The recent finding of the northern form 
Leptophlcbia vespertina in the west of Ireland may be refened to as the only 
unrecorded species observed since 1889. 

King and Hai.bert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 31 

It has been found necessaiy to thoroughly revise the species of Perlidae 
(Stone-flies) in the light of tlie recent researches of Morton, Kempny, ami 
others. We hope the present short list, containing several additional species* 
will serve as an accurate basis for future work in this country. 

In the group Planipennia (Alder- flies, &c.), eight species have been 
added to the Irish list. Undoubtedly the most notable discovery is that of 
Pscctra diptera in County Wexford, an insect of great rarity in the Britannic 
area, where it is now known to have been found in three localities ; and it 
seems almost equally rare both in Europe and America. The apparent 
absence from Ireland of certain conspicuous British insects belonging to this 
group is noteworthy ; we may refer to the genera Ehaphidia (Snake-flies) 
and Nothochrysa as examples. Of interest, also, is the recent capture in 
County Cork of one of the Scorpion-flies, Panorpa ycrmunica, the first 
recorded occurrence of these insects in Ireland. 

Eleven species of Trichoptera (Caddis-flies), some of considerable rarity, 
have been added. There is little doubt that fresh discoveries await the 
assiduous collector of these interesting insects, especially amongst such small 
forms as are contained in the family Hydroptilidae. 

For convenience of reference, we give here the names of the various 
species which have been added to, or deleted from, the 1889 list. They are 
as follows : — 

Libellula fulva Mull. 

[Orthetrum cancellatum (Z.). Deleted.] 

[Cordulia aenea (i.). Doubtfully native.] 

[Lestes barbara Fah. Doubtfully native.] 

Leptophlebia vespertina L. 

Perla maxima Scop. 

Perla cephalotes Curt. 

Dictyopteryx Mortoni Klap. 
• [Dictyopteryx microcephala Pid. Deleted.] 

Dictyopteryx recta Kempny. 

Isopteryx tripunctata Svop. 

Isopteryx torreutium Pid. 

[Isopteryx Burmeisteri Pid. Deleted.] 

Capnia atra Morton. 

Taeniopteryx Eisii Morton. 

Nemoura praecox Morton. 

Nemoui'a Meyeri Pid. 

[ISTemoura lateralis Pid. Deleted.] 

[Nemoura huuieralis Pid. Deleted.] 

32 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

Leuctra Klapaleki Kempny. 
[Leuctra fusciventris Steph. Deleted.] 
Leuctra hippopus Kempny. 
Leuctra inermis Kempny. 
[Leuctra nigra Klap. Deleted.] 
Amphigerontia fasciata Fah. 
Psocus major Kolbe. 
Ectopsocus Briggsi McLaeh. 
Hyperetes guestfalicus Kolbe. 
Osmylus chrysops L. 
Psectra diptera Bvrm. 
Chrysopa tenella Hch. 
Chrysopa vulgaris Sch. 
Chrysopa prasina Bamh. 
Chrysopa ventralis Curt. 
Chrysopa abbreviata Curt. 
Panorpa germanica L. 
Grammotaulius atomarius Fah. 
Limnophilus decipiens Kol. 
Limnophilus fuscinerWs Zett. 
Limnophilus nigriceps ZcU. 
Anabolia nervosa (Leach) Curt. 
Chaetopterj'x villosa Fab. 
Apatania Wallengreni McLach. 
Triaenodes conspersa Ramb. 
Adicella reducta McLach. 
Tinodes unicolor Pict. 
Ithytrichia lamellaris Eaton. 

The Irish Trichoptera are of special intei-est on account of the occurrence 
of at least four species which liave not been so far observed in other 
parts of the Britannic area. These are Limnophilus fuscinervis, Apatania 
fimbriota, Tinoda macrdicomis, and Agapetus ddicatulus. It is not unlikely 
that the first-mentioned species will eventually be found inhabiting parts of 
northern Britain. The three remaining species have now been known from 
Ireland for more than twenty years, yet it would seem that no eWdence 
of their occurrence in Great Britain is forthcoming. These species are 
interesting from a faunislic point of view. Notes on their distribution will 
be found in other parts of this paper. 

■\Ve have endeavoured to give an outline of the geographical distribution 

• King and Halbei{T — A Lint nl the Neuroptera of Ireland. 33 

of each of the Irish species. The scarcity of records, however, more 
especially of the families Ephemeridae and Psocidae, not only in the British 
Isles, but throughont Europe, has rendered the ascertaining of this infor- 
mation difficult, so that in many cases the distributional notes are very 
imperfect. The statement that a species ranges from Devonshire to the 
Shetlands is not meant to imply that it occurs in all parts of Britain ; 
indeed, in few cases are the records sufficient to justify such a conclusion. 
All that is meant to be conveyed is that the insect in question has been 
definitely recorded from these localities, and is at least widely distributed 
in the Britannic area. 

In spite of the fact that much work remains to be accomplished, the 
poverty of the Irish fauna, as compared with that of Great Britain, is 
as manifest amongst the Neuroptera as it is in other groups of insects. 
It is evident that many conspicuous species and even genera of British 
Neuroptera are either absent from or of great rarity in this country. 
In order to show clearly the relative proportions of the two faunas, we 
have prepared a table giving the number of genera and species found in the 
two countries, as far as they are known at the present time. It will be 
seen that we have records of 239 species of Neuroptera in Ireland, or 
rather less than two-thirds of those recorded from Great Britain. 



Great Bhitain. 





Odonata, . , 




















Pl/Vnipennia, . 










1 05 




The deficiency in number of species is especially noticeable in the 
case of the Dragon-flies. It has already been pointed out that we possess 
only twenty-three of the forty-two species recorded from tlio Britannic 
area. It is of interest to note that the great majority of the nineteen 
British species which do not appear to have readied Ireland inhabit the 

34: Procefitingi o/ the Roj/al Irish Academy. • 

sootii and sonth-castem parts of England: example are Anax impemtor 
and AexAma ixsedei. Abroad, manj of these mi?gmig species are \ndely 
disbibate<l: ret it is evident that the majority of them are fomid chiefly 
in the sondi of Europe, becoming decidedly rarer towards die north. At 
ttie same time it should be pointed oat that there are in Ireland a few 
species which do not appear to have penetrated far into Xorth Britain : 
we may refer to LiMltda depressa, Gompktu mlgatusimus, Braehytron 
pratetut, and Laics drytu; naturally these range south in Ireland; and 
they appear to rank amongst the more local members of our fanna. 
Perhaps oar most interesting, native Dragon-fly is SomatoMcm aretiea, a 
northern and alpine insect, which occais as far soath as the EUlamey 
district ; while in Great Britain it is known to inhabit only certain heaths 
and swamps in the highlands of Perth and Inverness. 

A rough analysis of the Irish Trichoptera (Caddis-flies}, an order repre- 
sented by all the characteristic distribational groups in the Irish fauna, 
may be of interest in this connexion, more especially as they are feeble 
fliers, aquatic during their early stages, and not subject to artificial intro- 
duction through the interference of man.' It should be remembered, 
bowerer, that the analysis b only approximately accurate, as much remains 
to be found out coneemilig their distribution in Europe. 

DisTUBcnox i>- Ecson of the Ibibh Spbcoes of Trichoptera 


Common and widely distributed forms, . . 60 

Northern and parts of central Europe, 
Central and soatheiu Europe. 
South-western Europe, 
Alpine, . . . . 





As might be expected, the great majority oi the Irish Tricboptera are 
wideqnead in the Palaearctic region. The large pnqportirai, also, of 
northern and central forms is not surprising, seeing that the Trichoptera 
reach their greatest development in cold and temperate countries. Yet 
the prepondetanoe <rf these forms amongst the more local species holds 
good in meet groups, and seems a diaraeteristic feature of the Irish fauna. 

pawiHy ke wp' tgiiM* atkr Kctaoa* of Ike Xcnvptom. 
oliht tftam ram Aat hwm am lantl 
orf Bay irminaiTly be fiaMe to i»» i» Jiri o« nto 6«A lofBrif oa Ob 

King and Hat,bkk'I' — A Lhf, nj Ike Neuroplrn( of Ireland. 35 

Examples arc PJn'i/f/ancanbso/eta, JjiiiinopJii/Kfi fnan'nrrvifi, and Molnvva iwJptita. 
The central and southern species constitute a much smaller group ; we may 
perhaps refer to Adicella rcducta, and Wormaldia mediana. In so far as we 
can judge by their known range, it seems likely that at least four of our 
Irish Caddis-flies are south-western in Europe: namely, Sefodes argimtijmndii/o, 
Tinodcs macnlicornis, Lypc fragilis, and Agapdus ddicatulus ; while Pohjccn- 
tropus Kingi should probably also be referred here. The scarcity of purely 
alpine, as opposed to northern and alpine, forms in Ireland is notable, a 
scarcity which appears to hold good for these insects throughout the entire 
Britannic area. The two species which would appear to possess such a 
range are Drusus anmdatns, and AjMtania fiinhriata. 

The following is a sliort list of some Irish species that are interesting 
on account either of their geographical distribution or of their general rarity. 
More detailed notes on their range will be found in the systematic part of 
this paper: — 

Odonata (Dragon-flies). 

Somatochlora arctica Zett. Northern and alpine Europe ; Caucasus ; 
Siberia ; Kamtschatlva. 

Ischnura pumilio (Charp.). Widespread in southern and central Europe ; 

Ephemeridae (May-flies). 

LeptopUebia vespertina (L.). Northern and central Europe. 

Perlidae (Stone-flies). 
Capnia atra Morton. Northern and alpine Europe. 

Planipennia (Lacewing flies, &c.). 

Psectra diptera Burra. Rare. 

Chrysops abbreviata Curt. \ 

c- -rw !•■ T\T T i_ r These are apparently local insects, though 

Sisyra Dalu McLach. > . t- 1- j < o 

„. . ■ ^■ r^ ,. \ little is known of their continental range. 

Sisyra termmalis Curt. ) ° 

Trichoptera (Caddis-flies). 
Phryganea obsoleta Hagen. Northern and arctic Europe. 
Limnophilus fuscinervis Zett. Northern and central Europe. Not known 
to occur in Great Britain. 

Limnophilus nigriceps Zett. Northern and central Europe. 
Drusus annulatus Steph. Mountains of central Europe. 
Apatania Wallengreni McLach. Northern Europe. 

36 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Apataaia fimbriata (Pict.). ^lountains of ceiitml Europe ; Ireland. Xot 
known to occur in Great Britain. 

Silo nigricomis (Pict.). Central Europe. 

Crrmoecia irrorata (Curt.). Central Europe. 

Molanna palpata McLacli. Lapland ; Finland ; Russia ; Siberia ; 
X. Scotland ; Ireland. 

Adicella reducta (Steph.). Central and southern Europe. 

Setodes argentipunctella McLaeh. Belgium ; Germany ; Switzerland ; 
Spain ; Britain. 

PMlopotamus montanus (Donov.) var. scoticus McLach. Perthshire 
N. Wales ; Kerry. 

Wormaldia mediana McLach. Central and southern Europe. 

Polycentropus King^ McLach. Britain ; Portugal ; Sardinia ; and probably 
other places. 

Setodes maculicomis Pict. Ireland ; Switzerland ; France ; Portugal. Not 
known to occur in Great Britain. 

Ljrpe fragilis (Pict.}. Ireland ; Switzerland ; France ; Spain. Not known 
to occur in Great Britain. 

Agapetns delicatulus McLach. Ireland; Arran (Scotland); Pyrenees. 
Probably overlooked in other localities. 

Our acknowledgments are due to the Fauna and Flora Committee 
appointed by the Royal Irish Academy, and also through the same Committee 
to the Royal Society, for enabling us to organize expeditions to visit remote 
parts of the countr)-, tlius considerably extending our knowledge of the range 
of many species. 

For much kind help in the identification of difficult insects we desire to 
i-ecord our thanks to the late Mr. Robert McLachlan, F.R..S. ; the Rev. A. E. 
Eaton, M.A. ; Mr. K. J. Morton, F.K.s. ; and Mr. H. L. F. Guermonprez. 

We are also indebted to the following gentlemen for help rendered 
in the collecting of specimens of Irish Neuroptera : — Denis R. Pack- 
Beresford, m.r.i.a. ; Prof. G. H. Carpenter,, m.r.i.a. ; G. P. Farran, b.a. ; 
D. Freeman, M.A. ; P^ev. W. F. Johnson, m.a. ; W. F. de Vismes Kane, .m.a., 
-M.R.I.A.; S. W. Kemp, b.a. ; C. B. Moffat, m.a. ; R. LI. Praeger, b.a., m.r.i.a. ; 
R. F. Scharfi; ph.d., m.r.i.a. ; J. ScharfT; R. Standen ; R. Welch, m.r.i.a. ; and 
M. S. Dudley Westropp. 

With regard to nomenclature and systematic arrangement, we have made 
use of C. W. Dale's " Catalogue of British Neuroptera and Trichoptera " 
(Harwood, 1907) , as revised and corrected by Me.s.srs. W. J . Lucas, K. J. Morton, 
and others. 

King and HALnicin' — A List of the Nnirojttcra of Tr eland. '47 

An asterisk is prefixed to such species as do not figure in the 
" Neuropterous Fauna of Ireland " (1889), and in this case, also, the captor's 
names are indicated. 

Iiish specimens of the great majority of the species recorded in the 
following list are preserved in the natural history collections of the National 
Museum of Ireland. 

List of Localities in which collecting has been done. 

Claee. — Lahinch. 

Cork. — Adrigole, Ballygriffin woods, Blackwater Eiver, Blarney, Carri- 
grohane, Castletown Berehaven, Gearagh, Glandore, Glengariff, Hungry Hill, 
Kinsale, Lismore, Maeroom, Mallow, Skibbereen, St. Anne's, Youghal. 

Kerry. — Ardagh Lough, ArdtuUy, Boreen-a-Morave, Caragh Lake, 
Carrantuohill,Cloghereen,Cloonee, Coppagh Glen,Crincaum Lough,Derrynane. 
Deenagh River, Deer Park, Dingle, Dinish, Gap of Dunloe, Flesk Eiver, 
Garagarry Lough, Glena, Glencai-, Horses Glen, Kilbrean Lough, Loo Bridge, 
Mangerton, Muckross, Parknasilla, Eoss Castle, Spa Well, Staigiie Fort, 
Tore Cascade, Valentia, Waterville, Windy Gap, Woodlawn. 

LniERiCK. — Near Limerick. 

TiPPEKARY.— Cahir, Tipperary. 

Waterford. — Cappagh Lough, Cappoquin, Dromana wood, Glendine, 
Glenshelane, Lismore, Mount Melleray, Salterbridge, Villierstown, Water- 


Galway. — Ashford, Ballinasloe, Castlekirk, Clonbrock, Cong, Lough 
Oorrib, Lough Derg, Maam, Maumwee Lough, Oughterard, Eeeess, Eoss 
Lake, Eoundstone, Salthill, Shindillagh Lough, Tuam, Woodford. 

Mayo. — Achill, Aille Lough, Ballinlough, Bleachyard, Broad Lough, 
Carrowbeg Eiver, Castlebar, Clare Island, Cogaula, Croaghpatrick, Croft, 
Dooghan Lough, Doo Lough, Inishbofin, Kip Lough, Knappa Longh, Knappa- 
beg Lough, Mount Brown Lough, Newport Eiver, Prospect Lough, Westport. 

EOSCOMMON. — Athlone, IMote Park, Summerhill, Yew Point. 

Sligo. — Ballymote, Keshcorran, Lough Gill, Markree Castle, Bosses 

Point, Sligo. 

Oarlow. — Fenagh. 

Dublin. — Dundrum, Balbriggan, Finglas, Glasnevin, Gleucullen, Glendhu, 
Howth, Harold's Cross, Kingstown, Lucan, Portmarnock, Eaths^ar, Eath- 
mines, Eiver Tolka, Eoyal Canal, Sandymount, Santry, Sutton, Tallao-ht, 
Templeogup, Terenure, Tibradden. 

R. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIII., SECT. B. [(^1 

38 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

KiLDABK — Maynooth, Straffan. 

KiLKE>~KT. — Inistioge, Johnstown, Thomastown (Eiver Xore). 

King's Couxtt. — Edenderry. 

Louth. — Carliugford, Castlebellingham, Drogheda (Boyne), KiUincoole, 

QuEEx's Cor>TY. — Portarlington (Eiyer Barrow). 

Westmeath. — Athlone, Ballykeiran, Bog of Allen, Coosan Point, 
Lough Deravaragh, Glassan, Hare Island (Lough Bee), Killinure Bay, 
Killucan (Lough Eee), Moate, Mullingar, Shannon side, Twy Eiyer, 
Twy Lough, Waterston demesne, Wine Port. 

Wexford. — Arcandrisk, Ballyhyland, Courtown, Edenyale, Enniscorthy, 
Ferns, Johnstown Castle woods, Killurin, Xew Boss, Eosslare, Slaney, 

WiCKLOW. — Altidore, Bray, Calary Bog, Enniskerr}', Glendalough, 
Gleudasan, Glenmalur, Greystones, Laragh, Lough Bray, Lough Dan, 
Powerscourt, Eoundwood. 


AsTRiNf. — Ballinderry, Belfast, Cave Hill, Colin Glen, Derrymore, Fair- 
head, Island Magee, Lough Neagh, Portmore Lough, Eandalstown, Shane's 
Castle, Toome. 

Armagh. — Acton Glebe, Armagh, Cam Lough, Churchhill, Coney Island 
(Lough Xeagh), Derrynoose, Fathom, Lough Gall, Kellystewart Lough, 
Lowry's Lough, Magherj-, Mullinure, Poyntzpass, Scarva, Tanderagee. 

Donegal. — Akiboon Lough, Ardara, Askerry Lough, Belleek, Bundoran, 
Cleggan, Clonkillylieg. Coolmore, Cottian, Co.xtown, Dunleary Lough, Fern 
Lough, Lough Foyle, Glenbeagh, Gorteen Lough, Gweedore, Keel Lough, 
Kilmacrennan. Lennan Bridge, Largy Biver, Eeelan Lough, Madourchin 
Lough, Meuthin Lough, Mnafin Lough, Lough Salt, Lough Swilly, Sproulea 

Down. — Annalong valley, Belfast, Cove Lake, Holywood, Lagan Canal. 

Fermanagh. — Ennisldllen, Portora. 

Londonderry. — Near Derry. 

MonaghaN. — Emyvale, Glaslough. 

TiRONE. — Alladiawan, Castlederg, Favour EoyaL 

It may be observed that the counties of Leitrim, Longford, Meath, and 
Cavan are altogether absent from this list. 

Kino and ITai.rkrt — A List of the Neuroptrra of Irehind. '.V.) 


Balfour-Browne, F. — Odonata [taken during the Fifth Triennial Conference 
and Excursion of the Irish Field Club Union, Cork, July, 1907.] 
Irish Nat., xvi., pp. 300-301. 1907. 

Bath, W. Harcourt. — An Illustrated Handbook of British Dragon-flies. 

London, 1890. 
Beaumont, A. — Micromus aphidivorus in Co. Wexford. Entom. Monthly 

Mag., (2) iv., p. 263. 1893. 

Carpenter, G. H. — ISTeuroptera [of the First Triennial Conference and 
Excursion of the Irish Field Club Union, Galway, July, 1895]. 
Irish Nat., iv., p. 258. 1895. 

Neuroptera [iu Guide to Belfast, &c., British Association Meeting, 1902, 

pp. 215-216]. Belfast, 1902. 

Cooke, B. — Phryganea ohsolda in Ireland. Entom. Monthly ilag., xv., p. 19. 

Curtis, J. — British Entomology. London, 1823-39. 

Eaton, A. E. — An Outline of a Ee-arrangement of the Genera of Ephemeridae. 

Entom. Monthly Mag., v., p. 82. 1868-69. 
A Eevisional Monograph of the Eecent Ephemeridae or May-flies. 

Trans. Linn. Soc, Zoology, (2) iii, London, 1888. 
A Concise Generical Synopsis, with annotated list of the species of 

British Ephemeridae. Entom. Monthly Mag., xxv., p. 29, 1888-89. 

Foot, A. W. — List of Dragon-flies obtained in Co. Wicklow. Proc. Dublin 
Nat. Hist. Soc, vi., p. 31. 1869-71. 

Hagen, H. a. — A Synopsis of the British Dragon-flies (Odonata). Entom. 
Annual, 1857, pp. 39-60. 

Synopsis of the British Planipennes. Entom. Annual, 1858, pp. 17-33 

Synopsis of the British Phryganidae. Entom. Annual. 1860, pp. 66- 

85; 1861, pp. 1-16. 

Halbert, J. N. — Insects collected in the Fermoy and Blackwater District. 
Irish Nat., iv. pp. ^5-4:9. 1895. 

Neuroptera. Panorpidae [Panorpa germanica taken during the Fifth 

Triennial Conference and Excursion of the Irish Field Club Union, 
Cork, July, 1907.] Irish Nat., xvi., pp. 289-290. 1907. 

Neuroptera [in Handbook to the City of Dublin, &c. British Associa- 
tion Meeting, 1908, pp. 170-171]. Dublin, 1908. 

40 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Halbert, J. X. — [Exhibited Psectra diptera, Burmeister, from County Wexford, 
Dublin Slicroscopical Club.] Irish Nat., x\ii., p. 102. 1908. 

[Exhibited Cnpnia atra, Morton, from De\'il's Punch-bowl, Dublin 

Microscopical Club.] Irish Xat., xvii., p. 124 1908. 

[Exhibited Pevla-nymph from Carrantuohill, Dublin Microscopical 

Club.] Irish Nat, x^iii., p. 119. 1909. 

Haliday, a. H. — Entomological Xotes. Xat. Hist. Ee\'iew, iv., pp. 31-36. 

MS. Catalogue of Irish Insects ; Neuroptera (in the possession of the 

Irish National Museum). 

Johnson, W. F.— Great Swarms of Ephemeridae on Lough Neagh. Entom. 

Monthly Mag., xxii, p. 165. 1885. 
Additions to the Irish List of Neuroptera. Entom. Monthly Mag., (2j 

iv., p. 287. 1893. 
Tinodes unieolor, Pict., in Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., (2) v., p. 236. 

Entomological Notes from the North of Ireland in 1895. Entom. 

Monthly Mag.. (2) vu.. p. 157. 1896. 

Kkmp, S. W.— Dragon-flies in Co. Kerry. Irish Nat., xviii., p. 55. 1909. 

King, J. J. F. X. — Note on Philopotamua montanxis var. scoticjis. Entom. 
Monthly Mag., xxiv., p. 214. 1887-88. 

Molanna pnlpata, McLach., in Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., xxv., 

p. 93. 1888-89. 

Holocmiropus stagnnlu. Alb., in Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., xxv., 

p. 235. 1888-89. 

Two species of Trichoptera new to the British List. Entom. Monthly 

Mag., xxv., p. 235. 1888-89. 

Titiodts maetilieomis at Athlone. Entom. Monthly Mag., xxv., p. 283. 


A Contribution towards a Catalogue of the Neuropterous Fauna of 

Ireland. Glasgow. 1889. 

Notes on some Irish Trichoptera. Entom. Monthly Mag., (2)ii., p. Ill, 


Lrstes ni/mpha, Selys, near Athlone. Entom. Monthly Mag., (2) vi., 

p. 120. 189.5. 

Pstetra diptera, Burm., in Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., (2j .xi., p. 288. 


King and Halbert — A Lis/, of (lie Ncuroptera of Ireland. 41 

King, J. J. Y. X. — Ischnnra pHiiiillo, Clip., in Ireland. Eutom. Monthly Mag., 
(2)xiii. (38), p. 112. 1902. 

Lucas, W. J. — British Dragontlies (Odonata). London, 1908. 

Lcstes drj/as Kirb., in Ireland. Entom., xl., p. 66. 1907. 

Notes ou the British Dragontlies of the " Dale Collection." Entom. 

Monthly Mag., (2) xix., p. 198, 1908; and (2) xx., p. 79. 1909. 

Moffat, C. B. — Orthdrum ccterulesccns in Co. Wexford. Irish Nat., xviii., 
p. 24. 1909. 

Mokton, K. J. — Occurrence of Occefis furva, Eamb., and other Trichoptera 

in Co. Monaghan, Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., xx., p. 142. 

Agrypnia ;pagetana, Curt., and other Trichoptera in Ireland. Entom. 

Monthly Mag., xxiii., p. 138. 1886-87. 
Apatania fimhriata, Pict. — A caddis-fly new to the British Isles. Entom. 

Monthly Mag., xxiv., p. 118. 1887-88. 
Another Caddis-fly new to the British Isles : Tinodcs maculicornis, Pict. 

Entom. Monthly Mag., xxiv., p. 136. 1887-88. 
Additional Trichoptera from Glaslough, Ireland. Entom. Monthly 

Mag., xxiv., p. 186. 1887-'88. 
Limnophilus dccipicns, Kol., in Ireland. Entom. Alouthly Mag., (2) iii., 

p. 110. 1892. 
Notes on Trichoptera and Neuroptera from Ireland. Entom, Monthly 

Mag., (2) iii., p. 301. 1892. 
Neuroptera and Trichoptera observed in Wigtonshire, &c. Entom. 

Monthly Mag., (2) x. (35), pp. 278-281. 1899. 
Notes on the Scottish Species of the genus Hemerobius. Ann. Scott. Nat. 

Hist., ix., pp. 30-32. 1900. 

McGowAN, B. — Pscctra diptcra, Burm., in Scotland. Entom. Monthly Mag., 
(2) xiv., (39) p. 14. 1903. 

McLachlan, E. — Notes on British Trichoptera, with descriptions of new 
species, &c. Entom. Annual, 1862, pp. 21-37. 

Notes on British Trichoptera. Entom. Annual, 1864, pp. 140-153. 

Occurrence of Cordula ardica in Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., i., 

p. 76. 1864-65. 

Notes on British Trichoptera. Entom. Annual, 1868, pp. 1-7. 

Notes on Acschna hoiralis and other Dragon-flies at Eannoch. Entom. 

Monthly Mag., ii., p. 117. 1865-66. 

42 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

McLachlax, E — A Monographic Eevision and Synopsis of the Trichoptera 

of the European Fauna. London, 1874-1880. 
A Monograph of the British Xeuroptera Planipennia. Trans. Entom. 

Soc, pp. 145-224. London, 1868. 
Description of a new species of Setodes occurring in the British Isles. 

Entom. Monthly Mag., xiv., p. lOo. 1877-78. 
Phryganca ohsokta in Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., xiv., p. 117. 

The British Dragon-flies annotated. Entom. Monthly Mag., xx., 

pp. 251-256. 1884-85. 
Trichoptera from Belfast. Entom. Monthly Mag., xxii., p. 165, 

Notes on certain Palaearctic species of the genus Hemerobius. Entom. 

Monthly Mag., (2) x., p. 133. 1899. 
Psoats major (Kolbe), Loens, in Co. Wexford. Entom. Monthly Mag., 

(2) X., p. 234. 1899. 
[Note on Lestes harbara, F.]— Entom. Monthly Mag., (2) xi. (36), p. 189. 

Odouata collected by Col. Yerbury in the South-west of Ireland in 1901. 

Entom. Monthly Mag. (2), xii., p. 301. 1901. 
A black variety of Holocftitropns jiicicornis, Steph. (Trichoptera), from 

South-west Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., (2) xiii. (38), p. 112. 

A few " Neuroptera " from South-west Ireland. Entom. Monthly Mag., 

(2) xiv. (.39), p. 14. 1903. 

rATTERSON, R. — Letters on the Natural History of the Insects mentioned in 
Shakespeare's Plays, with incidental Notices of the Entomology of 
Ireland. London, 1838. 

Sklys-Longcua-MPS, E. dk.— Eevision of the British Libellulidae. Ann. Mag. 
Nat Hist.. (1) xviii., pp. 217-227. 1816-47. 

Sklys-Loxgciia.mps, E. dk, and H. A. Hagex,— Revue des Odonates. Mem. 
Soc. Roy. Sc. Lidge, vi., pp. i.-xxii., and 1-408. 1850. 

Stephens, J. F. — Illustrations of British Entomology. London. 

Turner, H. J.— A Week in Co. Kilkenny. Irish Nat, xii., p. 181. 1903. 

King and Halbekt — A List of the Neiiroptera of Ireland. 43 


Sympetrum striolatum (Charp.). 

M. — Kerry (common in the Killarney and Muckross districts ; Water- 
ville ; Parknasilla ; Kenmare ; Caragh Lake ; &c.). Cork (west, mid., and 
east Cork ; Glengariff; Skibbereeu ; Youghal; &e.). Waterford (Glenshelane ; 
Cappagh Lough). C. — Pioscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Inishbofin ; Westpoi't 
and Newport districts). Sligo (Markree). L. — Wexford (Ballyhyland ; 
Killuriu ; Johnstown Castle ; &c.). Wicklow. Dublin (common. Botanic 
Gardens; Pioyal Canal; Howth ; &c.). Westmeath (Killucan ; Waterstown). 
U. — Ai'magh (Poyntzpass; Churchhill ; &c.). Monaghan (Glaslough and 
Emyvale). Down (Eostrevor). Donegal (Bundoran ; Ardara ; Coolmore). 
Derry. Antrim (Eandalstown bog). 

Common and widely distributed in Ireland, as it is in the Britannic area 
generally. Mr. Moffat informs us that it is abundant everywhere in County 
Wexford, from the fourth week of Juue to the end of October, and it is 
occasionally seen in November. 

Bistrihution. — Over the greater part of Europe, except the extreme 

north. Occurs also in N. Africa ; the Canaries ; Madeira ; northern India 

[Morton), &c. 

Sympetrum scoticum (Don.). 

M. — Waterford (IF. H. Bath). C. — Galway (Maumwee Lough). Eos- 
common (Yew Point). Mayo (Mount Brown Lough). L. — Kilkenny (Johns- 
town, Haliday MS.). Westmeath (Bog of Allen). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough, 
swarmed on a bog, Morton). Tyrone (Castlederg). Armagh (Poyntzpass). 
Down (Belfast, Haliday MS.). 

Bistrihution. — In Great Britain this species frequents moors and marshes 
from Devonshire to Inverness, and appears to be more common towards the 
north. Widely spread in the Palaearctic region, rangang from Lapland to 
northern Italy, Eussia, northern and central Asia, Japan. It also inhabits 
North America (Colorado, New Hampshire, Ris. Canada). 

Libellula depressa L. 

M.— Waterford (Glendine, July, 1834, Miss Ball). Ireland {Haliday MS. 

Be Seli/s). 

44 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academij. 

Apparently very rare. It is remarkable that this conspicuous Dragon-fly 
has not been observed in Ireland during recent years. Both Haliday and 
De Selys were aware that it had been taken by Miss Ball ; but they did not 
record the locality. Fortunately the place and date of capture are mentioned 
by Miss Ball in her annotated copy of Stephens' " Catalogue of British 
Insects" (1829), now in the possession of the Irish National Museum. An 
Irish specimen, possibly the one recorded by Miss Ball, is preserved in the 
Trinity College Museum. Mr. Lucas remarks that this species passes a great 
deal of its time at a distance from water, and, in consequence, probably often 
escapes observation. 

DUtribii/ion. — Great Britain (north midlands, southwards). Temperate 
Europe, ranging to the Caspian Sea ; Greece ; the Iberian Peninsula ; Syria. 

Libellola quadrimaculata L. 

Minster. Coknaught. Leinsteu. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Derrynane ; Loo Bridge ; Eoss Castle). Cork (west ; 
Skibbereeu ; Castletown; Adrigole; &c.). Clare (Lahinch). C. — Galway 
(Recess, and near Ballinasloe). Mayo (Carrowbeg Kiver). Sligo (Blarkree 
Castle). L. — We.xford (" Ballyhyland, rare, probably not breeding on our 
streams, but occui-s at intervals in the imago state. May be a straggler from 
the lower ground of the Slaney valley. I have never seen it fly over water 
in this neighbourhood," Moffat, in lilt.). Carlow (Fenagh). Wicklow {A. IV. 
Fool). Dublin (Glencullen, &c.). Westmeath (Twy Lough). TJ. — Monaghan 
(Glaslough, sparingly, Morton). Armagh (neai- Armagh ; Chuixhhill). 

This is the only species of Libellula found commonly in Ireland. We 
have no records of the occurrence of migratory swarms of this insect in 
Ireland, such as have been observed on the Continent and even in Great 
Britain. The variety /xYicni/ti/rt, Newman, with a brownish suffusion of the 
wings surrounduig the stigma spot, and saffron- coloured costa, occurs in 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Inverness, and the Hebrides). 
Extremely widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region, from Lapland 
(rare) to Spain ; Kashmir {Calvert) ; Kamtschatka, and Alaska. Found also 
in North America (Massachusetts and Colorado). 

•LibeUula falva Miill. 

M. — Kerry (Dingle, a male in the collection of the late C. W. Da.\e,fide 

W. J. Lucas, Eniom. Monthly Magazine, (2) xix., p. 199. 1908). 

In the above reference Mr. Lucas draws attention to an apparently 

King and Halbeut — A List of I he Ncuroptera of Ireland. 45 

unrecorded Irish examplo of Lihellula fidva contained in Uio Dale Collection 
of insects, now preserved in the Hope Department of the Oxford University 
Museum. The specimen is labelled " Ireland, II. W., 1849," in the hand- 
writing of the late J. C. Dale, while a label at the side of the specimen 
indicates "Dingle" as the locality in which it was found. The initials 
11. W." are probably those of Eichard Weaver, formerly a well-known 
collector of British insects. The species is one which may well occur in this 
country. Mr. Lucas points out that it may easily be overlooked on account 
of its resemblance to other species, such as L. dcprcssa, and perhaps Orlhelmm 
cacrulescens, a not uncommon species in the south-west of Ireland. 

Distrihution. — This Dragon-fly occurs very locally in the soutli of England 
and as far north as Yorkshire or Durham at least. It is widely distributed 
in Europe, frequenting lakes and slowly flowing waters. 

Orthetrum caerulescens (Fab.). 


M. — Kerry (Derrynane ; Dinish ; Gap of Dunloe ; Windy Gap ; Loo 
Bridge ; Caragh Lake ; Killarney ; Ardtully). Cork (Castletown Berehaven ; 
Glengariff). C. — Galway (Eecess). L. — Wicklow (taken by A. W. Foot). 
Wexford (" not at all uncommon in peaty bogs in the north-western part 
of Co. Wexford, towards the Blackstairs range. In the valley of the small 
Eiver Urrin, a tributary of the Slaney, it is, in suitable spots, often quite 
abundant." Moffat, Irish Nat. xviii., 1909, p. 24). 

In Ireland, this species seems characteristic of the south ; and we have 
no records further north than Galway and Wicklow. For the latter county 
we must rely on an old record made by Dr. A. W. Foot (Proc. Dubl. Xat. 
Hist. Soc, 1870). In Co. Wexford Mr. C. B. Moftat finds this species 
locally plentiful, from the end of June to the middle of August. 

Distribution. — In Great Britain, this insect has a southern range, occurring 
from Cornwall at least to Cumberland. It is said to have occurred in the 
south-west of Scotland; but the species does not figure in Mr. Evans' list of 
the Dragon-flies of the Forth area. Isle of ilan. Abroad it is found in the 
temperate parts of Europe, ranging from southern Scandinavia to Spain ; 
Algeria ; Madeira. 

[Orthetrum cancdlaticm (L.). 

There is no reason to believe that this Dragon-fly has ever been foimd 
in Ireland. The only evidence of its occurrence is in a list of the British 
Dragon-flies published by DeSelys, "Eevue des Odonates" (page 257), where 
the species is indicated as having occurred in Ireland. No doubt this is an 


46 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

error, as in the same work (page 12) the author remarks, concerning L. 
cantellata, " n'a pas encore ete observee en Ecosse ni en Irlande." Haliday 
makes no mention of the insect in his MS. Catalogue. The record in the 
" Neuropterous Fauna of Ireland " must therefore be deleted. 

Distribution. — According to Mr. McLaehlan, the British range of this 
species is confined to the southern half of England. On the Continent it 
ranges from Scandinavia to Russia and Spain, occuriing also in northern 

Somatochlora arctica (Zett). 


M. — Kerry (Killamey, McLaehlan ; Dinish, King). 

Very local. The following is the original record of the occurrence of this 
northern and alpine Dragon-fly in Ireland : — " I have in my cabinet a male of 
Curdulia ardica, Zetterstedt, taken at Killamey in 1862 by Mr. Biichall, and 
presented to me by that gentleman. This Dragon-fly had hitherto only been 
found in one British locality, Eannoch, Perthsliire (see note on distribution). 
Being undoubtedly a northern species, one would scarcely have suspected its 
occurrence in the south-west of Ireland ; but Mr. Birchall remarks that he 
has found Cocnonympha darus and Hadena red Uinta at the same place, 
neither of which occurs in the southern parts of England. De Selys-Long- 
champs mentions that it has been taken on an elevated heath near Arlon 
in Belgium, a locality still further south " (McLaehlan, Entom. Montldy Mag., 
i., p. 76, 1864-5). There are two Irish specimens of this species in the Dale 
Collection at Oxford ; one of these is labelled " Killamey " {Lucas in Entom. 
Monthly Mag.. (2) xix., p. 201, 1908). 

Distribution. — Frequents boggy heaths and swamps in the highlands of 
Perthshire and Inverness (Rannoch, Strathglass, and Breadalbane). Abroad 
it is local in the mountain regions of northern and central Europe, ranging 
from Lapland to France (Ardennes). Also reported from the Caucasus and 
Siberia {De Selys, 1887). Kamtschatka (His). 

[Cordulia acnea (L). 

" Cordulia aenta — Killamey" {Hehj in letter to Haliday in 1838, fde 
Holiday SIS.). 

" Ireland ? — Towards the northern lakes {Holiday). I have not seen the 
specimens. There is no doubt that a Cordulia is found there, but the species 
has not been determined with certainty " {De Sclys, Ee\-ision of the British 
Libellulidae, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist., xvm., p. 222, 1846). 

These are the only available records of the occurrence of this Dragon-fly 
in Ireland. The locality mentioned in De Selys' "RcNTsion" is e^^dently 

King and Halbkut — A List of the Neuroplera of Ireland. 47 

unsatisfactory, as no specimens appear to have been captured in the nortli. 
We are inclined to bclicvo that the Killarney insect taken by ]\Ir. Hely 
may have been the preceding species. 

Distribution. — In Great Britain, this species is found cluelly in the south 
of England ; and it has not been observed in Scotland. Jersey. Widespread 
in northern and temperate Europe, extending from Scandinavia, Finland, 
&c., to Spain {Navds) and eastwards to the Ural mountains and northern 

Gomphus vulgatissimus (L.). 

Ireland (" Certainly Irish, Miss Ball," Halidajj ms. ; Be Sdys.) 

Found in Ireland many years ago by Miss Ball ; but imfortunately 
the place of captm's seems unrecorded. It is not unlikely that the insect 
was taken in the south — perhaps in the Youghal district, where Miss Ball 
spent some time collecting Dragon-flies. A specimen of this species marked 
as Irish, in Trinity College Museum, was in all probability captured by 
Miss Ball. The rarity of tliis insect in Ireland is remarkable, as it usually 
occurs in numbers wherever it is foimd. 

Distribution. — In Great Britain, this species is found in the south. Lucas 
records several localities ranging from Hants to Worcester (British Dragon- 
fiies, 1900). Widespread in northern and central Europe. Navas says he 
has not seen it in Spain (1908). Eepresented by races in the south of 
Europe and Asia [Eis). 

Cordulegaster annulatus (Latr.). 


U. — "Northern Lakes, Haliday," Dc Selys, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xviii., 1846. 
Ireland {Halidaij MS.). 

This conspicuous insect was apparently taken in Ireland both by Haliday 
and Tardy {fide Haliday MS.) The locality quoted above was evidently 
supplied by Haliday to De Selys during the visit of the latter to this 
country in the summer of 1845. Mr, K. J. Morton records that a Dragon- 
fly seen, but not taken, by him at Glaslough in county Monaghan, was 
probably C. anmdatus {Entom. Monthly Mag., 1892, p. 301). One of the 
Haliday specimens is now in the Irish National Museum. 

Distribution. — Widespread in Great Britain (Cornwall to Inverness). 
Jersey. Found over the greater part of central and southern Europe, ranging 
north to Sweden, where it is rare ; occurs in northern Africa and Asia Minor. 
Mr. Morton informs us that in the west of Spain the type form is found, but 
in the eastern parts it is replaced by the variety immaculifrons, Selys. 

48 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Brachytron pratense (Miill.). 

MuxsTER. Co^■^'AUGHT. LedvStek. Ulstek. 

M. — Cork (Kinsale). "Waterford (" It occure abimdautly near "Waterford." 
Harcourt Bath, in "British Dragon-flies," 1890, p. 58; Dromana wood). 
C. — Galway. Mayo (at a pool near the convent at Westport). L. — "Wexford 
(Kosslare). "Wicklow {A. W. Foot). Dublin (a single specimen captured 
on a bush in a garden near Balbriggan, Wade). "Westmeath (Twy Lough ; 
near Athlone). Louth (Castlebellingham). IT. — Fermanagh (Portora ; 
Enniskillen, Alien). 

Though seldom met with, this spe«ies appears to be widespread in 
Ireland. The Kinsale specimen was captured at the Old Head lighthouse. 

Distribution. — Occurs in the southern half of England and Wales. 
Apparently unrecorded from Scotland. Widely distributed in Europe 
from central Scandinavia to France, Italy, and the Caucasus. Asia Minor 
{De Sdys). 

Aeschna juncea (L.). 


M. — Kerry fDerrynane ; Kenmare ; Valcntia ; Dinish ; Muckross ; 
Caragh Lake ; Waterville ; Staigue Fort). Cork (Skihbereen). Tipperary 
(Cahir and Templemore). Limerick. C— Galway (near Ballinasloe; Shin- 
dilla Lough ; Castlekirk). Mayo (Kip Lough). Sligo (Markree). L. — 
We.xford (Ballyhyland district " moderately common, but less so, I think, 
than in suitable spota in Dublin and Wicklow. June 4th and September ISlh 
are my earliest and latest dates for seeing it." Moffat, in lilt.). Carlow 
(Fenagh). Wicklow (Allidore). Dublin (heaths on the Dublin mountains, 
Tibradden, Glendhu, &c.). Westmeath (Waterstown ; near Athlone). U. — 
Monaghan (Glaslough and Emyvalc). Armagh (Lurgan ; Lowry's Lough ; 
MuUinurc ; Poyntzpass). Deny. Antrim (JJrt/trf/jy)- Donegal (Lough Swilly, 
Dale collection). 

Rather common in suitable localities, and probably as frequent in its 
occurrence in the north as in the south of Ireland. This fine species has 
often been captured in the %'icinity of fir-woods, especially in boggy upland 
districts ; and it has even been noticed hawking " after prey in the streets 
and squares of Dublin. Dr. D. Freeman informs us that on one occasion, 
while collecting by a wood near Ballinasloe he secured a number of males 
that were apparently attracted by a captured female specimen. 

Diifribiition. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness and the 
Hebrides, though apparently commonest towards the north). Exceedingly 
widespread throughout the northern part of the Palaearctic region, ranging 

King and Halbkrt — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 49 

from Finland to Kamtschatka. Occurs also in North America. Alaska 
{^arrma?! Expedition). 

Aeschna grandis (L.). 


C. — Galway (Woodford). L. — Carlow (Fenagli). Wicklow (taken by 
A. W. Foot). Westmeath (Waterstown). U. — Monaghan (Emyvale and 
Glaslough, commoner than A. juncccc ab the latter place, Morton). Armagh 
(Derry noose). Antrim (Derrymore). 

We have few records of the occurrence of this Dragon-fly, and none 
from the province of Munster ; no doubt its Irish range is much wider 
than is here indicated. Mr. Morton remarks that at Glaslough " this 
fine insect was commoner than A.juncca; and many examples of it were 
under notice during the hours of bright sunshine, when it might be seen 
chasing and capturing such large game as CJuiracas graminis and Hydroccia- 
nictitans ; it also followed its well-known crepuscular habit ; and one dull, 
warm evening I watched some examples carrying on their feeding operations 
along the shores of the lake until it was nearly dark " {Entom. Monthly 
Mag., 1892). 

Distribution. — Although the continental range of this species is \'ery 
similar to that of A. juncea, the distribution of the two in Great Britain is 
very different, as A. grandis is found in the south (Devonshire to Yorkshire 
at least). It has been recorded from the extreme south of Scotland. 
Northern and central Europe. Asia. 

Calopteryx virgo (L.). 

Munster. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Derrynane ; Glencar ; Killarney). Cork (St. Anne's, 
Haliday MS. ; Castletown Berehaven ; Hungry Hill ; Glengariff). Waterf ord 
(Lismore ; Glenshelane). C. — Galway (Lough Corrib at Oughterard ; 
Recess). L. — Wexford (Ballyhyland, very common ; Eosslare ; Johnstown 
Castle grounds; Edenvale; Ferns). Queen's County (river Barrow near 
Portarlington). King's County (Frankford). Wicklow (taken by A. W. Foot). 
TJ.— Antrim (Belfast, Dc Sclys). 

The records of this beautiful species are comparatively few, yet they arc 
sufficient to show that it is as widespread as the following species in Ireland. 
All the Irish specimens that we have seen belong to the northern form with 
paler bases and tips to the wings. The variety of the male with uniformly 
smoke-coloured wings and evidently finer venation {a7icq}s Steph.) occurs at 

50 Proceedings of the Rojal Irish Academy. 

Glenshelaue and Lismoie in the Blackwater district. This form is, liowever, 
considered to be a mere condition of the species. 

Distribution. — Eanges further north in Great Britain than C. splcndens. 
Cornwall to Sutherland ; while tlie continental distribution is equally wide. 
Europe, northern Asia to Amur and Japan {Ris). In the south of Europe 
(Iberian Peninsula, &c.) it is represented by the form mcridioivalis De Selys. 

Calopteryx splendens (Harr.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver). Cork (Glengariff; Skibbcrcen ; common in 
tlic marshy ground at The Gearagh ; Macrooni ; Blackwater at Fermoy ; 
St. Anne's). Waterford (Glenshelane). Tippcrary (Caliir). Clare. 
C. — Galway (Clonbrock). Mayo (Carrowbeg River). Sligo (Markrec Castle). 
L. — Wexford (Eden vale ; Ballyhyland). Kilkenny (.Johnstown, Hcdiday MS.; 
banks of the Noro near Thomastown). Carlow (River Barrow). Queen's 
County (Rivor Barrow near Portarlington, Patterson). King's County 
(Etlendcrry). Kildare (StrafTan). Wicklow (taken by A. W. Foot ; 
I'owcrscourt, Dak collection). Dublin (River Lilley near Lucau). West- 
nicath (Alhlone ; Twy River). Loutli (Killincoole ; Castlebellingham). 
U. — Xlonaghaa (Einyvale). Belfast district {^Dah collection, Entom. Monthhi 
Mag., 1909). 

Locally common, frequenting wooded river-banks, especially in the south 
of Ireland. At Ballyhyland Mr. Moflat says it is totally unknown in most 
seasons ; but in July, 1889, it appeared in great profusion in the valley of the 
Urrin, where for the time being it quite outnumbered the common C virgo. 
It lasted for about a month, and has not been seen in the district since that 

DiMrihiUion. — In Great Britain the species does not seem to have been 
observed north of Yorkshire {Lucas, 1900). Widely distributed in the 
Palaearctic region from Scandinavia and Finland (Nurmijarvi-See) to Algeria; 
Asia Minor, Turkestan, and Siberia. Replaced in the extreme south of 
Europe by the race .mnihcstoma (Charp.). 

Lestes dryas Kirby. 

M. — Keri-y (Caragh Lake, taken by H. M. Edelslcn early in September, 
1906, Liicas, Entom., xl., p. 66, 1907). L. — Westmeath (an immature 
specimen taken in June on the River Shannon near Athlone, King, Entom. 
MoiUMij Mag., (2) vi., p. 120, 1895). 

Until the recent discovery of this species its occurrence in Ireland was 

King and Halbkkt — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. ol 

regarded as doubtful. The records of Haliday and De Selys were based on a 
specimen supposed to liavc been taken in Ireland by Mr. Tardy. Dr. A. W. 
Foot includes Lcstes nympha in his list of Wicklow Dragon-flies ; but as no 
authority name is quoted, tliis record had ])etter l>e referred to the following 

Distribution. — This widely spread European insect is apparently very local 
in the Britannic area, having been observed chiefly in the fen districts of 
Cambridge, Essex, and Lincolnshire. Europe and northern Asia to 
Amurland (.fiw). 

Lestes sponsa (Hausem.). 


M. — Kerry (Killarney, Dale collection ; Kenmare ; Waterville ; Parkna- 
silla ; Kilbrean Lough). Cork (Ballygriffin woods ; East and West Cork, 
Balfour Browne). Waterford (Cappagh Lough). C. — C4alway (Eoss Lake 
near Gal way). L. — Wexford (banks of Slaney). Wicklow [Lestes nijinjjlia, 
Foot). Westmeath (near Athlone). U. — Monaghan (Emyvale and Glaslough, 
exceedingly common on both bogs and lakes, Morton). Donegal (Coolmore). 

Widespread, though apparently less common in the east than in the south 
of Ireland. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (in suitable places from Kent to Inverness at 
least). Common in northern (Finland, &c.) and central Europe, ranging to 
Amurland and Japan {Bis). 

[Lestes harlara, Fab. 

"Ireland? A male in the Dublin Museum under the name of nympha" 
{Dc Selys, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1846). " Un male du Museum de Dublin 
est indique comma ayant ^te pris en Irlande " {De Selys, " llevue des 
Odonates," ISoOj. 

Extremely doubtful. The only evidence of the occurrence of this Dragon- 
fly in the Britannic area is furnished by De Selys, who saw a reputed Irish 
specimen in Trinity College Museum more than fifty years ago. No trace 
of this specimen is now to be found. According to a note in Mr. Haliday's 
MS. "Catalogue of Irish Insects," the specimen in question was taken by 
J. Tardy, but its Irish origin was evidently doubted by Haliday. Under the 
circumstances it seems best to relegate this species to the list of reputed 
liritish insects — a course which has already been adopted by Mr. Lucas in his 
work on British Dragon-llies (1900). 

Distribution. — Lestes barbara is Mediterranean in its habitat, ranging from 
Portugal and Algeria to Asia Minor, becoming more local and sporadic in 
its occurrence towards central Europe. Kaslniur, Persia, and Turkestan. 

53 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

As it occurs in Belgium and in the Channel Islands (Alderney), it may yet be 
found Ii\iug in tliis country.] 

Erythromma najas (Hansem.). 


TJ. — Down (" Covelake, June," Hcdiclay MS. ; " pris de Belfast, Haliday," 
Dc Sdys, Eevue dea Odouates, 1850). 

Apparently a very rare species in this country ; and it has not been met 
with in recent year's. The locality " Covelake," noted in Haliday's ^IS. 
Catalogue, is rather indistinctly written ; but there can scarcely be any doubt 
that it is meant for Cove Lough, some 1500 feet up on the Jlourne ]\Iountains, 
near Slieve Donard, a district often visited by Haliday. At the same time 
it should be pointed out that Ei^thromma najas is not an upland species in 
Great Britain. We are indebted to Mr. 11. LI. I'raeger for indicating the 
position of this little-known lake. 

Distribution. — Mr. Lucas reports E. najas as a very local insect in 
England, ranging from Lincolnshire to Dorset. Abroad it is found from 
Scandinavia and Finland (Xurmijarvi-See) to the extreme south-west of 
Europe, penetrating eastwards into Siberia, 

Pyirhosoma nymphula (Sulz.) 

M. — Kerry (Derrynane ; Waterville ; Deenagh Itiver ; Muckross). Cork 
(Gleugarill"; Adrigole ; Castletown; Macroom; &c.). C. — Galway (Ross). 
Mayo (Carrowbeg River). L. — AVe.xford (banks of Slaney ; Xew lioss ; 
Johnstown Castle grounds ; " Ballyhyland, the commonest of our small 
Dragon-flies, and always the first to appear and the last to linger. May 3rd 
and October 1st are my extreme dates for it," Moffat, in Utt.). Wicklow. 
Kildare (Maynooth). Dublin (Tallaght, &c.). Westmeath (Killucan ; Twy 
Lough). Louth (Castlebellingham). U. — Monaghan (Emyvale). Armagh 
(common). Donegal (Ardara and Foyle district). Down (Slieve Donard and 
Annalong valley). Antrim (Ballinderry). Deny. 

Common in suitable localities. 

Distribution. — Occurs throughout Great Britain. Europe ; Asia Minor. 

Iflchnura pumilio (Charp.). 

CoNNAuoirr. Lkksteb. Ulster. 

C. — Galway (near Roundstone, 1908, Prae/jer). Mayo (Carrowbeg River). 
L. — Wexford (Rosslare). U.— Down or Antrim (near Belfast, De Hcli/s, 
" Revision," 1850). 

Rare. An Irish specimen, probably taken near Belfast, is in Mr. Haliday's 
Collection, now preserved in liie National Museum in Dublin. 

King and Halbert — A List of the Nem-optera of Ireland, b'i 

Distribution. — Local in Great Britain. Mr. Lucaa vouches for a compara- 
tively few localities in the south and east of England. Occurs in southern 
and central Europe, inhabiting also Algeria ; Madeira ; Asia Minor ; extend- 
ing, according to Eis, into northern and eastern Asia. 

Ischnura elegans (Van Lind). 

M. — Kerry (Derrynane ; Eoss Castle ; Dinish ; Deenagh Eiver ; Oloonee ; 
Waterville). Cork (Glengariff ; Castletown; Glandore). C. — Galway (Maum- 
wee Lough). Mayo (Inishbofin ; Carrowbeg Eiver ; Knappagh ; Kip Lougli ; 
Doolough ; Westport). Sligo (Eosses Point ; Markree). L. — Wexford 
(Ballyhyland ; New Eoss ; Eosslare ; Killurin ; Johnstown Castle ; &e.) 
Wicklow. Dublin (Eoyal Canal, where the variety rufcscens was common in 
1887, Moffat ; Glasnevin ; Sutton ; &c.). Westmeath (Shannon side ; Coosan 
Point). TJ. — Monaghan (Emyvale and Glaslough, in great abundance, 
Morton). Armagh (Lowry's Lough ; Mullinure; Lough Gall; &c.). Donegal 
(Coolmore; Ardara; Foyle district). Down (Holywood, and Lagan Canal). 
Antrim (Island Magee and Eandalstown). 

Common and widely distributed. The variety rufescens. Leach, occurs in 
many localities. 

Distribution. — This species is found in most parts of the Britannic area, 
from the Scilly Isles to the Hebrides. It is widely distributed in northern 
and central Europe. Asia. 

Agrion pulcliellum Van Lind. 


M. — Kerry (Parknasilla ; Muekross). C. — Mayo (Westport). L. — Louth 
(Castlebellingham). Wicklow (Newcastle). U. — Armagh (t7b/i«so?i). Monaghan 
(Emyvale, i/orfo?i). Donegal (Belleek ; Foyle district). Antrim (Belfast and 

The few available records of this Dragon-fly show that it is widely spread 
in Ireland, though it may prove to be less common than the following species. 

Distribution. — Eanges from the northern counties of England southwards. 
Eecorded from Argyleshire, but not recently observed in Scotland. Abroad 
it is found from Scandinavia to Italy and Spain (Navus) ; Algeria ; Asia. 

Agrion pueUa (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Muekross ; Eoss Castle ; Parknasilla). Cork (Glandore ; 
Macroom). Waterford (Cappoquin). C. — ilayo (Westport ; Carrowbeg 
K. I. A. rRoc, VOL. xxvni., sect, b, [/] 

oi Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acaderivj. 

Eiver; Kuappagh Lough). L. — "Wexford (Ballyhyland, very common, il/b^ai ; 
New Eoss ; Edenvale ; Johnstown Castle woods). Wicklow (taken by 
A. W. Foot). Dublin (Eoyal Canal). Westmeath (Killucan ; Moate). 

Common where it occurs. 

Distribution. — Agrion puclla is a common species in England, becoming 
rarer towards the north, and there are extremely few records from Scotland 
(Midlothian, Fvajis). Widespread in the western ports of the Palaearctic 
region from Lapland (very rare) and Finland to Algiers and Enssia. 

EnallagTna cyathigerum Charp. 

M. — Kerry (Derrynane; Eoss Castle; Deenagh Eiver; Ardagh Lough; 
AVat«rville ; Cloonee ; Parknasilla). Cork (St. Anne's ; Ballygriffin wood ; 
Glengariff). Waterford (Cappagh Lake ; Cappoquin). C. — Gahvay (Maum- 
wee Lough). Mayo (Inishbofin ; Carrowbeg Eiver ; Kip and Knappagh 
Loughs). L. — "Wex ford (banks of Slaney). Wicklow (Glendalough). Dublin 
(Eoyal Canal). Westmeath (Twy Lough ; Coosan Point ; Mullingar ; Dera- 
varagh). Louth (Ca.stlebellinghani). U. — Monaghan (Emyvale and Glaslough, 
common, iforloji). Armagh (Lowry's Lougli ; Lough Gall ; &c.). Donegal 
(Ardara; Coolmore ; Bundoran). Derry. Antrim (Belfast). 

Common and widely distributed. 

Dislribut ton.— Found throughout the British Isles. Abroad it ranges 
from Scandina\'ia and Spain eastwards to Turkestan. 


Ephemera vulgata L. 


C— ^layo (Castlebar Lake). Sligo (near Sligo). L. — Westmeath (Athlone). 
U. — Armagh (Cliurchhill). Donegal (Coolmore). Antrim (Lough Neagh, 
Hcdiday MS.). 

DidribiUion. — Great Britain (ilidlands, east, and south of England, 
occurring in warmer waters than the next species); widely distributed in 
Europe, ranging from Lapland to Spain. Mr. Eaton informs us (in litt.) that 
the normal race is found in Scandinavia ; Denmark ; France, near Blois ; and 
Switzerland, near Geneva; a darker-winged race in Posen, near Messeritz 
(ZfJlcf) ; and a dwarf form in central Spain, near Madrid and Cuen^a 
(Rnmhir aud Cliapman). 

KiNc AND Halbert — A List nf tlin Neuropfrra of Trrhmd. 55 

Ephemera danica Miill, 


M.— Kerry (Ross Castle). C. — Eoscommon. Sligo (near Sligo). Mayo 
(Mount Brown Lough). L. — "Westmeath (Athlone). Louth (Castle- 

Probably overlooked in many localities. The male and female subimago 
stages are known to anglers as the "Green Drake" and the "Bastard 
Drake " ; and the fully matured insect is the well-known May -fly. It is 
the Ephemera of the English Lakes and the High Peak district, and of 
Interlaken, and the Doubs near Pontarler abroad {Eaton in litt.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (in the south of England this species ranges 

westwards to Somerset and Devon, and as far north at least as Perthshii'e in 

North Britain). In western Europe it is as widely distributed as the 

preceding species. 

Leptophlebia marginata (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Woodlawn ; Tore Cascade). L. — West- 
meath (Twy Lough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (London district to Inverness). Temperate 
and_arctic Europe. Occurring also in Asia, Turkestan, and in North America. 

Leptophlebia cincta (Eetz). 


C. — Mayo (Westport ; Mount Brown Lough ; Carrowbeg Eiver). Eoscom- 
mon (Summerhill). L. — Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Twy Eiver ; Shannon; 
Bog of Allen ; Killinure ; C41asson). 

Distribution.— Great Britain (not ascertained ; Rannoch, &c.). Northern 
(Finmark, Schoyen : fide Petersen, 1908) and temperate Europe. Not 
recorded from Spain. i 

Ephemerella ignita Poda. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Woodlawn ; Cloghereen ; 
Horse's Glen ; Cappagh Glen ; SpaAVell; Gap of Dunloe). C. — Eoscommon 
(Summerhill ; Yew Point). L. — Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Hare Island ; 
Shannon ; Coosan Point; Twy Eiver ; Glasson). 

Note added in Press. 
1 Leptophlebia vespertina (L.) (X. Meyeri Eaton, 1884). 


C. — Mayo (Castlebar Ldiigh, coll. ITnllert). Specimens of a May-fly talsen in this locality on 
the 18th June, 1909, were identified as the present species by the Eev. A. E. Eaton. 

Distribution. — Hitherto known Irom Scandinavia (arctic and southern) ; Switzerland ; Denmark 
(Ilorsens and Svcjbock, Petersen) ; and the Scotch highlands (Strathglass, Briggs). 

56 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Bidrihidion. — Great Britain (common, south of England to Inverness- 
shire). Central and southern Europe. Denmark (Horsens ; Svejbaek, 

Caenis dimidiata Steph. 

L. — Westmeath (Shannon ; Coosan Point; Killinure). 

Distribution. — Great Britain. Widespread throughout Europe (Finland, 

fide Aro ; Denmark, fAe Petersen). 

Caenis halterata (Fab.) (C. macrura Steph.) 


C. — Mayo (Westport Mall). L. — Dublin (Glasnevin, common, Haliday 
MS.). "Westmeath (Coosan Point; Killinure). 

Recorded in Haliday's MS. list under the name of Caenis macrura Steph. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (not ascertained). On the Continent this 
species ranges from Lapland to Algeria (Biskra and neighbourhood, fi^ 
Eaicn, in litt.). 

Baetis binoculatns (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Deenagh River ; Woodlawn ; Tore Cascade ; 
Gap of Dunloe). C. — Mayo (Clare Island). L. — Wicklow (Enniskerry). 
TJ. — Armagh (Mullinure). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (not ascertained). Widespread in Europe 
(Finland, .4ro; Norway, Schoyen ; Denmark, Pc<<T«cn, &c.) North America 
(Hudson's Bay Territory, Eaton). 

Baetis scambas Eton. 

L. — Dublin (Lucan). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (occurs as far north as Inverness). Range 
abroad not known ; has been recorded from Denmark (Horsens ; Skellerup, 
fide Petersen). Germany (Jiis). 

Baetis vemus Curt. 

Musster. Leinster. Ulster. 

K. — Kerry (Deenagh River ; Tore Cascade ; Horse's Glen; Coppagh Glen ; 
Gap of Dunloe}. L. — Dublin (Rathfamham). U. — Antrim (Cave Hill, 
Holiday collection). 

DistriinUion. — Great Britain (uncertain). Finland [Aro). Arctic Norway 
(Hatfjelddalen,/«fe<S<ra7u£). Germany {Ris). 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera oj Ireland. 57 

Baetis rhodani (Pict.)- 


M. — Kerry (Gap of Dunloc). C. — Eoscommon (Summer Hill). L. — 
Wicklow (Enniskerry, in October). Westmeath (Shannon at Athlone). U. — 
Armagh (Ai-magh). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Inverness). Widely spread 
in western Europe, ranging from Norway (Lardalsoren and A.ol,fidc Strand) 
to Algeria ; Madeira, and the Canaries. 

Baetis pumilus (Burm.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh River ; Woodlawn ; Spa Well ; Gap of Dunloe ; 
Farranfore). C. — Mayo (Glare Island). Eoscommon (Summerhill). L. — 
Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Killinure and Glasson). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (uncertain, occurs as far north as Perthshire). 
Widely distributed, ranging from Scandinavia to Corsica, &c. 

Centroptilum luteolum Miill. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Woodlawn ; Deenagh Eiver ; Glena ; Tore 
Cascade). C. — Eoscommon (Summerhill and Yew Point). L. — Dublin (Tolka 
at Glasnevin ; Lucan). Westmeath (Shannon ; Coosan Point ; Twy Eiver ; 
Glasson ; Bog of Allen). U. — Donegal (Lough Fern ; Gorteen Lough) . 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, ranging to North Shetlands). 
Eanges from Finmark to Portugal, northern Italy, and Algeria (at the foot 
of Mount Edough, Bone, fdc Eaton). Found also in North America (Hudson's 
Bay Territory, Eaton). 

Cloeon dipterum (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle and Deenagh Eiver). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (range unknown). Abroad this species is 
found from Scandinavia to Algeria (Ain Sefra, Province of Gran, fide Eaton) ; 
Egypt ; Japan ; and the Atlantic islands (Madeii'a, Teneriffe, &c., Eaton). 

Cloeon simile Eaton. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Glena ; Horse's Glen ; Gap of 
Dunloe). C. — Mayo (Knappabeg ; Prospect ; Aillc and Doogan Loughs ; 
Newport River; Castlekirk; Achill). L. — Westmeath (Shannon; Coosan 
Point; Killinure; Waterstown). 

58 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Bistrtbv.tmn. —Great Britain (ranges from the south of England to Xorth 
Shetlands). Central and southern Europe. Jersey. Also in Denmark 
(Silkeborg and Eanders, fide Petersen). 

Cloeon mfulum (Miill.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Gap of Dunloe). C. — Slayo (Knappagh and 
Mount Brown Loughs). L. — Westmeath (Coosau Point). 

Distrihution. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness). Widely 
distributed, ScandinaNia to Algeria. 

Siphlurus armatus Eaton. 


M. — Kerry (Killarney). 

Distribution. — Not ascertained. England (Eatoti). 

Siphlunis lacustris Eaton. 


M. — Kerry (Gap of Dunloe). C. — Galway (Castlekirk; Maumwee 
Lough). Boscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Kip Lough). L. — Westmeath 
(Shannon at AUilone; Coosan Point). 

Distrilmtion. — Great Britain (Snowdon, Ilannoch, &c.). Norway 
(Tysfjordcn, fide St rami). Savoy; Italy; Denmark; and Steicrmark {His, 
Die Siisswasaerfauna Deutsohlands, 1909). 

Kithrogena semicolorata (Curt.). 

M.— Kerry (Deenagh River and Coppagh Glen). L.— Dublin, (Dodder 
at Tallaght). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon ; Dorset ; Cumberland ; Lake 
District ; Perth ; Inverness). Western Europe, ranging from Scandinavia to 
the Alps and Pyrenees. 

Heptagenia sulphurea (Miill.). 


M. — Kerry (Woodlawn ; Dinish ; Horse's Glen ; Gap of Dunloe). 
Waterford (Lismore). C. — Galway (Lough Corrib near Galway). Eoscommon 
(Yew Point). Sligo (near Sligo; Markree Castle). L. — Dublin (Lucan). 
Westmeath (Bog of Allen; Shannon; Coosan Point; Ballykeeran ; 
Killinure ; Waterstown). Louth (Castlebellingham). TJ. — Donegal (Gorteen ; 
Ifem and Keel Loughs ; Glen Beagh ; Clonkillybegj. Armagh (Coney Island 
in Lough Neagh). 

King and Halbekt — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 59 

Bistrihdion. — Great Britain (London district to Inverness). Europe. 
Eastern Amur {McLacMan). 

Ecdyurus venosus (Fab.). 

M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver; Tore Cascade, McLacMan). C. — Koscommon 
(Yew Point). L. — Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Hare Island and Coosan 
Point). U. — Donegal (Keel and Irvine's Loughs), 

Distribution. — Great Britain (South of England to Inverness). Generally 
distiibuted from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean region. In Switzerland, 
near the Traubach (4,000 feet alt.) in the neighbourhood of Habkern, 
Interlaken, water 60° F. {Eaton). Lower down in Habkern Tlial the 
Ecdyurus is U. hchcticus [Eaton in litt.). 

Ecdyams insignis Eaton. 


M. — Kerry (Woodlawn ; Deenagh Eiver). C. — Mayo (Mount Brown 

Lough). L. — Westmeath (Glasson). U. — Donegal (Gorteen and Keel 
Loughs (Lennan Bridge). 

Di-strihdion. — iSTot ascertained. 

Ecdyurus lateralis (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Gap of Dunloe). C. — Mayo (Clare Island). L. — Wicklow 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common in the north and west. Extending 
from Inverness-shire to Dorset, Eaton). Widespread in Europe. 



*Perla maxima Scop. 

Munstee. Leixstee. 

M. — Waterford (Blackwater near Lismore, Eallcrt ; Youghal, Miss Ball). 
L. — Dublin (Eiver Dodder at Tereuure and Tallaght, Halbert). Wicklow 
(Bray, Halidaij MS.). 

Owing to its lurking habits, this fine insect has probably been overlooked 
in mauy Irish coimties. Haliday includes " Perla margiiuita " in his MS. 
Catalogue ; in all probability this record should refer to the present species. 

Distrihution. — Great Britain (widespread from Devonshire to Perthshii-e 

60 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and Aran, Morton). Abroad it inhabits Scandinavia and central Europe ; 
Lower Alps ; Carinthia ; Croatia to Bosnia ; Herzegovina ; &c. Not recorded 
in Navas's Spanish list (1908). 

*Perla cephalotes Curt. 


M. — Kerry (nymph taken in a stream flowing out of Lough Eighter at 
an elevation of about 1500 feet on Carrantuohill, June, Halbert). 

A Pei'la-nymph found under stones in the above-mentioned locality is 
apparently referable to the present species, as it agrees exactly with cqjhalotcs 
nymplis taken by Mr. K. J. Morton in the south of Scotland. An adult male 
taken in Ireland by Prof. G. H. Carpenter is in tlie Dublin Museum. 
L^nfortunately the place of capture of this specimen is uncertain, though 
it is possibly from the shore of Lough Gill in County Sligo. 

Dislrihution. — Found in Great Britain, from Devonshire to the Clyde and 
Forth districts of Scotland {Morton); northern and central Europe, and as 
far east as the Carpathians ; Spain {Kavds). 

Dictyopteryx Mortoni Klap. 


M. — Keny (Deenagh Elver, King). L.— Louth (Castlebellingham ! 

Probably widespread in Ireland. Mr. Morton points out that the insect 
figuring in British collections as Dictyopteryx microccphala must in future 
be recorded as the present species (Entom. Monthly Mag., 1907). 

Distribution. — In Great Britain this insect has been reported from many 
higlilaud lakes and lowland rivers, ranging south to the rivers Severn, 
Kennet, and Test {Morton). Continental range uncertain. 

Dictyopteryx (Dictyopterygella) recta Kempny. 


C— Eoscommon (Mote Park, Halbert). Sligo (near Sligo ! Johnson). 
L. — Wicklow (Streams from Glendalough Lake and Glenmalur valley, 
Halbert). U.— Armagh (Coney Island in Lough Neagh ! Johnson). 

Occurs under stones on the margins of streams and lakes, appearing 
at about the middle of April. This species has been named in British 
collections for many years as Isogcnvs nubecula. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (recorded by Mr. Morton as an abundant 
insect at many highland lakes, from the Forth district northwards). 
Northern Europe to Finland. Klapalek records this species from alpine 
lakes in the Eiesengebirge ; Carpathians ; Siberia. 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 61 
Chloroperla grammatica Toda. 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Kenmare; Glencar). C— Mayo (Carrowbeg 
Eiver). L. — Wicklow (Enniskerry). IT. — Armagh (Tanderagee). 

Bistrihution. — Great Britain (common, Devonshire to luveruess). Widely 
spread in Europe, ranging from Scandinavia to Spain. 

*Isopteryx tripunctata Scop. 

TJ. — Donegal (Ardara, Johnson). 

Found in moss from this locality {McLachlan, Entom. Monthly Mag., xxix., 

Distribution. —GrQ&t Britain (widespread, Devonshire to Inverness). 
Scandinavia [Kem.piy] ; central Europe ( Tiimpel). N"ot recorded from 

Isopteryx torrentium Pict. 

Munster. Gonnaught. Leinster. 

M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Tore ; Woodlawn ; Eoss Castle ; Ardagh 
Lough; Devil's Punch-bowl; Gap of Duuloe; &c.). C. — Gal way (Castle- 
kirk). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — Westmeath (Coosan Point). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, ranges as far north as the Hebrides 
and Inverness). Mountain districts of northern and central Europe, extend- 
ing to Spain. 

Capnia nigra Pict. 
Lein.ster. Ulster. 

L. — Dublin (Eiver Dodder at Tallaght). U. — Down (Holy wood, 
Haliday MS.). 

Common in the bed of the river Dodder, appearing towards the end 
of March. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (uncertain, ranges north at least to Perth- 
shire). On the Continent it is found in most parts of northern and central 
Europe, and Navds reports it from Spain. 

*Capnia atra Jlorton. 

M. — Kerry (Devil's Punch-bowl on Mangerton, June, Haibcrt ; July, 

Occurs in gi'eat abundance under stones on the margins of the sub- 
alpine lake in this locality {Irisli Nat., 1908). Mr. Morton has verified 
the identification of the Irish specimens, and remarks that they belong 


62 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academif. 

to an interesting form of this insect. " The genitalia of the s are identical 
with a preparation of mine (typical) from Loch Ard, Perthshire. The form 
is slightly brachypterous, and therein lies the interesting point. I saw 
in the McLachlau collection, some $ $ from Braemar which were also 
somewhat short-winged. Klapdlek has described from $ $ a species 
which he calls C. vidua, and he suggests that the Braemar specimens 
may be his vidua. In the absence of the <? , however, it is somewhat 
difficult to decide on the value of the species at all " {Morton, in litt.). 

Distribution. — In Great Britain this insect has been found on the shores 
of highland lakes in Inverness, Perth, and Aberdeenshire. On the Continent 
it has been recorded from Scandinavia, ranging north to Finnish Lapland 
(Sahlberg) ; Switzerland (Bis) ; Spain (Sierra Nevada, Klapdlek) . 

•Taeniopteryx Risii Morton. 

L. — Wicklow (Glendalough and Laragh, Halhert). 

Common where it occurs on the banks of rapid streams, appearing about 
the middle of April. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (frequents streams in various localities from 
Devon to Perthshire). "Widely distributed in Europe, having been recorded 
from Norway ; Switzerland ; Albania ; France ; Pyrenees, and Spain. 

[Tacnioptayx ntbttlosa is given with reserve in Mr. Haliday's MS. Catalogue, 
so that further e\idence of its occurrence in Ireland is required.] 

•Nemoura praecox Morton {N. marginata Kempny). 


L. — Wicklow (Glencree, Carpenter). 

A female specimen taken at this locality in April is in the Dublin 
Museum {fide Morton). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (not rare; Perthshire; Clyde; Forth; and 
Manchester districts, Morton). Continental range unknown ; has been 
recorded from Germany (/?«), Switzerland, and Lower Austria. 

•Wemoura Meyeri Pict. 
Leinstkr. Ulster. 

L.— Dublin (River Dodder at T&M&^ht, Halbcrt). Wicklow (streams at 
Glendalough, Glendasan, Laragh, Lough Bray, and Powerscourt, Halbert). 
U. — Antrim (Cave Hill, Halidaii collection). 

Apparently common in suitable localities. Appears on the Wicklow 
streams at about the middle of April. 

Distribution. — The range of this insect in Great Britain is not known, 

King and Hai.13i;rt— A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. (13 

Morton says it is rather common at streams in North Britain (as far north 
as Perthshire). Briggs reports it from Devonshire. Abroad it has been 
recorded from Germany {Ris) ; Switzerland (A'w) ; Carinthia ; Lower 
Austria ; and Portugal {Navds). 

Nemoura cinerea Oliv. 


M. — Kerry (Glencar ; Muckross ; Kenmare demesne ; Deenagh Paver). 
Mayo (Westport). L. — Wicklow (stream from Lough Bray). Dublin 
(Lucan demesne). U. — Donegal (Gorteen Lough near Kilmacrennan). 
Antrim (Lough Neagh, Raliday collection). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (uncertain, occurs as far north as Inverness- 
shu'e). Abroad this species has been recorded from various countries, 
ranging from Scandinavia to Spain and Portugal. 

NemoTtra variegata Oliv. 


M. — Kerry (Glencar; Muckross). C. — Mayo (Westport; Carrowbeg 
Eiver). Eoscommon (Yew Point). L. — Westmeath (Athlone ; Killinure 
Lough; Coosan Point; Twy Lough; Bog of Allen). U. — Armagh (Mullin- 
ure). Antrim (Portmore Lough). Donegal (Ardara). 

DistrihiUion. — Great Britain (common, ranging north to Inverness and 
the Outer Hebrides). On the Continent it is found from Fmmark to Spain 
and eastwards to Turkestan. Frequents standing and slowly flowing water 
on the Alps, ascending to 2000 metres [Ris). 

Nemoura inconspicua (Pict.). Morton. 


M. — Kerry (Glencar and Kenmare). L. — Wexford (Edenvale). AVest- 
meath (Athlone). TJ. — Ai-magh (Lowry's Lough and Mulliuure). Mouaghau 
(Emy vale) . 

Distribution. — Great Britain (uncertain ; Morton finds it sparingly at small 
streams and springs in Scotland). Norway ; Switzerland ; Bohemia ; &c. 

[Nemoura lateralis Pict., and iV. liumcralis Pict., have been recorded in 
the " Neuropterous Fauna of Ireland" (1889); but on account of the recent 
revision of the nomenclature nf the Peilidiie, these names must be removed 
from the Irish list.] 


64: Proceedings of the Royal L-ish Academy. 

*Leuctra Klapaleki Kempny. 


M. — Kerry (Glencar, Ralhcrt). C. — Mayo (Westport, King). L. — 
Wicklow (Glendalough, Halhcrt). Dublin (Lucan, King ; Glendhu, Haliert). 
U. — ilonaghan (Emyvale, Morton). Donegal (Ardara ' Johnson). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common in Scotland and ranges southwards 
to Devonshire). Continental range uncertain. Norway ; Germany ; Switzer- 
land; &c. 

'Leuctra hippopus Kempny. 


M. — Kerry (Devil's Punch-bowl and Muckross, Halhcrt). L. — Wicklow 
(streams at Lough Bray and Euniskerry, Halhcrt). Dublin (Eiver Dodder at 
Tallaght, and mountaiu streams, Halhcrt). 

Abundant where it occurs, frequenting streams in hilly districts. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common in Scotland, Morton). Norway ; 
Grermany ; Austria ; &c. 

'Lenctra inermis Kempny. 


M. — Kerry (Upper Lake of Killarney, Halhcrt). Wicklow (streams at 
Glendalough, Glendasan, and Laragh, Halhcrt). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common in Scotland ; Wales, Morton). 
Continental range unknown. 

[Leucira nigra Oliv., was inserted in the 1889 list by error.] 

Amphigerontia variegata (Latr.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh River and Cloghereen). L.— Dublin (Lucan and 
Howth). Ireland {Haliday coll.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (no doubt common, Chiermonprez, in litt.). 
Northern and central Europe. Spain {Navas). 

•Amphigerontia fasciata (Fab.). 

L. — Wexford (Edenvale, King). 

Distribution. — Great Biitain (common, extending to Inverness-shire at 
least). Widely spread in northern and central Europe, ranging from Finland 
to the Pyrenees. 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 65 
Amphigeroutia bifasciata (Lati.;. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eivcr ; Cloghereen ; Tore Cascade). 
Waterford (Mount Melleray ; Cappoquin). C. — Galway (8althill and 
CastlekLrk). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver ; Cogaula and Kip Loughs). L. — 
Dublin (Lucan and Howth). Wexford (Arcandrisk). TJ. — Donegal (Foyle 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, ranging north to the Shetlands). 
Northern and central Europe (Bcutcr). Spain (N'avds). 

Psocus sexpunctatus L. 

L. — Dublin (Lucan). 

Distribution. — Common in Great Britain, ranging north as far as 

Inverness-shire. Northern and central Europe {Beutcr). Spain {Navds). 

*Psocus major Kolbe. 

L. — Wexford (Enniscorthy). 

Taken by Mr. Beaumont at Enniscorthy in September {McZaehlan, 
Entom.. Monthly Mag., (2) i., p. 234). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (recorded from the southern half of 
England). Abroad it is reported from Finland and Germany. 

Psocus nebulosus Steph. 

Munster. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Tore ; Dinish; Deer Park ; Eoss Castle). 
Waterford (Dromana wood). C. — Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Car- 
rowbeg Eiver and Mount Brown). L. — Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath 
(Wineport ; Waterstown). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, McZaehlan). Northern and 
central Europe {Bcutcr). Spain {Nccvds). 

Psocus longieornis (Fab.). 

Munster. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Tore Cascade ; Cloghereen ; Dinish). Cork 
(Ballygriffin woods). Waterford (Dromana and Villierstown). C. — Eos- 
common (Yew Point). L. — Dublin (Lucan and Santry). AVestmeath (Twy 
Eiver and Hare Island). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough). Antrim (Portmore). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (widely and generally distributed, 
Gncrmonprcz, in lift.). Northern and central Europe {Beufrr). Ea.stern 
Pyrenees {McZaehlan). 

66 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Stenopsocus immacnlatus (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Ardagh Longh ; Tore Cascade ; 
Dinish ; Boreen-a-morave). Cork (Ballygriffin woods). Waterford 
(Dromana). C. — Eoscommon (Yew Point i. ifaro (Carrowbeg Eiver). 
L. — Wexford (Johnstown Castle grounds; Edenvale). Wicklow (Ennis- 
kerrv). Dublin Eoval Canal bank). IT. — Donegal Largy Eiver). 

Distribution.— GreAt Britain (widespread, occurring as far north as 
Sutherland). Xorthem and central Europe [Renter). Spain [Navds). 

Graphopsocns craciatus (L.). 

MtrSSTKR. COSSAUGHT. Leixster. Ui^tkr. 

M. — Kerry Boss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Tore Cascade ; Kenmare). 
Waterford (Xismore). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — We.xford (Johns- 
town Castle woods}. Dublin Howth and Phoenix Park). Westmeath 
(Coosan ; Athlone ; Waterstown). TJ. — Donegal (Sproule's Lough ; Lennan 
Bridge ; Largj- Eiver ; Cottian ; Foyle district). Down (Newcastle). 

IHttributum, — Great Britain common and generally distributed, Devon 
to InTemess). Northern and central Europe, Sardinia, Madeira {Renter). 
Spain {Navds). Portugal {MeLachlan). 

Mesopsocus onipunctatiu ^MiilL). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle; Deenagh Eiver ; Boreen-a-Morave ; Cloghereen 
Ardagh Lough; Cahirciveen). C. — Galway (.Salthill). Eoecommon (Yew 
Point). Mayo ^Carrowbeg Eiver and Mount Brown Lough; Westport). 
L. — Wexford (Eoealare). Dublin (Tolka at Glasne\-in; Howth and Port- 
mamock). Westmeath 'Cooean; Killinore ; Twy Lough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (equally widespread as the laat^. Northern 
and central Europe, ranging to North Cape. Spain [Xavas). 

Philotanus flavicepa (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Boss Castle; Deenagh Eiver; Muckross; Tore; Gap of 
Dunloe ; Loo Bridge ; Ac). Waterford '^Dromana and Glenshelane). C. — 
Galway (Salthill. Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver; Mount Brown; Kip and 
Cogaula Loughs). L. — Wicklow (Lough Dan). Dublin (Lucan and 
Howth). Westmeath (Waterstown, and Shannon at Athlone). 

Common where it occurs amongst coniferous trees. 

King and Halbkut — A List of the Nenroptera of IrclamL 67 

Distribution. — Great Britain (occurs as far north as Inverness). Wide- 
spread in Europe, ranging from Finland to Spain. 

Elipsocus hyalinus (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle and Cloghereen). L. — Dublin (Lucan and 
Howth). Westmeath (Hare Island). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (recorded from numerous localities from 
Sussex to Invei'uess). Widely spread in westei'n Europe, ranging from 
Scandinavia to Spain. 

Elipsocus Westwoodi McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh River ; Boreen-a-Morave ; Cloghereen ; 
Ardagh Lough). Cork (Ballygriffin woods. Waterford (Lismore ; Dromana 
and Mount Melleray]. C. — Galway (Salthill). Roscommon {Yew Point). 
Mayo (Westport ; Carrowbeg River ; Mount Brown ; &c.). L. — Wexford 
(near Wexford; Killurin ; Rosslare*. Dublin (Lucau and Howth). West- 
meath (Coosan; Athlone ; Moate). 

Distrihitio7i. — Widely distributed in Great Britain, ranging into the 
Shetlands. Abroad it has been found in Scandinavia (Finland southwards) ; 
Germany ; HoUand. 

Elipsocus abietis Kolbe. 


C. — Galway (Salthill). Mayo (Carrowbeg River; Moimt Brown Lough). 
L. — Wicklow (Roundwood). Dublin (Lucan and Howth). Westmeath 
(Twy River; Waterstown ; Moate). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (probably general). Europe, frequent in pine 
forests (Enderlein). 

Elipsocus cyanops Rostock. 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Deenagh River ; Cloghereen ; Dinish ; Boreea- 
a-Morave ; Spa Well). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (recorded from various localities ranging 
from Sussex to Inverness). Abroad it is reported from Finland, Gennany, 
and the Pyrenees. 

Pterodela pedicularia (L.). 

:Muxstee. Leixstee. 

M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Boreen-a-Morave). L. — Wexford (Edenvale 
and Rosslare). Wicklow (Roundwood). Dublin (Lucan and Howth). 
Westmeath (Athlone). 

68 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common in houses, from the Isle of Wight, 
London district, &c., to the north of Scotland). Widely spread on the 
Continent, ranging from Finland and Spain to Turkestan. 


Peripsocus alboguttatus Dalm. 

L. — Dublin (Lucan). 

Distribution. — Northern and central Europe (JJew^e?-). Madeira. 

Peripsocus subpupillatus ilcLach. 

MuNSTER. Leinster. 

M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Deenagh River ; Muckross ; Booreen-a- 
Morave). Waterford (Dromana and Gleushelane). L. — Wexford (Edenvale ; 
Killurin ; Kosslare). Dublin (Lucan). 

Distribution. — Referring to Peripsocus alhoguttatvs and P. subpupillatus, 
Mr. Guermonprez remarks (in lilt.) that they are very likely generally 
distributed in Great Britain. West of England, &c. 

Peripsocus phseopterus (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle; Deenagh River; Boreen-a-Morave ; Muckross; 
Ardagli Lough ; Keumare). Waterford (Lismore ; Gleushelane and Mount 
^lelleray). C. — Mayo (Canowbeg River and Cogaula). L. — Wexford 
(Killurin ; Edenvale and Rosslare). Dublin (Lucan ; Howth, off Larch). 
Westmeath (Wateretown ; Glassan ; Athlone ; Moate). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (probably general). Widely spread in 
western Europe, ranging from Finland {Renter) to Spain [Navds). 

•Ectopsocus Briggsi McLach. 

M. — Cork (Ballygriffin woods, beaten out of trees, King). Waterford 
(Lismore, King). L. — Wicklow (Roundwood, Halbert). Dublin (Howth 
and Phoenix Park, Halbert). 

At Roundwood, and in the Phoenix Park, this interesting species occurred 
commonly in plantations of Conifers during the month of October. 

Distribution. — The distribution of this species seems little known. In 
Great Britain it has been found in various localities in the south of England, 
ranging from Devonshire to Kent. Abroad it has been reported from 
Sydney, N. S. W., and from Salisbury, Mashonaland. In the latter place it 

King and TTalbekt — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 69 

occurred on a plateau at about 5000 feet elevation. Enderlein suggests that 
the insect may liave been brought from Australia to Britain. According to 
McLachlau, liowever, both Australia and Africa may have received it from 
England, where to all appearances it is native, occurring chiefly amongst 
fallen leaves during the autumn and winter mouths. {Entom. Monthly Mag., 
1903, p. 296). 

Caecilius fuscopterus (Latr.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver; Boreen-a-Morave ; Tore; Eoss Castle). 
Waterford (Glenshelane). C. — Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Carrowbeg 
Eiver). L. — Wexford (Edenvale ; Killurin). Westmeath (Bellevue ; Waters- 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, ranging as far north as Inverness). 
Northern and central Europe [Renter). Spain [Navds). 

Caecilius flavidus (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Cloghereen ; Muckross Abbey ; Glena ; Horse's 
Glen ; Deenagh Eiver ; Kenmare ; &c.). Cork (Ballygriffin woods). 
Waterford (Dromana). C. — Galway (near Maam). Mayo (Carrowbeg 
Eiver). L. — Wexford (Killurin and Johnstown Castle). AVicklow (Lough 
Dan) Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Waterstown). U. — Donegal (Cottian ; 
Largy Eiver ; Lough Madourchin ; Sproule's Lough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (occurs as far north as Inverness). Europe, 
Lapland to Spain. 

Caecilius obsoletus (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Boreen-a-Morave ; Eoss Castle : Dinish). 
Waterford (Lismore; Glenshelane). C. — Galway (Salthill; Maam). L. — 
Wexford (Edenvale ; Arcandrisk ; Johnstown Castle woods). Dublin 
(Lucan ; Howth ; Tolka at Glasnevin). Westmeath (Waterstown). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (South of England to Inverness). Northern 
and central Europe from Finland to France. 

Caecilius Bm-meisteri Brauer. 


M. — Kerry (Dinish; Eoss Castle; Boreen-a-Morave). C. — Galway 
(Maam). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — Wicklow (Eoundwood). Dublin 
(Howth ; Lucan ; Phoenix Park). Westmeath (Waterstown). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (probably generally distributed — Surrey, 

R. I. A. PKOO., VOL. XXVUI., SECT. B. [Lj 

70 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Sussex, Inverness; common amongst Junipers). Xorthem and central 

Caecilius perlatas Kolbe. 


M. — Kerry (Dinish ; Eoss Castle ; Deenagh ; Boreen-a-Morave). C. — 
Galway ^^near Maam ; Salthill). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver}. L. — ^Wexford 
(Arcandrisk and Edenvale). Dublin (Tolka at Glasne\'in ; Lucan). 
Westmeath Killinm-e ; Waterstown). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (probably general . Noithem and central 
Europe, ranging into Finland. 

Trichopsocus Dalei (McLach.). 


M. — Kerry (Cloghereen). 

Distribution. — Probably generally distributed — Devon; Dorset; Sussex 
(occurs in lanes and gardens, Gucrmonprez) ; Glasgow (common in greenhouses 
in the Botanic Gardens) ; and other localities. Continental range unknown. 
McLachlan records it from Madeira and the Canaries. 

Atropos polsatoria L. 


M.— Kerry (Killamey and Kenmare). C. — Mayo (Westport). L. — 
Dublin. Westmeath ^A.thloneJ. 

Found in old books, and in collections of insects and plants. 
Distribution. — Great Britain (widely spread). Europe. North America. 

•Hyperetes gnestfalicus Kolbe. 

L. — Wicklow (Roundwood and Lough Dan, on Conifers, Hnlhert). Dublin 
(Howth ; Phoenix Park ; Grand Canal bank, on elms, Halberf). 

Not uncommon in the Dublin district, hiding in the crevices of rough- 
barked trees. At Howth it also occurs amongst shingle and refuse on the 
seashore, just above high-water mark. 

Distribution. — This insect is no doubt generally distributed in the 
Britannic area {McLaMan, Entom. Monthly Mag., 1898), and is probably often 
overlooked on account of its retired habits. Mr. Guermonprez, who has 
examined some of the Irish specimens, remarks (in litt.) that he has found it 
commonly in Sussex and elsewhere in England. Continental range not 
ascertained. Germany. 

King and Halbert — A Lut of (he Neuroptera of Ireland. 71 

Lepinotus inquilinus Heyd. (P. picea Mots.). 


C. — Mayo (in a house at Westport). L. — Dublin. (Howth, &c., in houses). 
Westmeath (in a house at Athlone). Ireland [Halkhni jrs.). 

Found occasionally in natural history collections. Haliday records it in 
his MS. catalogue as occurring among corks, hay, &c. 

Distribution. — This insect used to be considered rare in Britain. It has 
recently been found in great abundance in London granaries {Entmn. Record, 
1905) ; also at Hastings in a neglected collection of plants ; Sussex ; Surrey, 
&c. Mr. McLachlan says it is " found living in boxes of exotic (in one case 
Egyptian) insects. If it be not indigenous in England, it is at any rate 
naturalized here" {Entom. Monthly Mag., iii., 1867). Abroad it has been 
reported from Finland ; Eussia ; central Europe ; Spain ; Egypt ; and North 

Troctes divinatorius (Miill.). 


M.— Kerry (Killarney). C— Mayo (Westport). Sligo. L.— Dublin. 
U. — Donegal (Kilmacrennan). 

In houses, and collections of insects and plants. 

Distribution. — Found throughout Great Britain. Probably cosmopolitan, 
occurring in Europe ; North America ; Greenland ; &c. 

Sialis lutaria (L.). 
Munstee. Gonnaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Water ford (Glenshelane valley). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). Sligo 
(Markree Castle). L. — Dublin (Haliday MS. ; Eiver Tolka near Finglas). 
Westmeath (Athlone). U. — Armagh (Lowry's Lough and Churchhill). 
Antrim (Lough Neagh near Toome). 

This insect, the "Alder Fly" of anglers, probably occurs in suitable 
localities throughout the country. 

Distribution. — It is common in Great Britain, having been observed as far 
north as Inverness and the Outer Hebrides. Widely spread in the Palae- 
arctic region, ranging from Lapland and Finland to Spain, and eastwards to 
Siberia (Lake Baikal). Occurs in the Alps at an elevation of over 7000 feet 


72 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

•Osmylus clirysops L.', {^0. macvIatus'Fa.h.). 

MCXSTEB. CO^'^■AUGHT. Letsstek. 

M.— Kerry (Ardtnlly near Kenmare! July, 1893, Xane ; Killamey, 
Haliday Ms) Cork (banks of the Shoumagh Kiver, Haliday MS). C. — 
Galway (Leenane, Haliday MS.). I. — Wexford (Edenvale, King). Kilkenny 
(Inistioge, Haliday MS.). Dublin (Lucan, Freeman). 

Apparently this beautifxil insect is to be found, locally, on river-banks in 
the soathem half of Ireland. The records noted in Mr. Haliday 's MS. 
catalogue have not been pre\iously published. 

Distribution. — In Great Britain it is recorded as not uncommon about 
streams {MrLaehlan) ranging from Devonshire to Yorkshire at least. It has 
not been observed in Scotland. 

Widely spread in Europe, extending from southern Sweden to Spain and 
the Caucasus. 

Sisyra foscata (Fab.). 


M. — Keny (Ross Castle; Gap of Dunloe). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg 
River; Prospect Lough; Kip Lough). L — Wexford (Killurin). Dublin 
(Lucan). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and Emyvale). Donegal (Keel and 
Sproule's Lough ; Clonkillybeg ; Glenbeagh}. Armagh (Loughgall). 
" Ireland " {Haliday MS.). 

Probably common. Haliday was of opinion that the curious larva 
described by Westwood under the name of Branchiotoma spongillae, found 
li\-ing in fresh-water sponges, is in reality the larva of Sisyra fuscata (Trans. 
Entom. Soc London, v., pp. 31, 32, 1847). The larvae of Sisyra are now known 
to live in fresh-water sponges, and they may be found in the canal system of 
species of EuspongUla and Ephydatia, 

Distrihuiion. — Great Britain (common, ranging into Inverness}. Northern 
and central Europe. 

Sisyra Dalii McLach. 

MorsTER. Lkisstkb. 

M.— Kerry (Ross Castle; Dinish). L— Wexford (Edenvale). Dublin 
(Tolka at Glasne\'in). 

DistrHnUion. — Great Britain (local, has been found in Yorkshire, at 
Ambleside, in North Wales, Surrey, Dorset, and the Scilly Isles). The 
continental range has not been ascertained ; but it is known to occur in 
Germany (Westphalia and Saxony) ; Denmark ir!..rnholm); and Portugal 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 73 
Sisyra terminalis Curt. 


M. — Kerry (Lakes of Killarney, Haliday MS.; Hagcn in Entom. Annual, 
1858 ; Eoss Castle ; Deenagh ; Cloghereen). L. — Dublin (Lucan). 

The first British specimens of this rare species were discovered at 
Killarney by A. H. Haliday. 

DistrihiUion. — Great Britain (the range of this species is little known ; it 
has been recorded from Worcestershire and Surrey). Sweden ; Germany 
(Saxony); and the Carpathians {Wallengren). 

Hemerobius micans Oliv. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Cloghereen ; Tore Cascade ; Deenagh Eiver ; 
Deer Park ; Boreen-a-Morave). C. — Galway (Cong ; Salthill). Mayo 
(Carrowbeg Eiver ; Mount Brown ; Westport). L. — Wicklow (Dargle ; 
Greystones). Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Coosan Point; "Waterstown; 
Bog of Allen). U. — Armagh (MuUinure ; Loughgilly). Donegal (Coxtowu; 
Kilmacrennan ; Glenbeagh). 

Distribution. — Eanges from Devon to Perthshire in Great Britain. Isle of 
Man. Probably spread all over Europe {McLachlan). Swedish Lapland 
{Wallengren) . 

Hemerobius nitidulus Fab. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Tore Cascade). 
Apparently rare. Occurs on Pinus sylvestris. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England ^to Inverness). Wide- 
spread in Europe, occurring in arctic Norway ; Turkestan. 

Hemerobius humuli L. 


C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). L.^Wicklow (Enniskerry). TJ. — Donegal 
(Coolmore). " Ireland " {Haliday MS.). 

Distribution, — Great Britain (Devon to Perthshire). Isle of Man. 
Widespread in Europe, arctic Norway, &c. Siberia. North America. 

Hemerobius lutescens Fab. 

M. — Kerry (Cloghereen ; Tore Cascade ; Boreen-a-Morave). Cork 
(Ballygriffin woods). C. — Galway (Salthill). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver; 
Mount Brown). Sligo (near Sligo). L. — Wexford (Eosslare). Dublin 

f 4 Proceedings of the Royal Iri^h Academy. 

(Lucan). "Westmeath (Coosan Point; Shannon side; Wineport; Waters- 
town; Athlone). TJ. — Armagh (Mullinurel Donegal (Cottian; Largy Eiver). 
Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). Eeeorded by 
McLachlan as probably abundant over Europe, occurring amongst deci- 
dnous trees, and more rarely amongst Conifers. 

Hemerobius marginatus Steph. 

M. — Kerry (Ross Castle; Tore Eoad). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). 
L. — "Wieklow (woods at Lough Dan). TJ. — Donegal (Glenbeagh ; 
Kilmacrennan ; Cottian Lough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness). Apparently 
widely spread in Europe (McLachlan). 

Hemerobius orotypus Wall. 

Mc^'STER. Leisster. Ulsteb. 

M. — Kerry (Tore Cascade ; Boreen-a-Morave > L. — Westmeath 
(Waterstown). M. — Armagh (Mullinure : Ballybrennan}. Aimagh (Fathom). 
Donegal Coxtown). " Ireland " (" mricgatus Z." of Halidaij MS. probably). 

The Hcmerdbius " sp. not." of the " Neuropterous Fauna of Ireland " 
fl889^ is to be referred to the present species. 

Distribution. — Great Britain Devon northwards to Sutherland). The 
continental range of this species has not been ascertained, though it is 
known to occur in Scandina\na (to Lapland, Walhngren) and in the 
Pyrenees, extending as far east as the Carpathians ; Styria {Morton). 

Hemerobius nervosus Fab. 

Leixster. Ulster. 

L— Dublin (Lucan ; Tolka> Westmeath (Waterstown). 

M. — Antrim (Lough Neagh at Toome and Portmore). Armagh. " Ireland" 
iHatiday MS.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (locally common ; Mr. Morton records it as 
occurring in Scotland wherever there is natural birch^. Abroad it is widely 
spread, extending into the Arctic Circle, and probably less common south of 
the Alps {McLachlan). 

Hemerobius subnebulosus Steph. 


C. — Sligo (near Sligo). L.— Kildare (Maynooth). Dublin TDundrum). 
Westmeath Coosan Point,. IF.— Armagh (Mullinure; Armagh in garden). 
Down (Holywood). 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neurojrfera of Ireland. 75 

Local in woods. In England lliis species is especially common in gardens ; 
and, as McLachlan points out, it is consequently liable to artificial dispersal 
with plants and shrubs. 

Distribution. —Great Britain (Devonshire to Shetlands). Isle of Man. 
Widespread in Europe, ranging from Lapland to Spain ; Atlantic Islamls ; 
Siberia ; Turkestan. 

Hemerobius stigma Steph, 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle; Deenagh Eiver; Tore Eoad). C. — Galway 
(Castlekirk). L.— Wexford (Killurin). Dublin (Howth). Westmeath 
(Wineport ; Waterstown ; Bog of Allen ; Bellevue). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (occurs in coniferous woods from Devonshire 
to the extreme north of Scotland). Widely distributed in Europe, ranging 
from Lapland to Corsica ; Portugal, &e. ; it also inhabits the Canaries. 

Hemerobius atrifrons McLaeh. 


C. — Galway (Castlekirk). L. — Westmeath (Waterstown). 
Apparently rare. Occurs on Conifers. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Inverness). Northern and 
central Europe ; eastern Siberia. 

Micromus paganus (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle). C. — Sligo (Lough GiU, and near Sligo). L. — 
Wicklow (Enniskerry). Kildare (Maynooth). XT. — Tyrone (Altadiawan). 
Armagh (MuUinure, &c.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to the Clyde area). Northern 
and central Europe ; Lapland. 

Micromus variegatus (Fab.). 


M. — Kerry (Tore Cascade). Waterford (Lismore and Cappagh Lake). 
C. — Galway (Maam Eiver). Mayo (Westport demesne ; Carrowbeg Eiver). 
L. — Wexford (Slaney bank near Wexford). Dublin (Howth). TI. — Armagh 
(Mullinure, &c.). 

Distribution. — Generally distributed in England (Worcester; Hereford; 
Devon; &c.). 

Northern and central Europe, extending to Italy ; Austria ; and Corsica. 

76 Proceedings of the Rotfal frtsh Academi/. 

Micromus angulatus (Steph.) {M. aphiditorus Schr. ?). 

MrS'STEE. Ledcstee. 

M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver). TVexford (Conrtown, Enniseorthy, 
Beaumont, Entom. Monthly Mag.,xsix., p. 263). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (rare, though widely distributed, extending 
into the south of Scotland, Kircudbright;. 

Europe ranging to arctic Xorway ; Siberia ; Madeira ; Xorth America 
(Colorado; Canada). 

*P8ectra diptera Burm. 


L.— Wexford (banks of the River Slaney near Wexford, July, 1900, 

In the summer of 1900 one of us had the good fortune to find two 
examples of this little-known insect during a collecting tour in county 
Wexford. Unfortunately the great rarity of the insect was unsuspected at 
the time of capture, else more specimens might have been obtained, and 
more exact details of its occurrence noted. It is certain, however, that the 
insects were beaten from amongst bushes, including some hazel and alder, 
bordering the south bank of the River Slauey, a few miles to the north of the 
town of Wexford, during the month of July. Psidra diptera is remarkable 
for its small size, the rudimentary condition of the second pair of wings in 
the male, and also for its extreme rarity. Nothing appears to be known 
concerning its life-history. 

The first recorded British specimen was found on a hazel bush in Breagh 
Wood, Somersetshire, by J. C. Dale, as long ago as 1843, and apparently 
there have been no subsequent captures of the species in England. The 
insect has, however, been recently discovered by Mr. B. McGowan, on the 
banks of the Xith in Dumfriesshire {Entom. Monthly Mag., (2) xiv., (39), 
p. 14, 1903). 

Distribution. — Psectra diptera seems to be generally rare, yet it is widely 
spread in the Palaearctic r^on, occurring in Finland ; Sweden ; Russia , 
Germany; Holland; Italy; and in Siberia (Irkutzk). It has also been 
found in North America .'New York ; Michigan ; New Hampshire ; N. 
Illinois), where, according to Banks (1905), it is apparently of more common 
occurrence than in Europe. 

Chrysopa vittata Wesm. 


C. — Roscommon ^Yew Point). L. — Wicklow (Altidorel. Westmeath 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 77 

(Killucan). Louth (Castlebellingham). IT. — Tyrone (Altadiawan). Donegal 
(near Kilmacrennan). " Ireland, common " [Hcdiday MS.). 

Distrihution. — Widely spread in Great Britain. Northern and central 
Europe ; Styria ; Siberia. 

Chrysopa flava (Scop.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Kiver ; Tore road ; Boreen-a-Morave). Cork 
(Glandore). Waterford (Cappoquin). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). Sligo 
(near Sligo). L. — Wexford (Eosslare). Wicklow (Altidore ; Enniskerry). 
Dublin (Kingstown). Westmeath (Coosan ; Waterstownj. Louth (Castle- 
bellingham). IT. — Monaghan (Emyvale). Armagh. 

Distribution. — Common in Great Britain from Devonshire to Inverness, 
and in western Europe generally. 

Chrysopa alba (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Tore road; Boreen-a-Morave). C. — Galway (Cong). Mayo 
(Carrowbeg Eiver). Eoscommon (Yew Point). Sligo (near Sligo). L. — 
Wexford (Eden vale ; Killurin ; Johnstown Castle grounds). Wicklow 
(Enniskerry and Powerseourt demesne). TJ. — Tyrone (Favour Eoyal}. 
Donegal (Cottian ; Largy Eiver ; near Kilmacrennan). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Inverness at least) . Northern 
and central Europe. 

Chrysopa flavifrons Brauer. 


C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England ; Wales ; not recorded 
from Scotland). Sweden to Dalmatia {Brauer). 

Chrysopa teaella Sch, 

Lelnster. Ulster. 

L. — Dublin (Eathgar, coll. Carpenter). U. — Armagh (near Armagh, coll. 

A Chrysopa from the first-mentioned locality in the Irish National 
Museum is apparently referable to the present species. It is somewhat 
larger than the average size of British specimens ; but it has two characters 
which are of C. tenella, a broad paler line on the thorax, and a black spot on 
the cheeks {fide Morton), 


78 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

*Chrysopa vulgaris Schneider. 


L — Wexford (near Wexford, King). Dublin (Howth, King). Westmeath 
(Athlone, King). " Ireland " [Halidaij collection). 

This common British species has not been previously recorded from 

Distribution. — Europe and the Atlantic Islands; Asia Minor; Turkestan; 
&c. Keferring to the occurrence of Clirysopa vulgaris in Madeira, the 
Canaries, and St. Helena, Mr. McLachlan points out that it is rather liable to 
introduction into new localities during the larval stage. In Great Britain it 
is found from the south of England to the Shetlands, though possibly 
introduced in the latter place. 

'Chrysopa prasina Ramb. (C. aspersa Wesmael). 

Monster. Leinsteh. 

M.— Cork (Glandore, Halhert). L. — Wexford (Eosslare, King). West- 
meath (Athlone, King). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (generally common in the south ; Yorkshire; 
North Wales. Not recorded from Scotland). Widespread in Europe. 

•Chrysopa ventralis Curtis. 
Leinstkb. Ulster, 

L. — Wexford (Killurin, King). U. — Monaghan (Emyvale, Morton). 
DislribiUion. — Great Britain (south of England to Yorkshire at least). 
Northern and central Europe. Siberia. 

•Chrysopa abbreviata Curtis (C. immaculata Steph.). 


L.— Dublin (" Chrt/sopa ahbreviata = immaculatus, St. Portmarnock," 
Haliday MS.) 

This species appears to have been well known to Haliday, and it is recorded 
as above in his MS. catalogue of Irish insects. In a paper which he published 
iu 1857 we find the following note : — " On the sand-hills (Portmarnock) 
themselves Chrysopa abbreviata was more common than I had ever before 
found it ; and along with it, the freckled, sandy -coloured, stout larva, which 
doubtless feeds chiefly on the Aphides that abound on the sea-reeds " 
{Nat. Hist. Review, iv., p. 35). The identification of one of Haliday's 
specimens, preserved in the Irish National Museum, has been verified as 
correct by Mr. K. J. Morton. 

Distribution — Great Britain (little is known of the range of this species ; 
it occurs on sand-hills in the Liverpool district. Curtis records that it was 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 79 

taken on the sand-hills at Appledore and Eavenglass, and on the Marrams 
near Yarmouth. British Entomology, ii., pi. 520, 1834). According to 
Keuter it is widely spread in Europe (Finland to Caucasus), but has not 
occurred in France, Spain, or Italy. Asia ilinor. 

[CJirysopa perla (L.). 

Doubtfully Irish. The only indication of its occurrence is in Holiday's 
MS. catalogue. The entry is as follows : — " Chrijsopa perla (Ste ?) = 
reticulata ?, cancellata, certainly Irish, Hehj ! " 

The synonyms mentioned by Haliday admittedly refer to Chrysopa perla 
(L.), fide McLachlan, " Monograph of the British Neuroptera- Planipennia." 
However, as some doubt is implied in this record, we think it best to 
include the species with reserve, until more satisfactory evidence of its 
occurrence is forthcoming.] 

Coniopteryx psociformis (Halid.) Curtis. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle; Deenagh Eiver ; Muckross Abbey; Tore 
Cascade ; Boreen-a-Morave). Waterford (Lismore ; Glenshelane). L. — 
Dublin (Luean; Dundrum). U. — Down (ToUymore, Hididay collection). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshii-e to Perthshire). Northern and 
central Europe (Ujiderlein). 

Coniopteryx lactea Wesm. (C. tineiformis Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Boreen-a-Morave ; Kenmare ; Muckross). 
C. — Galway (Sal thill). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver ; Mount Brown Lough. 
Westport demesne). Eoscommon (Yew Point). L. — Westmeath (Coosan 
Point; Shannon; Waterstown). U. — Donegal (Cottian ; Largy Eiver; Glen- 
beagh) . 

Widely spread and probably common in suitable localities. 

Mr. Haliday remarks that this species " occurs in groves (especially on 
Coniferae) in summer : — When captured they feign death, with their 
antennae bent in under the thorax, as in Hemerobius and Chrysopa." He 
also records a Coniopteryx larva which he believed to be referable to the 
present species. " This larva is found wandering in groves from the end of 
August to October ; it is probably Aphidivorous, though this I ha\-e not 
proved, nor have I bred it, but I can entertain no doubt that it is in the 
larva of C. tineiformis. The general character is closely allied to the larva of 

80 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Hemerobius, to ■which genus it is related." Curtis figures this larva, and 
remarks that it is rosy, with a large black patch on the back, and large 
white spots down each side. (See Curtis, British Entomology, xL, plate 
528. 1834). 

Distribution. — Occurs in Great Britain from Devonshire to Inverness at 
least. According to Enderlein it is widely distributed in Europe, ranging 
north into Finland. 


*Panorpa gennanica L. 

M. — Cork (Toughal and Blarney. Halbcrt, Irish Naturalist, xvi., pp. 289- 
299. 1907). 

Very local, and probably confined to the south. 

The first Irish specimens of this common European " Scorpion Fly " 
were discovered by Mr. R Standen at these localities in Jidy, 1907. A male 
example taken at Toughal approaches the immaculate variety, e.xcept for a 
small spot on the front margin of each of the wings, and an extremely narrow 
dark margin at the tip of the anterior pair (var. apicalis Steph.). On the 
contrar)', in a female specimen found at Blarney, the spots are well 
developed and tend to form continuous bands across the wings, much as in 
Panorpa communis. 

Distribution. — Occurs in most parts of Great Britain, ranging from 
Devonshire to Sutherland. Northern and central Europe. 



Neuronia ruflcrua (Scop.). 

C. — Roscommon (Mote Park). L. — Westmeath (Bog of Allen). 
Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Perthshire at least). 
Northern and central Europe. 

Phryganea grandis L. 


IL — Kerry (Ross Castle). C. — Galway (Ashford and Cong). Sligo 
(Markree Castle). L. — King's County (Edenderry). Dublin (River Dodder 
near Templeogne). Westmeath (Shannon near Athlone). U. — Donegal 
(Lough Fern near Kilmacrennan). Antrim (Lough Xeagh). 

King and Halbeih' — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 81 

Distribution. — In Great Britain this species is found from Devonshire to 
the south of Scotland. Widely spread in Europe. 

Phryganea striata L. 


C. — Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Knappagh and Kip Loughs). L. — 
Louth (Castlebellingham). TI. — Mouaghan (Glaslough). Armagh (Loughgall, 
Keady, &c.). Donegal (Fern, Sproule's and Keelan Loughs). 

Distribution. — Somewhat similar to that of the last species. E.xtends 
further north, into Finland and Lapland ; Spain ; Siberia. 

Phryganea obsoleta (Hagen) McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Killarney, CooJce, Entom. 3fonthhj Mag., xv., 1878). Limerick 
(August l&t\\, Eaton, Entom. Monthly Mag., 1877). L. — Westmeath (Shannon, 
King). TJ. — Monaghan (Glasloixgh, Morton). Ai-magh (Kellystewart 
Lough ! Johnson). Donegal (Ardara sandhills, Johnson). 

Distribution. — Inhabits the northern parts of Great Britain (north of 
England and Wales, extending to Inverness-shire at least). Abroad it is 
found in Lapland ; Finland ; Norway ; Sweden ; North Eussia ; Germany 
(East Prussia, Bavaria, Lorraine, &c.); Switzerland, &c. Apparently not 
recorded from the southern parts of Europe. North-western Siberia 

Phryganea varia (Hagen). Fab. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle). C. — Galway (Castlekirk and Maumwee 
Loughs). Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Cushinsheen and Prospect 
Loughs ; Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — King's County (Edenderry). Westmeath 
(Waterstown and Coosan). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough). Donegal (Gorteen ; 
Sproule's ; Keel ; Akiboon ; Muethin ; and Askerry Loughs ; Clonkillybeg ; 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to North Shetlauds). Almost 
all over Europe. 

Agrypnia pagetana Curt. 

TJ. — Monaghan (Glasloiagh). Donegal (Ardara). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (not uncommon in the fen districts of the 
eastern counties of England, McLachlan ; near Glasgow, King). Northern and 
central Europe ; Spain (iVai'as) ; North-western Siberia ; Turkestan. 

82 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Colpotaulitts incisus (Curt.). 


C. — Galway (Castlekirk). Mayo (Clare Island ; Castlebar ; Broad Lough ; 
Newport Eiver; Inishbofin). L. — "Westmeath (Shannon}. TJ. — Monaghan 
(Emyvale). Armagh (Armagh, in garden, Johnson). Donegal (Fern and 
Keel Loughs; Largy Eiver). Antrim (Portmore near Lough Neagh). 

Distribution. — Common in Britain, ranging to the Shetlands. According 
to Ulmer, there is probably only one Palaearctic species of this genus. It is 
widely distributed in northern and central Europe, and apparently ranges to 
eastern Siberia [McLachlan). 

•GrammotauliuB atomarius (Fab.). 


C. — Roscommon (Mote Park, Halhert]. Sligo (Johnson). L. — Wicklow 
(Eoundwood, October, Halbert). Louth (Castlebellingham ! Thomhill). 
U. — Monaghan (Emyvale, Morton). Armagh (Mullinure, Johnson). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (ranges from Devonshire to Perthshire at 
least). Abroad it is found from I^apland to Italy (Naples, McLachlan); 

Glyphotaelius pellucidus (Eetz.). 


M. — Waterford (near Cappoquin). Limerick. C. — Mayo (Croft Lough ; 
in plantation near Convent, WestportX L. — Wexford (Johnstown Castle 
grounds). Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Waterstown). U. — Monaghan 
(Glaslough). Armagh (Loughgall). 

Distribution. — Devonshire to Inverness, and nearly all over Europe 
except Lapland and Spain {^McLachlan). 

LimnophiloB rhombicus (L.). 


C. — Eoscommon (Mote Park). Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). Sligo (Markree 
Castle). L. — Wexford (Edenvale). Dublin (Dnndrum). Louth (Castle- 
bellingham). U. — Armagh. Donegal (near Kilmacrennan ; Eiver Lennan). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, ranging to the Shetlands). Nearly 
the whole of Europe (Lapland to central Spain), except extreme south, 
extending into Eastern Sil^eria, and Turkestan {McLachlan). 

Kino and HALnKUT — A List of the Ncuroptera of Treland. 83 

Limnophilus flavicornis (Fab.). 

M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Dinish ; Flesk and Deenagh Rivers). C. — Mayo 
(Carrowbeg Eiver, Westport). Sligo (near Sligo). L. — Wexford (Johnstown 
Castle grounds). Wicklow (Altidore). Dublin (Lucan; Santry; &c.). West- 
meath (Moate; Bog of Allen). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and Emyvale). 
Armagh (Acton Glebe; Lough Gilly; &c.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common and widely spread). Northern 
and central Europe. 

*Limnophilus decipiens (Kol.). 

TJ. — Monaghan (Glaslough, Entom. Monthly Mag., 1892). 

This species was found fairly commonly by Mr. K. J. Morton, at Kelvey 
Lough, a small, deep lake near the above-mentioned locality. 

Distribution. — England (rare, London district, Haslemere, Norwich). Not 
recorded from Scotland. Widely distributed in Europe, ranging from Finland 
to the Balkans. Siberia (McZachlan). 

Limnophilus marmoratus Curt. 


M. — Kerry (Loo Bridge ; Ross Castle ; Cloghereen ; Coppagh Glen ; Gap of 
Dunloe ; Kilbrean Lough ; Dinish). Waterford (between Cappoquin and 
Lismore ; Cappagh Lough). C. — Galway (Salthill ; Castlekirk ; Cong). 
Roscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (common in the Westport and Newport 
districts). Sligo (Rosses Point). L. — Wexford (Edenvale ; Killurin : Johns- 
town Castle grounds). King's County (Edenderry). Dublin (Tolka at 
Glasnevin). Westmeath (Shannon ; Killinure ; Waterstown). TJ. — Monaghan 
(Glaslough and Emyvale). Armagh (Ohurchhill; Mullinure, &c.). Antrim 
(gas lamps at Belfast). Donegal (Coxtown; Coolmore; common on lakes 
in the Kilmacrennan district). 


Distribution. — Great Britain (common, Devonshire to Shetlands). Lapland 
to France ; Spain; and central Italy. 

Limnophilus stigma Curt. 
Munster. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Killarney, McZachlan, 1862). L. — Westmeath (AVaterstown 
and Eiver Shannon). U. — Armagh (Birches). 

Distribution. — Widely spread in Great Britain, ranging from Kent to 

84 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Inverness-shire. Northern and central Europe, excepting the boreal parts 

Limnophilus xanthodes McLach. {L. horealis Kol. nee Zett.). 

MuNSTEK. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Z. horealis, taken by Birchall, McLachlan in Entom. Annual, 
1864). Monaghan (Glaslough, not common, Morton). Fermanagh (i. horealis, 
near Enniskillen, McLaclilan, Entom. Annual, 1862). Armagh (Lowry's 
Lough and Camlough, Johnsmi). 

Distrihutum. — Great Britain (local and not uncommon in the fens of the 
east, McLachlan; extending northwards to Dumfries, Morton). Northern 
and central Europe. Finland ; Sweden ; Eussia ; Germany ; Austria ; 
Hungary ; &c. 

Limnophilus luuatus Curt. 


M. — Kerry (Cloghereen ; Gleua ; Horse's Glen ; Deenagh Eiver). Water- 
ford (Dromana and Cappoquin). C. — Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo 
(Doogan, Small and Ballin Louglis ; Newport and Carrowbeg Elvers). Galway 
(Castlekirk ; near Maam ; Clonbrock). L. — Wicklow (Eoundwood). Dublin 
(Tolka at Glasuevin ; Lucan). Westmeath (Shannon; Coosan; Twy Eiver; 
Lough Eee). XT. — Monaghan (Glaslougli and EniyvaleV Armagh (Cliurchliill, 
Lough Gilly, &c.). Antrim (gas lamps at Belfast). Donegal (Coolmore ; 
Ardara). Common. 

Distribution. — In Great Britain this species is found from Devonshire to 
North Shetland. Spread over most of Europe (except the Spanish peninsula) ; 
Finland ; North Persia ; Asia Minor. 

LimnophiloB politus McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Killarney, McLachlan, Trans. Entom. Sac, p. 38, London, 1865). 

Apparently rare, and has not been recently met with in Ireland. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (very local, extending as far north as the 

Clyde district). Occurs over a great part of Europe (except Spain), and 

northern Asia. 

•Limnophilus fascinervis Zett. 

C. — Mayo (Castlebar Lough, Jime 17th, 1909, coll. Halbert, see Morton 
in Entom. Monthly Mag. (2) xx., p. 2.33, 1909). 

The first British specimen of this interesting species was captured at 
Castlebar Lough on a recent expedition, organized by Mr. E. LI. Praeger, 
to investigate the fauna and flora of Clare Island and the surrounding 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neurnplera of Ireland. 85 

district. It was t'ountl mi the soutli shore of the lake, wliicli is also 
called Lough Lannough, at its eastern extremity, not far from the town of 

Distribution. — Great Britain (range unknown). 

As pointed out by Mr. K. J. Morton, the distribution of Z. fuscinervis is 
northern and south-eastern. It has been recorded by Mr. McLachlan ho\n 
Lapland, Finland, Sweden, Lithuania (Minsk), Germany (where it is 
evidently widely spread), Sarepta. A variety solutns, McLach., is recorded 
from Sarepta and Persia (" Trichoptera of the European Fauna "). Denmark 

Limnophilus ignavus (Hagen) McLach. 


M. — Waterford (Cappoquin). C. — Mayo (Ballin and Mount Brown 
Loughs; Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — Wexford (Edenvale and Eosslare). West- 
meath (Waterstown and Shannon near Athloue). 

Distribution. — Great Britain ("very rare in the north," McLaclilan\ 
ranges from north Shetland as far south as Hereford at least). Northern and 
central Europe, from Finland to Switzerland. 

*Limnophilus nigriceps (Zett.). 

TI. — Armagh (Lowry's Lough, Johnson). 

Several specimens of this rare species were collected during the month of 
September at Lowiy's Lough (McZachlan, intern. Monthly Mag., xxix., 1893, 
p. 287). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (local ; north of England, Edinburgh, and 
Glasgow districts to Perthshire). Northern and central Europe. Lapland ; 
Vienna ; &c ; Turkestan. According to Morton, this is a local species both 
in Great Britain and on the Continent. 

Limnophilus centralis Curt. 


M. — Kerry (Killarney ; Eoss Castle ; Gap of Dunloe ; Glencar). Cork 
(Glandore). Waterford (Glenshelaue). C. — Galway (near Maam). Mayo 
(Mount Brown Lough and Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — Kilkenny. Wexford 
(Edenvale ; banks of Slaney near Wexford). Dublin (Howth). U. — 
Armagli (Mullinure). Donegal (Clonkillybeg ; Loughs Akiboon, Fern, and 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, Devonshire to Inverness). Isle 
of Man. Probably generally distributed in Europe {McLachlan). Not 
included by Navas in the Spanish fauna (1908). 


86 Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

Limnophilus vittatus (Fab.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle : Ardagh Loiigh ; Deenagh Eiver). Waterford 
(Cappoquin and Glenshelane). C. — Galway (Castlekirk ; Ballinasloe ; Tuam ; 
Cong). Roscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Mount Brown and Kip Loughs). 
L. — We.xford (Jolnistown Castle grounds). Wicklow (Roundwood and 
Enniskerry). Dublin (Rush ; Tolka at Glasnevin). Westmeath (Shannon ; 
Bog of Allen; Moate). TJ. — ^lonaghan (Emyvale). Armagh (MuUinure). 
Donegal (Lough Fern). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to North Shetland). Common 
throughout Europe, extending from Sicily and Spain to Lapland. Asia 

Limnophilus affinis Curt. 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Boreen-a-Morave ; Deenagh River). Water- 
ford (Dromana). C. — Galway (Ballinasloe). Roscommon (Yew Point). 
Mayo (Ballin Lough). L. — Wexford (Edeiivale ; Rosslare; Johnstown 
Castle grounds ; Slaney near Killurin). Westmeath (Shannon ; Coosan ; 
Hare Island in Lough Ree). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and Emyvale). 
Anuagh (Lowry's Lough, &c.). Donegal (River Lennan ; Lough Keel; 
Largy River ; Coolmorc). 

Distribution. — Common in Britain from Devonshire to North Shetland. 
Abroad it is widely spread, occurring in Iceland, Finland, and other parts of 
Europe; Amur Land ; north Persia; Madeira; &c. 

Accoi-ding to Mcl>achlan, this is proltably the most widely distributed 
of the Palaearctic Caddis- Hies. 

Limnophilus auricula Curt. 

MussTER. CoNNAUfiin. Lein.stek. I'lsteu. 

M . — Keny (common in the Killarney district). Waterford (Dromana 
and near Cappoquin). C. — Galway (Salthill ; Maam ; Cong; Ballinasloe; 
Castlekirk). Mayo (Mount Brown, Kip. and Coga\ila Loughs; Carrowbeg 
River). Sligo (Markree Castle). L. — Wexford (Rosslare; Johnstown Castle 
grounds). Wicklow (Lough Dan and Enniskerry). Dublin (Donabate). 
Westmeath (common in the Athlone district). Louth (Dundalk). U. — 
Monaghan (Emyvale and Glaslough). Armagh (Churchhill ; Lough Gilly ; 
Lough Gall ; &c.). Donegal (Coxtown). 

DigtribxUion. — Ranges in Gi-eat Britain from Devonshire to the Sliet- 
lands. Occurs also in the Isle of Mnn. Common in northern and central 
Europe. Spain {Xavdi). 


KiNu AND ITalbioki' — .1 fJxt of lilt'. Ncwopteva oj Ireland. 87 

Limnophilus griseus (L.). 


C. — Galway (near Maam ; Ballinasloe). Mayo (Kip Lough and Carrowbeg 
Eiver). Sligo (Markree Castle). L. — Westmeath (Coosan ; Bog of Allen), 
U. — Donegal (Cloghan ; Cottian ; Gorteen, Muethin, and Keel Loughs). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to north Shetlands). Isle of Man. 
Jersey. Probably occurs in most parts of Europe from Lapland to the 
Caucasus (not recorded from Spain) ; Iceland ; Eiiroes ; &c. Also in Siberia 

Limnophilus extricatus McLach. 


C. — Eoscommon (Summerhill). L. — Westmeath (Bog of Allen). TJ. — 
Donegal (Lough Akiboon). 

Distrihdion. — Great Britain (ranges from the south of England to 
Inverness). Northern and central Europe. 

Limnophilus hirsutus (Pict.). 


C. — Mayo (Knappagh Lough and Carrowbeg River). L. — Dublin. 
Westmeath (Shannon and Coosan Point). TJ. — Monaghau (Glaslough and 
Emyvale). Donegal (Coxtov^fn; Lough Keel ; near Kilmacrennau). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness). Guernsey ; 
Holland ; Switzerland ; Germany ; France ; Spain. 

Limnophilus luridus Curt. 


C. — Sligo (Markree Castle). L. — Westmeath (Shannon; Coosan). 
U. — Donegal (Lough Keel ; Eiver Lennan ; Cottian; Clonkillybeg). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (local; Hampshire to Perthshire at least). 
Finland; Holland; Belgium; Germany (Hamburg, Ulmer). 

Limnophilus sparsus Curt. 


M. — Kerry (common in the Killarney district ; Kenmare). Cork (Bally- 
griffin woods ; Glandore). Waterford (Dromana ; Cappagh Lough). 
C. — Galway (Salthill ; Cong ; Ballinasloe). Mayo (conmion in the Westport 
and Newport districts). Sligo (Markree). L. — Wexford (Johnstown Castle 
grounds). Wicklow (Eoundwood and Enniskerry). Dulilin (Donabate ; 
River Dodder near Tallaght ; Harold's Cross; brackish pond at Sutton). 

[.V *J 

88 Proceedings of the Royal Jrish Academy. 

Westmeath (Shannon; Killiuiue; T-wy Eiver; Waterstowu). U. — Mouaghau 
(Emyvale). Armagh (Lough Gilly ; Acton). Donegal (Coolmore ; Bruckless). 

Distribution. — Abundant in Great Britain, ranging from Devonshire to the 
Shetlands and Hebrides. Isle of Man. Northern and central Europe ; 
Spain ; Fai'oes. 

*Anabolia nervosa (Leach) Curt. 

LecsSter. Ulster. 

L. — Wicklow (Eoundwood, Halhcrt). Dublin (Eiver Tolka near Dublin, 
Halhert; Harold's Cross, Carpenter). Louth (Castlebellingham, ThornliiU). 
U. — Armagh (near Ai-magh ; Lowry's Lough ; Tynan ; and Maghery, Johnson). 

Distribution. — Widely spread in Great Britain (New Forest, Strath- 
glass, &C.). Kecorded as generally abundant in western Europe. 

Stenophyllax stellatus (Curt.). 

M. — Kerry (Cloghereen ; The Glen in Deer Park). Tipperary (Cahir). 
C. — ."^ligo (near Sligo). L. — Dublin (Lucan). TJ. — Donegal (Coolmore ; 
Dunleury ; Gwcedore ; Lough Keel). 

Distribution. — Great Biitain (Devonshire, Inverness, &c.). Widely spread 
over Europe (except Spain), and probably more abundant in the north, 
extending from Lapland to north-western Siberia {MeLachlan). 

Stenophylax latipennis (Curt.) [S. radiatus Itanib.). 


L — Louth (Carlingford). 

Distribution. — In Great Britain this species extends from Devonshire to 
the Shetlands. Abroad it is found from Lapland {Sahlber//) to Italy and 

Stenophylax permistus McLach. (5. conccntricus Mcljach., nee Zett.). 

Minster. Connaught. Lkinsteb. Ulster. 

M.— Clare (Lahinch). C. — Sligo (near Sligo). L. — Dublin (Sandymount, 
flying to light in houses ; Portmamock ; Rathmines). Westmeath (Killucan). 
IT. — Armagh Annagh). Antrim (gas lamps at Belfast). 

DUtrihution. — Common in Great Britain (Devonshire to the Shetlands). 
Probably spread all over Europe, ranging from Lapland to Spain). 

Microptema sequax McLach. [M. striata Pict. ncc Linn.). 
Leisster. Ulster. 

L. — Dublin (Dodder banks between Templeogue and Tallaght). 
XX. — Tyrone (Favour Eoyal). Armagh. Donegal (Coolmore). 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 89 

Distribution. — Great Britain (not common, but ranging from Devon to 
Inverness). Jersey ; Finland ; Sweden ; France ; Germany ; Switzerland 
{Ris) ; Austria ; south Kussia ; Corsica. 

Micropterna lateralis (Stej)h.). 


M.— Kerry (Tore Cascade). C. — Koscommon (Mote Park). Sligo (near 
Sligo and Keshcorran). L. — Kilkenny (Johnstown, Haliday MS.). Dublin 
(Howth). Westmeath (Shannon). U. — Tyrone (Favour Eoyal and Alta- 
diawan). Armagh (Mullinure and Scarva) . Donegal (near Kilmacreunan ; 

Distribution.— Gi'ea.t Britain (widely distributed, New Forest to Unst). 
Northern and central Europe. 

Halesus radiatus (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Cloghereen ; Horse's Glen). C. — Gal way (Maam Paver). 
L. — Wicklow (Eoundwood and Lough Dan). Dublin (Howth). Louth 
(Drogheda) . 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Shetlands) . Jersey ; northern 
and central Europe ; Spain. 

Drusus annulatus Steph. 


C. — Galway (Castlekirk). 

Distribution. — According to McLachlan, this is an alpine species 
inhabiting clear torrents in rocky and mountainous districts. It is widely 
spread in Britain, having been found in Devonshire and in the Shetlands. 
Abroad it would appear to be local, occurring in Germany (Schwarzwald, 
Harz, Eieseugebii'ge, &c. Ulmer) ; Belgium ; France. 

*Chaetopteryx villosa (Fab.) (C. tuberculosa Pict.). 


M. — Cork (Carrigrohane ! Standcn). L. — Kilkenny (" Dee. 1, Johnstown," 
Halidcoj MS.), Wicklow (Eoundwood and Lough Dan, October, Halbert). 
U. — Antrim (lakes at Fair Head, September, Halbert) . 

A late autumn species, which has probably been overlooked in many 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Perthshire and 
Inverness) ; Eussian Lapland ; Finland ; Scandinavia ; western Eussia ; 
Germany ; Austria ; Belgium ; Switzerland ; France. 

90 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 

•Apatania WaUengreni McLach. (A. rcstita Kol.}. 


11. — Donegal (Cottian, females probably referable to this species, King). 

Distribution. — Great Britain English Lake District to Perthshire at least). 
Lapland; Finland. Ulmer does not include this species amongst the 
German Trichoptera (Die Susswasserfauna Deutschlands, 1909). 

Apatania fimbriata (Pict.). 

M. — Kerry ("Windy Gap near Kenmare ; lakes in the Gap of Dunloe ; 
Coppagh Glen ; Garagarry Lough). 

Writing of the occurrence of this species in the Gap of Dunloe, where it 
was first discovered in the British Isles, Mr. Morton says : " In Ireland it 
occurred at spots where the margins of the lakes were lined with huge blocks 
of rock, and we took it at rest on or flying amongst the rocks, and by 
sweeping the herbage on the banks. Usually at such places the only aquatic 
vegetation was a scattered growth of the pretty Lobeiia Dortmanna " (Entom. 
Monthly Afag., xxiv., 1887, p. 118). 

IHstrxbution. — This species is unknown in Great Britain. Abroad it 
inhabits the mountain regions of central Eurojie [McLachhn) ; Germany 
Harz, Thuringen, &c. ) : France (ChamounLx ; Savoy ; Haute Loire) ; 
Austria (Sudetic Chain ; Carinthia ; &c.) ; and probably other localities. 

Sericostoma personal am i-S pence). 

MtrxsTKK. CoNXAUGHT. Leixstbk. Ulster. 

M.— Kerry (Ross Castle; Deenagh River; Mnckross ; Cloghereen ; Gap 
of Dunloe ; Parknasilla). Waterford (Cappoquin ). C. — Galway (Cong), 
^layo (Mount Brown ; Cogaula and Knappagh Loughs ; Carrowbeg River). 
L — Wexford Torth Mountains). Wicklow (Enniskerry). Dublin (River 
Dodder between Templeogue and Tallaght^. Westmeath (Shannon ; Coosan). 
U.— Monaghan (Glasloughj. Donegal (Coxtown ; Keel, Sproule's, and Fern 
Loughs ; Glenbeagh). Armagh (Coney Island in Lough Xeagh\ 

Dittrihution. — Great Britain (common, Devon to Inverness). Isle of 
Man. Northern and central Europe. 

Goera pilosa (Fab.) [G.flavipcs Curt.). 
MrxsTKR. Coss.\rr,HT. Ledjstkb. Ulstkk. 

M.— Kerry (Ross Castle; River Flesk). Cork (Mallow). Waterford 
(Lismore). C. — Galway (Casllekirk). Roscommon 'Tew Point). Mayo (Doc, 

King and Halbert — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 9 1 

Ciisliinshceaun, Mount Erown and Kip Loughs ; Canowbeg Iiiver). Sligo 
(near Sligo). L. — Wexford (Edenvale). Wicklow (Calary). Westmeath 
(Coosan Point ; Shannon ; near Athlone ; &c.). TJ. — Monaghan (Glaslough 
and Emyvale). Donegal (Coolmore; Fern and Ir\'ine's Loughs; C'lonkillybeg). 
Armagh (Coney Island in Lough Neagh). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire, to the south of Scotland). 
Northern and central Europe. 

Silo pallipes (Fab.). 


M. — Kerry (DcAil's Punch-bowl ; Muckross ; Deenagh and Flesk Eivers ; 
Tore ; Kenmare ; Loo Bridge). Cork (Glandore). Waterford (Glenshelane 
and Dromana). L. — Wexford (Edenvale). Wicklow (Enniskerry and 
Fassaroe). Dublin (Eiver Dodder at Templeogue). IT. — Armagh (near 
Armagh). Donegal (Ardara ; Loughs Salt and Eeelan ; Lennan Bridge). 
Antrim (Colin Glen). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common ; Devon and Kent to Inverness). 
Generally distributed in Europe from Lapland to western Eussia, and France. 
Not recorded from Spain or PortugaL 

Silo nigricornis (Pict.) {S. fumipennis McLaeh.). 


M . — Kerry (Deenagh and Flesk Eivers ; Dinish). C. — Mayo (Mount 
Brown Lough and Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — Dublin (Eiver Dodder at Temple- 
ogue). Westmeath (Ballykeeran and Killinure). 

Distribution. — Britain (local in the south, McLachlan). Germany; 
Austria ; Switzerland ; Holland ; Belgium ; France (Basses Pyrenees, &c.). 

Crunoecia irrorata (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Tore Cascade). Waterford (Dromana and Cappoquin). 
L. — Wexford (Edenvale). TJ. — Donegal (Sproule's Lough). Antrim 
(Colin Glen). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). Germany ; Switzer- 
land ; France (Pyrenees, &c.) Transylvania, to the Carpathians. 

Lepidostoma Mrtum (Fab.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Dinish ; Cloghereen ; Deenagh Eiver, &c.). 
Waterford (Lismore ; Salterbridge ; and Cappoquin). C. — Gal way (Maum- 
wee Lough and Castlekirk). Eoscommon (Yew Point; Summerhill). 

92 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Mayo (Can'owbeg Eiver). Sligo (near Sligo). L. — Westmeath (Shannon ; 
Coosan ; Wineport ; Waterstown). TJ. — Donegal (Dimleury Lough ; 
Lennan Bridge ; Cottian ; Gweedore). Antrim (Cave Hill near Belfast ; 
Shane's Castle, Lough Neagh). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Shetlands). Probably all over 
Europe as far north as Lapland ; Spain {Navds). 

Beraea pullata (Curt.)- 
CoxNAUGHT. Leinster. Uijstei;. 

C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — Wexford (Johnstown Castle grounds ; 
Edenvale). Dublin (marshy places on Lambay Island). XI. — Armagh 
(Lough Gilly and MuUinure). 

Didrihutiun. — Great Britain (Devonshire; Yorkshire; North Wales; 
Glasgow district; &c.). Isle of Man. Widely spread in western Europe 
(Norway to Portugal). 

Beraea maurus (Curt.;. 

M. — Kerry (near Kcnmare ; Ardagh ; Cloghereen ; Dinish ; Tore). Cork 
(Glandore). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg Piiver and Knappagh Lough). L. — 
Wexford (Killurin and Edenvale). U. — Antrim (Cave Hill near Belfast). 

DiMrihution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). Scandina\na (not in 
Lapland) to Spain and northern Italy. 

Holanna palpata McLach. 

Lein.^ter. Ulster. 

L. — Westmeath (occurs in considerable numbers along the Shannon 
between Athlone and Lough Ree, King). IT. — Armagh (Lowry's Lough near 
Armagh, in June, Johnson). 

The occurrence of this species on the River Shannon is worthy of note. 
In Scotland it frequents peaty lakes. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Perthshire; Inverness; West Hebrides). 
Northern Lapland ; Finland (Sahlhcrg) ; Russia ; Siberia (district of the 
Yenisei, Sahibenj). Not included by Ulmer in the German fauna (1909). 

Odontocerum albicorne (Scop.). 

M. — Kerr)- (Klillamey, Hagen ; Deenagh River ; Horse's Glen). Water- 
ford (Glenshelane and Cappoquin). C. — Mayo (Mount Brown and Cogaula 

King and Halbert — A Lis I of the I^europiera of Ireland. 93 

Louglii5). L. — Wexford (Edenvale"). TJ. — Donegal (Cloiikillybeg ; Loughs 
Eeelan and Goi'teen ; River Lennan ; Glcnbeagli; Cottian). 

DJs<W62{<zo?i.— Great Britain (locally common, Devon to Inverness). Isle 
of Man. Eecorded from many localities in central and southern Europe. 

Leptocerus nigro-nervosus (Eetz). 

MuNSTER. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle and Garagarry Lough). U. — Donegal (Salt 
and Gorteen Loughs). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (widely spread ; Thames ; Eannoch ; Outer 
Hebrides ; &c.). Northern and central Europe, reaching Lapland. 

Leptocerus fulvus (Eamb.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Cloghereen ; Deenagh Eiver ; Gap of Dunloe ; 
Garagarry Lough). C. — Gal way (Castlekirk and Maumwee). Eoscommon 
(Yew Point). Mayo (Prospect Lough and Carrowbeg Eiver). L. — West- 
nieath (Shannon ; Coosan ; Hare Island). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and 
Emyvale). Donegal (Loughs Fern and Sproule). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to the Shetlands). 
Eussian Lapland to central Europe ; Siberia. 

Leptocerus senilis (Burm.). 

Munster. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle; Deenagh Eiver; Coppagh Glen). Cork 
(Glandore). C. — Galway (Castlekirk). Mayo (Knappagh and Prospect 
Loughs ; Newport Eiver). L. — Westmeath (Shannon ; Coosan ; Twy 
Eiver). TJ. — Donegal (Coolmore; Loughs Fern and Sproule; Clonkillybeg). 

Distribution. — -Great Britain (south of England to Wigtownshii-e). 
Finland ; Eussia ; Germany ; Belgium ; Holland ; France ; Siberia. 

Leptocerus albo-guttatus Hagen. 

Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

C. — Mayo (Knappabeg Lough). L. — Kilkenny. Westmeath (on the 
Shannon below Athlone). U.— Monaghan (Emyvale). Donegal (Lennan 
Bridge; Lough Fern; Cottian). 

Distrihition. — Great Britain (Hants to Inverness, at least). Germany ; 
Holland; Belgium; France; Portugal. 

E.I. A. PROn., vol.. XXVIIJ., SEOT. B. | CJ 

94 Proceedmcjs of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Leptocerus annulicornis Steph. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Windy Gap). C. — Eoscommon 
(Shannon near Athlone). L. — Westmeath (Shannon near Athlone). 
XJ. — Donegal (Gorteen and Fern Longhs ; Lennan Ei\'er). 

Bktribidion. — Great Britain (south of England to Perthshire at least). 
Finland ; Germany ; Saxony ; Holland ; Bohemia). 

Leptocerus aterrimus Steph. 


M. — Kerry (Boss Castle; Coppagii Glen; Ardagh Longh ; Muckross). 
"VVaterford ^Cappagh Lough). C. — Roscommon (Yew Point undSuuunerhill). 
Mayo (common in the Westport and Newport districts). L. — Wexford 
(Rosslare ; Edenvale ; Johnstown Castle grounds). Westmeath (Shannon ; 
Coosan; Wineport; Twy Lough). IT. — Monaghan (Glaslough and Emyvale). 
Annagh (Lowry's Lough near Armagh). Donegal (common in the Kilma- 
crennan district). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness). Widely 
spread in Europe, ranging to Finland. Not recorded from Spain or Portugal. 

Leptocerus cinereus Curt. 


M. — Kerry (common in the Killarney and Muckross districts ; Devil's 
Punch-bowl ; Gap of Dunloe, &c.). Cork (Mallow). Waterford (Lismore ; 
Dromana ; Cappoquin ; Glenshelane). C— Galway (Castlekirk ; Maumwee 
Lough). Roscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (common on various loughs in 
the Westport and Newport districts). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and 
Emyvale). Armagh (Milford ; Lowrj's Lough ; Coney Island, &c.). 
Donegal (Coolmore ; common in the Kilmacrennan district ; Loughs Keel, 
Gorteen, &c.). 

Di.ftrihution. — Great Britain (Cornwall to north Shetlands). Finland to 
Portugal, and eastwards to Russia. 

Leptocerus albifrons (L.). 

McxsTEK. Coxnacght. Lei.s.stei(. Ulster. 

M. —Kerry (Ross Castle; Deer Park; Deenagh River; Coppagh Glen; 
Gap of Dunloe; Dinish). Cork (Mallow). Waterford (Dromana and 
Cappoquin). C— Galway (Castlekirk; Lough Corrib; Maam . Roscommon 
(Tew Point and Summerhill). Mayo (Mount Jirown and Knappabeg Loughs ; 


King and Halbioki' — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 95 

Newport River). L. — Dublin (Ijueaii demesne). Wcstincatli i Waterstown ; 
Coosan Point; Hare Island; Ballykeeran). IT. — Mouaglian (Glaslough). 
Donegal (Lennan Bridge). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). Northern and 
central Europe. 

Leptocerus commutatus (Eostock) McLach. 


M. — Kerry (eommon in the Killarney district ; near Kenmare ; Loo 
Bridge). C. — Galway (Castlekirk). L. — Dublin (Lucan demesne). West- 
nieath (Glasson and Coosan Point). U. — Mouaghan (Emyvale). Donegal 
( Ardara ; Lennan Bridge ; Lough Fern ; Cottian) . 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Perthshire). Finland; 
Germany; Saxony; Belgium; France. 

Leptocerus bilineatus (L.). 

L. — Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Shannon). 

DistrihiUion. — Great Britain (local ; Devon to Inverness). Lapland ; 
Germany ; France ; Austria ; Switzerland ; Eussia ; Turkestan. 

Leptocerus dissimilis Steph. 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Devil's Punch-bowl ; Deenagh Eiver ; Glena ; 
&c.). C. — Galway (Castlekirk). Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Carrowbeg 
Eiver). L. — Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Shannon side; Coosan Point; 
Waterstown demesne; Wiueport). TJ. — Monaghau (Glaslough and Emyvale). 
Donegal (Gorteen, Eeelau, and Fern Loughs ; Gleubeagh ; Lennan Eiver ; 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). Finland ; Sweden ; 
Eussia ; Germany ; France. 

Mystaoides nigra (L.). 

U. — Monaghan (Glaslough). Down (Eiver Lagan). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness). Probably 

all over Europe, ranging from Lapland to Spain. 

Mystacides azurea (L.). 
M. — KeiTy (common in the Killarney district ; Loo Bridge, &c.). Cork 

96 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

(Glandore and Mallow]. C. — Galway (Castlekirk and Maumwee Lough). 
Mayo (common in the Westport and Newport districts). L. — "Wexford 
(Johnstown Castle grounds ; Eden vale). Dublin Lucan demesne ; Tolka at 
Glasne%-in). Westmeath (Coosan Point). II. — Monaghan (Glaslough). Ai-magh 
(Coney Island and Maghery, Lough Xeagh). Donegal (Ardara ; Kilmacrennan 
district, common). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to the Shetlands). "Widely 
distributed in western Europe ; Lapland to Spain. 

Mystacides longicomis (L.). 

Ml'xstkr. Connaugut. Letsster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Ross Castle). Cork (Glandore). "Waterford (Cappagh 
Lough). C. — Roscommon (Summerhill). Mayo (Westport and Newport 
districts). L. — "\A''estmeath (Shannon; Coosan Point; Twy Lough; Bog of 
Allen; Deravaragh). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and Emp-ale). Donegal 
(Loughs Fern and Keel). Armagh. Antrim (Portmore Lough, HaUday MS.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). Northern and central 

'Triaenodes conspersa (Eamb.). 

L.— Wexford (Rosslare, King). 

Distribution. — England (rare ; has been found in the counties of Devon, 
Hants, and Worcester, Morton). Finland ; Sweden ; Germany ; Saxony ; 
France ; Spain ; Sicily. 

Triaenodes bicolor (Curt). 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Ardagh Lough ; Windy Gap). Cork (Glandore). 
Waterford (Cappagh Lough). C. — Galway (Castlekirk, Maumwee Lough). 
Mayo (Westport and Newport districts, common). L. — Wexford (Johnstown 
Castle grounds). U. — ilonaghan (Glaslough and Emyvale). Donegal 
(Sproule's and Askerr)' Loughs ; Lennan River ; Glenbeagh). Armagh 
(near Armagh ; Coney Island in Lough Neagh). 

Di<Uribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Inverness). General over 
northern and central Europe. 

•Adicella reducta ''Steph.) McLach. 

M.— Kerry (Killamey, Eaton). Cork (Glandore, Halhert). Waterford 

(Blackwater near Lismore, Halbcrt). 

King and Halbekt — A List of the Neitroptera of Ireland. 97 

Collected by Eev. A. E. Eaton in the Killamey district, June 12, 1902, 
and recorded by Mr. McLachlan [Entovi. Monthly Mag., 1903, p. 14). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (small rivers and streams, especially in the 
south, 3lcLachlan; Cornwall to Kent; North Wales and Perthshire, &c.). 
Abroad it is found in Germany (Ulmcr); Saxony; vSwitzerland ; France; 
Spain ; Portugal. Eanges eastwards to the Carpathians {Morton). 

Oecetis ochracea (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Ardagh Lough ; Deenagh Eiver). Cork 
(Glandore). C. — Galway (Cong). Eoscommon (Yew Point}. Mayo (Knappagh, 
Ballin and Kip Loughs). L. — Westmeath (Shannon; Coosan Point; Wine- 
port ; Waterstown ; Bog of Alien]. U. — Monaghau (Glaslough and Emyvale). 
Ai-magh (Lowry's Lough, &c.). Donegal (Loughs Fern, Gorteen, and 
Eeelan; Clonkillybeg). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to the Shetlands). 
Northern and central Europe. 

Oecetis farva (Eamb.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Dinish ; Ardagh Lough ; Gap 
of Dunloe). C. — Galway (Castlekirk and Maumwee Lough). Mayo (Doogan, 
Broad, Knappagh, and Prospect Loughs ; Bleachyard). L. — Westmeath 
(Coosan ; Killinure ; Waterstown demesne) . U. — Monaghan (Glaslough and 
Emyvale). Donegal (Sproule's Lough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to Wigtownshire at least). 
Finland ; Germany ; Holland ; Switzerland [Eis) ; France. 

Oecetis lacustris (Pict.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle; Deenagh Eiver; Tore Cascade; Ardagh Lough; 
Horse's Glen). C. — Galway (Castlekirk). Eoscommon (Yew Point). Mayo 
(Doogan, Prospect, and Knappagh Loughs). L. — Wexford (Johnstown Castle 
grounds). Westport (Shannon ; Coosan Point; Wineport; Hare Island). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (occurs as far north as Strathglass). 
Probably over most of Europe (not in Spain). Extending into N.-W. 

Oecetis notata (Eamb.). 


M. — Waterford (near Lismore). L. — Dublin (Lucan demesne). 

98 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Surrey to Inverness). Finland to Germany 
'Schlesien and Saxony) ; France; and Austria. 

Oecetis testacea (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Flesk and Deenagh Eivers ; Muckross ; Dinish ; 
Tore; Cloghereen). C. — ^layo (Mount Brown Lough). L. — Wexford 
(Edenvale and Killurin ). Wicklow (Enniskerr)-). Westmeath (Shannon ; 
Killinure; T\v)' Ijough ; Waterstown). U. — Donegal (Keel, Gorleeu, and 
Akiboon Loughs; Cottian; Glenbeagh; Clonkillybeg ; Lennan Bridge). 

lyistrihUion. — Great Britain (south of England to Inverness). Finland 
(rare) ; Sweden ; Holland ; Germany ; Saxony ; Switzerland ; France 
(Pyrenees); Portugal. 

Setodes argentipanctella McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Muckross Abbey and Koss Castle). 

This local species was captured by the Eev. A. E. Eaton, on the 18th of 
August, not far from the Abbey at Muckross. He reports it as swarming up 
in great quantities from the lake {Entom. Monthly Mag., 1877). It also 
occurs in great profusion at Eoss Castle. 

Di-Urihution. — Great Britain (occurs in the English Lake District and in 
Wigtownshire). Abroad this local species has recently been found in Belgium ; 
south-western Germany (Hesse, Ulmcr) ; Switzerland (Ris), and Navas records 
it from Fuencaliente in soutberu Spain (1908). 

Hydropsyche pellucidula (Curt.). 

M. — Kerry ((-'loghereen and Deenagh Eiver). C. — Gal way (Sal thill), 
L. — Westmeath (Shannon). U. — Donegal (Eeelan, Gorteen, Sproule's, and 
Ir\ine's Loughs; Lennan and Largy Eivers; Cottian). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Eannoch at least). Found all 
over Europe, Lapland to the Meditenanean Islands ; Asia Minor. 

Hydropsyche instabilis (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Cloghereen ; Tore Cascade ; Horse's Glen ; 
Gap of Dunloe ; &c.). C. — Galway (Lough Corrib near Galway ; Cong ; Maam 
Eiver). Mayo (Mount Brown, Croft, Carrowbeg, Brocka, and Cogaula 

King and Halbkkt — ^1 List of the Neuroptcra of Ireland. 99 

Loughs ;CarrowbegKivcr). L. — Kilkenny. King's County (Edendciry). Wick- 
low (Enniskerry). Dublin (Lucan ; Eiver Dodder between Templeogue and 
Tallaght). Westmeath (Shannon and Ballykeeran). Louth (Carlingford). 
U. — Monaghan (Emyvale). Donegal (Bundoran ; Ardara ; Cottian; Lennan 
Bridge; Lough Reelan; &c.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Strathglass;. Isle of Man. 
Widespread, ranging from Finland to the Pyrenees, Portugal, and central 

Hydi-opsyche angustipennis (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (near Kenmare]. Waterford (near Lismore). C. — Mayo 
(Mount Brown and Knappagh Loughs). L. — Westmeath (Twy Pdver). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to the Clyde district}. Found in 
Finland and over most of Europe, but not recorded from Spain. 

Hydropsyche guttata (Pict.). 

M. — Cork (Mallow). L. — Westmeath (Shannon). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Perthshire). Widespread in 

Hydropsyche lepida (Pict.). 


M. — Kerry (common in the Killarney and Muckross districts). Cork 
(Mallow). Waterford (Lismore and Cappoquinl. C. — Gal way fCong ; 
Lough Corrib near Galwayj. L. — Wexford (Edenvale). Dublin (Lucan). 
Westmeath (Shannon). TJ. — Donegal (Lennan Bridge). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Lanarkshire at least). 
Probably in most of Europe, except the south of Italy, Greece, and the 
Mediterranean Islands {JfcLachlan). 

Diplectrona felix (McLach). 

Monster. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Tore ; Horse's Glen ; Coppagh Glen ; Gap of Dunloe). C. — 
Galway (Maam Paver). L. — Wicklow (Enniskerry). U. — Antrim (Cave 
Hill;. Donegal (Lough Reelan). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Cornwall to Inverness). Germany • 
Saxony ; Guernsey ; France ; Iberian Peninsula ; central Italy. 

100 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Philopotamus montanus (Donov.). 


M. — Kerry (Devil's Punch-bowl ; Tore Cascade ; Hoi-se's Glen : the Glen 
in Deer Park ; Grap of Dimloe ; Kenmare). "Waterford (Salterbridge near 
Cappoquin ; Glenshelane). C. — Galway (Castlekirk ; Maam Eiver ; Clon- 
brock). Mayo (Clare Island ; streams on Croagh Patrick ; Carrowbeg Eiver ; 
Inishbofin). L. — "Wexford. Wicklow (Enniskerry). Dublin Howth and 
Tibradden). U. — Donegal (Ardara; Loughs Eeelan and Salt). Antrim 
(Colin Glen). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (in suitable localities from Cornwall to the 
Shetlands; St. Kilda). Isle of Man. Lapland to Spain, and northern Italy. 

Var. scoticus McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Killamey, HarJi/ ; stream at Cloghereen, Xing). 

Occurs in large numbers along the banks of a swiftly-flowing stream and 
a small spring in this locality, the waters of both being very cold even 
during August. No example of the type form could be found in this locality, 
although it was common on almost every stream in the district. 

Distribution. — This well-marked variety has occurred at Eannoch in 
Scotland, and in north Wales, as well as at Killamey. 

Wormaldia occipitalis (Pict). 


M. — Kerry (Tore Cascade; Cloghereen; Horse's Glen; Gap of Dunloe ; 
Dinish). Cork (Glandore). C. — Mayo (Clare Island ; Carrowbeg Eiver in 
Westport demesne). IT. — Donegal (Clonkillybeg ; Coxtown). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (ranges from Cornwall to Inverness ; not 
uncommon, especially in the north and west of England, McLachlan). 
Germany (East Prussia ; Black Forest ; &c., Ulmer ; Saxony). Austria : 
Switzerland; Guernsey; France; Spain; and Greece. 

Wormaldia mediana McLach. 

L. — Wicklow (Enniskerry, King). 

Distribution. — In Great Britain this species has been found at Pitlochry 
in Perthshire, and at Strathglasa in Inverness. Abroad it inhabits parts of 
central and southern Europe — Hungarj* ; central Italy ; Portugal ; and 
Sicily. Ulmer does not include it in the German fauna (1909). 

Kino and Halbkut — A List of the Neurnptera of Trelancl. 101 
Wormaldia subnigra McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Cloghereen; Tore Cascade; C4ap of Dunloe). Waterford 
(Glenshelane ; Salterbridge near Cappoquin). C. — Galway (Maam River). 
Mayo (Croft Lough ; Carrowbeg Eivcr). L. — Wexford (Edenvale). Dublin 
(Lucan demesne). TJ. — Donegal (Clonkillybeg). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire and Surrey to Inverness). Isle 
of Man. Abroad it is found in Finland ; Sweden ; Denmark {Petersen) ; 
Germany [Vlmcr); Switzerland; Saxony; Austria; and Holland. 

Chimarrlia marginata (L.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Flesk Eiver ; Gap of Dunloe ; Dinish). Water- 
ford (Eiver Blackwater near Lisniore). C. — Galway [Haliday lis.; Lough 
Corrib, near Galway). Mayo (Carrowbeg and Newport Elvers). L. — Wexford 
(Edenvale). Dublin (Lucan demesne). C — Donegal (Bundoran ; Ardara; 
Eiver Lennan ; Cottian). "Ireland, amongst waterfalls" {Hagcn, Entoin. 
Annual, 1860). 

Common in suitable localities. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Inverness at least). Northern 
and central Europe, extending from Finland to Portugal. 

Neureclipsis bimaculata (L.). 

Munstee. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Killarney ; Horse's Glen ; Dinish ; Gap of Dunloe). Cork 
(lakes near Glandore). C. — Galway (Lough Corrib at Galway ; Shannon 
near Athlone). Mayo (Knappagh and Mount Brown Loughs). L. — Dublin 
(abundant, McLaclilan). Westmeath (Coosan Point and Twy Lough). U. — 
Donegal (Gorteen Lough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (McLachlan reports this as a common 
species, but there are few records. It ranges north at least to Perthshire). 
Widely distributed in Europe, extending to Lapland. Also occurs in western 
Siberia and North America (Hudson's Bay, Slave Lake). Only the one 
species of Neusrcclifsis has been described up to the present time. 

Plectrocnemia conspersa Curt. 
MuNSTER. Connaught. Leinster. Ulster. 

M. — Kerry (Cloghereen; De\ars Punch-bowl). C. — Mayo (Clare Island ; 
Carrowbeg Eiver). Sligo (near Sligo ; Lough Gill). L. — Westmeath 


102 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(Ballykeeran ; Shannon near Athlone ; Waterstown). TJ, — Donegal 
(Coolmore ; Longh Keelan ; Glenbeagh). Armagh (Armagh district ; 

Disiribution. — Great Britain (Devon to north Shetlands). Isle of Man. 
Widely distributed in Europe from Eussian Lapland to the Faroes : Spain ; 
Corsica; &c. 

Plectrocnemia jeniculata McLach. 

MrxsTER. Filter. 

M. — Kerry (Horse's Glen). TJ. — Donegal (Lough Eeelan). Armagh. 

Distrihiition. — Great Britain (local ; Cornwall to Eannoeh. St. Kilda). Isle 
of Man. Guernsey ; Switzerland ; Belgium : Germany ; France ; Austria ; 
Spain ; Northern Italy ; Corsica. 

Polycentropns flavomaculatus (PicL). 

M. — Kerry (common in the Killarney and Muckross districts ; De^^l's 
Punch-bowl ; Kenmare ; Sue) Waterford (Cappoquin). C. — Galway (Castle- 
kirk, Maumwee Loughs). Roscommon (Yew Point). Mayo (Clare Island ; 
Mount Brown and Broad Loughs ; Newport and Carrowbeg Eivers ; Achill 
Island). L. — Wexford (Edenvale; Johnstown Castle grounds). Dublin 
(Lacan demesne ; Tolka at Glasnevin). Westmeath (Coosan Point ; Bally- 
keeran ; Waterston ; Shannon at Athlone ; Killinure ; Hare Island ; Twy 
Lough). U. — Mon^han Glaslough). Donegal (Kilmacrennan district ; 
Lough Fern ; &c.). Armagh (Coney Island in Lough Neagh, &c.}. Antrim 
(Colin Glen). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Cornwall to Shetlands, and Out«r Hebrides). 
Isle of Man. Probably distribute*;! over most of Europe from Lapland to 
Corsica {JfcLachian). 

Polycentropos maltiguttatus Curt 

MrssTKR. CoxxAVGHT. Leinstek. Ulsteb. 

K. — Kerry (common in the Killarney district ; Gap of Dunloe ; Tore ; »Skc.). 
"Waterford (Glenshelane near Cappoquin). C. — Galway (near Maam;. Eos- 
common (Summerhill). Mayo '^Knapi«agh, Prospect, and Mount Brown 
Loughs; Carrowbeg River). L. — Iiublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Shannon 
and Bally keeran). U. — Mouaghan (Glaslough). Donegal (lakes and streams 
in the Kilmacrennan district). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common, extending to Perthshire). Widely 
distrilmte.1 in Europe. 

King and Hakbkrt — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 103 
Polycentropus Kingi McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Tore Cascade ; Glena ; Horse's Glen ; Gap of Dunloe). 
C. — Mayo (Garrowbeg River). U.— Antrim (Colin Glen). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (North Wales and Lake District to 
Inverness). Isle of Man {Morton) ; Switzerland (Felbcr) ; Portugal and 
Sardinia (McLachlan). 

Holocentropus dubius (Eamb.). 


M. — Kerry (Lough Crincauni). Cork (lakes near Glaudore). C— Mayo 
(Knappagh and Cushinsheeaun Loughs). TJ. — Monaghan (Glaslough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (local; Dorset to Inverness.). Northern and 
central Europe. 

Holocentropus stagnalis (Albarda). 

C. — Mayo (Doogan Lough, King). U. — Armagh (Lowry's Lough, Johnson, 
fide McLaclilan). 

A Holocentropus, evidently of this species, was taken at Doogan Lough. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (range not ascertained; occurs in Suffolk 
and Worcestershire). Holland and Germany. 

Holocentropus picicornis (Steph.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Horse's Glen ; Tore ; Gap of Dunloe ; Kilbrean 
Lough ; Glena ; Parknasilla ; near Kenmare). C. — Galway (Maumwee 
Lough). Mayo (Clare Island; Cushinsheeaun, Prospect, Knappabeg, and 
Doogan Loughs). Eoscommon (Summerhill). L. — Dublin (Eiver Dodder 
near Dublin ; Santry demesne). Westmeath (Shannon ; Coosan). U. — 
Monaghan (Glaslough and Emyvale). Donegal (Loughs Keel, Askerry, 
Mnafin, and Gorteen). Ai-magh (Lowry's Lough, &c.). 

Mr McLachlan records a variety of this species taken by Col. Yerbury 
at Parknasilla in July, 1901. At first sight it resembled a small Silu or 
large Bcraca ; but examination proved it to be a Holocentropus, with no 
structural characters to distinguish it from H. jncicornis. The wings are 
totally black, with the pubescence of the anterior slightly rusty ; and the 
antennae are without anuulations (Untom. Monthly Mag., (2) xiii., p. 112). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devon to Perthshire). Abroad it is found 
from Lapland to Hungary.' 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Cyrnus trimaculatns (Curt.). 


M, — Kerry (Killarney and Muckross districts ; Devil's Punch-bowl; Gap 
of Dunloe, &c.). C. — Galway (Castlekirk ; Maimiwee Lougli). Eoscommon 
(Summerhill and Yew Point). Mayo (Achill; lakes and streams in the 
Westport and Newport districts). L. — Wexford (Johnstown Castle grounds). 
Dublin (Lucan). Westmeath (Coosan ; Wineport ; Bog of Allen). U. — 
Monaghan (Glaslough and Einyvale). Armagh (Maghery, Lough Neagh). 
Donegal (Ardara ; common in the Kilmacrennan district). Down (River 

DUtrihidion. — Great Britain (widespread, extending to the Slictlauds). 
Generally distributed over most of Europe. Not recorded from Spain. 

Cyrnus flavidus McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Gap of Dunluc). C. — Galway (Maumwee Lough). Mayo 
(Knappagh and Prospect Loughs). L. — Westport (Coosan Point). TJ. — 
Armagh (Lowry's Lough). Donegal (Loughs Fern, Sproule, Mnafin, &c., in 
the Kilmacrennan district ; Ardara). 

Dixtrihution. — Great Britain (local ; Kent to Strathglass). Finland ; 
Norway ; Russia ; Holland ; Denmark ; Switzerland ; Germany. 

Ecnomus tenellus (Ramb.). 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle and Ardagh Ix)ugh). C. — Mayo (Doogan, 
Prospect, Doo, and Knappagh Loughs). L. — Westmeath (Wineport and 
Waterstown). U. — Monaglian (Glaslough and Emyvale). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (local, McLftchlan ; has not been found 
in Scotland). Widely spread in Europe ; Asia Minor ; Turkestan. 

Tinodes Waeneri (L.). 

M. — Kerry (frequent in the Killarney district; Gap of Dunloe; &c.; near 
Kenmare ; Loo Bridge). Cork (lakes near Glandore). C. — Galway 
(Maumwee Lough ; Maani River ; Castlekirk). Mayo (lakes and streams in 
the Westport and Newport districts). L.— Wexford (Johnstown Castle 
grounds). Wicklow (Lough Dan). Dublin (Lucan ; mountain streams). 
We-stmeath (.Shannon : Coosan ; Wineport ; Bog of Allen). U. — Monaghan 

King and Halbeut — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 105 

(Glasloiigh). Armagh (Camlough). Donegal (Loughs Keel, Salt, Fern, and 
Iveelan ; Glenbeagh ; I^argy Kiver ; Olonkillybeg). 

Distrihution. — Great Britain (Cornwall to North Shetlands). Common all 
over Europe. 

Tinodes aureola (Zett.). 


M.— Kerry (Gap of Dunloe ; Tore ; The Glen in Deer Park ; Spa Well ; 
Flesk Eiver). C. — Galway (Maam Eiver). Mayo (Prospect Lough). L. — 
Dublin (Howth). Westmeath (Shannon). TJ. — Monaghan (Emyvale). 

Distribution.— Great Britain (local, though widespread ; Kent, Yorkshire, 
Glasgow, St. Kilda, &c.). 1 .apland ; Germany (Schlesien, Ulmcr] ; Austria 
(Silesia) ; Switzerland {Ris) ; Italy ; Sicily ; Corsica ; and probably overlooked 
in other localities. 

Tinodes maculicornis (Pict.). 

Leinstee. Ulster. 

L.— Westmeath (Coosan Point; Wineport ; Glassan ; Twy Eiver). 
TJ. — Monaghan (Glaslough). Donegal (Lough Eeelan). 

Probably more widely spread than these records indicate. Mr. Morton 
found this species at Glaslough along with Tinodes Waeneri, which swarmed, 
by beating the bushes surrounding the lake. 

Distrihution. — Has not been observed in Great Britain. The continental 
•range has not been ascertained, but it is known to occur in Switzerland 
(Geneva) ; France (Montpellier ; Seine below Eouen) ; and Portugal (Cintra, 
McLacMan). Apparently not recorded from Germany. 

*Tinodes unicolor Pict. 

11. — Donegal (Cooluiore, /rfc McLacMan). 

Taken by the Eev. W. F. Johnson on the banks of a small stream at 
Coolmore amongst Iris, Epilohium, &c., in company with Agapetus ftiscipcs 
{Entom. Monthly Mag.; (2), v., p. 2.36, 1894). 

Distribution.— Gveat Britain (Folkestone and Miller's Dale, Derbyshire, 
McLacMan). Germany (Black Forest, Ulmcr). Switzerland (Geneva, Pictct). 
France, and probably Austria {McLacMan). 

Lype phaeopa (Stepli.). 

Iff. — Kerry (Eoss Castle). C. — Mayo (Prospect Lough). U. — JMunaghau 

106 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Devonshire to the south of Scotland). 
(Generally distributed over Europe. 

Ijrpe fragilis (Piet.). 

C. — Galway (Lough Corrib near Galway). Eoseommon (Yew Point and 
Sumnierhill). L. — Westmeath (Coosan Point ; Shannon side; Hare Islandj. 

All of the available records of this species are from central Ireland. 

Distribution. — Up to the present time Lype fragilis has not been observed 
in any part of Great Britain. It is apparently a local species on the Conti- 
nent. McLachlau mentions the following localities: — Switzerland (Geneva, 
Eaton ; Zurich, common on walls, Brcmi) ; south France (Hyeres, Hagen). 
Xaviis has recently recorded it from Albarracin in north-eastern Spain. 

Psychomyia pusilla (Fab.). 

M. — Keriy (Flesk and Deenagh Rivers ; Tore Cascade ; Gap of Dunloe). 
Waterford (Lismore and Cappoquin). C. — Eoseommon (Summerhill). 
L. — Wexford (Edenvale). Wicklow (Enniskerry). Dublin (Lucan). West- 
meath (Wineport; Coosan; Ballykeeran). IF. — Monaghan (Glaslough and 
Emyvale). Donegal (Kilmacrenuau district ; Leunan Bridge ; Cottian ; Sue). 
Armagh (Coney Island in Lough Neagh). 

Disiribntion. — Great Britain (Devonshire to Inverness). Common in 
Europe, ranging from Spain northwards to Finland. 

Rhyacophila dorsalis ,Curt.). 

M. — Kerry (Flesk and Deenagh Rivers ; Tore Cascade ; Cloghereen ; 
Horse's Glen). Cork (Blarney). Waterford (Glenshelane). C. — Galway 
(Maam Eiver; Lough Corrib near Galway). ilayo (Canowbeg River). L. — 
Wexford (Edenvale). Wicklow^ Enniskerry). Dublin (Lucau demesne). 
Westmeath (Ballykeeran). Louth (Omeath). U. — Tyrone (Altadiawan). 
Donegal (Ardara ; Loughs Eeelan and Keel ; Glenbeagh ; Clonkillybeg ; 
Leonan Bridge ; &c.). Antrim (Colin Glen], 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Cornwall to North Shetlands) ; Isle of Man. 
Widespread in western Europe. Faroes ; Germany ; Switzerland ; Holland ; 
Belgium ; France ; Spain. 

KiN(i AND ITALnivin'— A Lifif of the Neuroptrra of Trdand. K'7 
Glossosoma vernale ( I'ict.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Flesk and Deenagh Eiverg ; Tore Cascade ; 
the Glen in Deer Park ; near Kenmare). Waterford (Cappoquin and 

Distrihution. — Great Britain (not uncommon in hilly districts, il/cZwr'AA/?!; 
Devon to Inverness). Widely spread in Europe, ranging from Finland to 

Agapetus fuscipes Curt. 

M.— Kerry (Flesk and Deenagh Eivers ; Muckross; Tore Cascade; 
Horse's Glen; Spa Well; Gap of Dunloe). C. — Galway (Maam Eiver). 
Mayo (^Carrowbeg Eiver). Sligo (near Sligo). L. — Wexford (Johnstown 
Castle grounds). Dublin (Howth). TJ. — Donegal (Loughs Keel and Salt; 
Clonkillybeg ; Coolmore). Antrim (Cave Hill) . 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Cornwall to North Shetlands). Denmark ; 
Germany ; Belgium ; Guernsey ; Switzerland ; France ; Spain ; Corsica. 

Agapetus comatus (Pict.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Deenagh Eiver ; Ardagh Lough ; Valeutia ? 
McLaclilan). Waterford (Glenshelane). L- — Wexford (Edenvale). Wicklow 
(Enuiskerry). Dublin (Lucan demesne). Westmeath (Ballykeeran and 
Coosan Point). U. — Donegal (Largy and Lennan Eivers). Antrim — 
(" ciliatiis Lough Neagh," Haliday MS.). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (local ; Devonshire to Perthshire, Morton). 
Finland ; Eussian Lapland ; Denmark ; Switzerland ; Belgium ; Germany ; 
Austria. Not recorded from Spain. 

Agapetus delicatulus McLach. 


M. — Kerry (Deenagh Eiver ; Tore Cascade; Horse's Glen). L. — Wexford 
(Johnstown Castle grounds). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (very local; recorded from Arran.ofl'the west 
coast of Scotland, though it probably awaits discovery in other places). The 
species seems equally rare on the Continent ; the only locality mentioned by 
^IcLachlan is in the I'yrenees, 

108 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadeni).. 

Agraylea multipnnctata Curt. 

M. — Kerry (Boss Castle and Dinish\ "Waterford (Cappagh Lough). 
L. — "We^tmeath (Coosan Point). II. — Monaghan (Glaslough). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (common; Devonshire to the Clyde district). 
Northern and central Europe. 

Hydroptila sparsa Curt. 


M. — Kerry (Ross Castle ; Deenagh Kiver ; Cloghereen ; Horse's Glen : 

Gap of Dunloe). C. — Mayo (Carrowbeg River; Mount Brown Lough; 

Cushinsheeaun Lough). L. — Dublin fRiver Tolka). "Westmeath (Twy River). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (south of England to the Shetlands). 

Finland to Italy and Algeria. 

Hydroptila femoralis Eaton. 

X. — Kerry (Horse's Glen ; Gap of Dunloe ; Ross Castle ; Deenagh River ; 
Cloghereen). C. — Roscommon (Summerhill). L. — AVestmcath (Glassan and 
Twy River). II. — Monaghan (Glaslough). Donegal (Dunleury and Salt 
Loughs ; Gweeilore ; River Lennan). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Scotland and north of England). Sweden 
(MrLaehlan). Lapland and Finland {Sahlherg] ; Denmark (Petersen) ; 
Germany (Hamburg and Odenwald, UJmrr) ; Switzerland (Felber) ; Italy 
(Lago di Como, Eaton). 

Hydroptila forcipata Eaton. 

McxsTER. CosxACOnT. Leinster. Uuster. 

M. — Kerry (Flesk River ; Horse's Glen ; Gap of Dunloe). C. — Roscommon 
(Summerhill;. L. — Westmeath (Glassan). U. — Monaghan (Glaslough). 
Donegal (Largy River). 

Distribution. — Great Britain (the few records there are of this species 
show that it ranges from Devonshire to Inverness). Germany (Hesse, 
Ulmfr) ; Switzerland (Felber) ; Italy (Turin). 

•Ithytrichia lamellaris Eaton. 

U. — Monaghan (Glaslough, Morton in Entom. Monthly Mag., xx\'iii.,p. aOl, 

Occurred on the Blackwater River at Glaslough. 

King and Halbkrt — A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland. 109 

Distribution. — Great Britain (Hants, Derbyshire, north Wales, Strath- 
glass, &c.)- Finland (»Srt7t/&«y/). Germany (many localities, Wwcr). Hungary 
{McLachlan). Switzerland {Eaton). Basses Pyr^n^es (22 possibly this 
species, Eaton). 

Oxyethira costalis (Curt.). 


M. — Kerry (Eoss Castle ; Decnagh River ; Cloghereen ; Horse's Glen ; 
Coppagh Glen; Gap of Dunloe). C. — Galway ; (Castlekirk; Maumwee 
Lough). Roscommon (Summerhill; Yew Point). Mayo (Mount Brown, 
Cushinsheaun, Knappagh, Prospect, and Ballin Loughs). L. — Dublin 
(Lucan; Tolka). Westmeath (Glassan ; Twy River; Shannon Side). TJ. — 
Donegal (Loughs Keel and Fern). 

BistrihUion. — Great Britain (south of England to north Shetlands). 
Northern and central Europe. 


Additional Notes on the European Distribution of Tkichoptera. 

The additional European stations subjoined are taken from Petersen's 
paper " Trichoptera Daniae," (Entom. Meddelelser, (2)iii, 1907 ; and Felber's 
" Die Trichopteren von Basel . . ," Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, 74 Jahrg., 
1908. These papers have only come into our hands since the foregoing 
pages were in type. 

Phryganea obsoleta (Hageu) McLach. — Denmark {Petersen). 

Limnophilus xanthodes McLach. — Denmark {Petersen) ; Switzerland 


Limnophilus fuscinervis Zett. — Denmark [Petersen). 

Limnophilus nigriceps (Zett.). — Denmark {Petersen); Switzerland {Felber). 

Limnophilus hii'sutus Curt. — Denmark [Petersen) ; Switzerland {Feller). 

Limnophilus luridus Curt. — Denmark {Petersen). 

Micropterna sequax McLach. — Denmark {Petersen). 

Chaetopteryx villosa (Fab.). — Denmark {Petersen). 

Apatania fimbriata (Pict.). — Switzerland (Alps, Felber). 

Silo nigricornis (Pict.). — Denmark {Petersen). 

Cnmoecia irrorata (Curt.). — Denmark {Petersen). 

E. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVni., SECT. B. [Q] 

110 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

Leptocems senilis (Burm.). — Denmark (Pete-rsen) ; Switzerland (ZtLiich, 

Leptocerus albo-guttatus Hageii. — Denmark {F€tc7-sen] ; Switzerland 
(Eheinau, Felber). 

leptocerus annnlicomis Steph. — Denmark (Petersen) ; Switzerland (Felber). 

Leptocems dissimilis Steph. — Denmark (Petersen) ; Switzerland (Zurich, 
&C., Ffhr). 

Triaenodes conspersa (Eamb.). — Switzerland (Bern, &c., Felber). 

Adicella reducta Steph.). — Denmark {Petersen). 

Oecetis farva (Kamb.). — Denmark {Petersen]. 

Oecetis notata (Kamb.). — Switzerland (Eheinau, Felber). 

Oecetis testacea (Curt.). — Denmark {Petersen). 


( in ) 



Adicella, 96, 110 



. 48 



. 107 



. 108 

Ephemerella, . 

Agrion , 

. 50 

Eiythromma, . 


. 81 


. 64 



. 88 



. 90, 109 



. 70 



. 56 



. 92 


. 48 



. 69 


. 58 



. 49 



. 61 

Hydropsyche, . 

Centroptihim, . 

. 57 


Chaetopteryx, . 

. 89, 109 



. 101 



. 61 



. 76 



. 57 

Colpotaulius, . 

. 82 


Coniopteryx, . 

. 79 


Copeognatha, . 

. 64 



. 47 



. 46 



. 91, 109 



. 104 



. 60 

Limnophiliis, . 


. 00 


Diplectrona, . 

. 99 

Mesopsocus, . 


. 89 




. 59 

Microptei-na, . 



. 104 



. 68 



. 67 

. 54 

. 54 

. 56 

. 52 

. 107 
. 82 
. 90 
. 47 
. 82 
. 60 

. 89 

. 73 

. 58 

. 98 

. 108 

. 70 

. 52 
. 61 
. 108 

. 91 

. 71 
. 55 

93, 110 
. 53 
. 64 
. 43 

82, 109 
. 105 

. 66 
. 75 
88, 109 
. 92 
. 95 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

. 62 


Xeureclipsis, ...... 101 

Neuronia, ...;.. 80 

Odoxata, 43 

Odontocerum, 92 

Oecetis 97, 110 

Orthetrum, 45 

Osmvlus, ...... 72 

Oxyethira ... . . 109 








PhilopoUuniis, .... 

Philotanus, gg 

Phryganea 80, 109 

Planipenniii, . . . . .71 

Plectrocneiuia, . . .101 

Plecoptera, . ■ 59 

Plcctoptera 54 

Polycentmpus, 102 

Psectra, 75 

Psocus. 85 


Psrchomyia, 106 

Pterodela 67 

Pyrrhosoina 52 

Bhithuogena, .58 

Bhyacopbila 106 

Sbuicostom.\ 90 

Setodes, 98 

Sialig, 71 

Silo, 91, 109 

SipliluTus, 38 

Sisyra, 72 

Somatocfalora, 46 

Stenophylux, 88 

Stenopsocus 66 

Sympetrum 4a 

Taesioptkuyx, 62 

Tiniides, 104 

Triaenodes, 96, 110 

Tricliopsocas, 70 

Trichoptera, 80 

Troctes, 71 


[ n-^ ] 



Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland. 

Read DECEMnKU 13. Ordered for Publication Decembeu 15, 1909. Published January 22. 1910. 

Mk. G. H. Kinahan, in the Memoir of the Geological Survey of Ireland on 
North-west and Central Donegal,' mentions the peculiar surface of a sheet 
of epidiorite, known as the " Scribed Eock," which lies in the extreme south 
of the townland of Oughteiiin, some 2-|- miles north-west of Eathmullan. 
He describes it as " blistered, pitted, and irregularly jointed or cracked, 
like the surface of a sheet of slag that has been poured out from an iron 
furnace " ; and this analogy, which is hardly a correct one, leads him 
to regard the mass in this case as not intrusive, but as a lava-flow. The 
marks on the Scribed Eock, he tells us, were " commonly supposed to be 
due to the impressions of the feet of men, horses, cattle, sheep, and dogs, to 
which they have some resemblance." 

It appears that this rock-face, though lying in a somewhat remote part 
of the hills, has attracted attention for many years, and is now locally 
known as the " Picture-Eock." In 1908, Captain Boyle Somerville, R.N., 
then engaged in sui\eying the coast in and near Lough Swilly, addressed an 
inquiry respecting it to the Director of the National Museum in Dublin, 
and furnished several outline drawings, produced, after the manner of 
rubbings, from the rock itself. He pointed out precisely the unusual form 
of the excavated portions, and the curious resemblance of some of the 
upstanding bosses to the footprints of animals, seen as casts in relief. In the 
summer of 1909, Dr. B. Windle, f.r.s., also visited the spot, and wrote to 
me at the office of the Geological Survey as to its puzzling features. His 

' .Mum. to sheds ;!, 4. ir. i 1n91), p. 6.5. 
B, I. A, Plioc, vol.. XXVlll., SKl'T. I',. [/?] 


Proceedings of the Roi/nJ Iri-f/i Acnilrmn. 

sketches and descriptions, aided by two small specimens, made it fairly clear 
that some form of spheroidal weathering had taken place on a jointed surface 
of igneous rock; hut it seemed well worth while that the mass should 
be examined geologically. It appeared, indeed, quite possible that human 
agency might in time be invoked to account for the singular nature of the 

During a ^^sit to northern Ireland on behalf of the Geological Sur\ey 
in Octol)er, 1909, I was so fortunate as to find the Admiralty surveying 
vessel still in Lough Swilly, ofl' P.athmullan. Captain Boyle Somerville very 
kindly guided me across the hills to the Picture-Eock, which lies one mile 
north-east of Glenalla House, and one-third of a mile north-east of Lough 
Eogan, on the south-western spurs of Croaghan Hill. It is formed by one 
of the steeply tilled intrusive sheets in the Dalradian shales and sandstones ; 
and its dip- slope faces approximately south-east. The dip is about 50°. 


Fig. 1. — Stmctures Mvn on the cxpowd (tec of the Picture-Rock, from a photograph. AI)Out 

one-fortielh natural aize. 

A large part, but by no means the whole, of the exposed face shows the 
" blistered " structure noted by Mr. G. H. Kinahan in the Memoir, and on his 
manuscript map in the office of the Sun'ey. Grey lichen-covered spheroids 
project from it, out of deep, roughly rectangular, box -like hollows. Between 
the " boxes," the rock rises to the same general level as the protuberant face 
of the spheroids ; and the walls of the compartments into which the rock 
is thus divided clearly depend upon an original structure of two series of 
joints crossing at right angles. The spheroids depend on the characteiistic 
onion-like jointing of basic rocks, which has arisen within each box-like 
compartment, just as it arises within the drums of basaltic columns. 

CoLK — The Picture-Roclc or S'rn'hrd Ror/r nr/ir HdlJimiil/nii. 1 lo 

The division of an iiiLnisive slieot into rectangular rather than hexagonal 
columns has been noted by Jlr. J. Volney Lewis' in the ophitic dolerites of 
the Palisades along the Hudson Elver. Mi-. Lewis also describes a 
spheroi<lal system of joints occurring within the rectangular columns. The 
main joints in the ricture-Eoek might have been attributed to torsion, were 
it not tliat they are clearly contemporaneous with the onion-like structure. 
The intrusive rhyolite of Tardree Mountain, in the county of Antrim, is 
similarly divided into sheet-like masses, rather than into columns, by a 
system of predominant joints, the cross-jointing being at right angles to 
these, and giving the effect of square columns in places. Probably such 
rectangular jointing may be more common than is generally recognised 
in intrusive sheets and sills, the edges of which appear columnar when 

Where spheroidal jointing has also taken place, decay usually goes on 
inwards from the main rectilinear joints ; and the spheroidal features become 
more and more manifest, as limonitic crusts are formed over the successive 
curving surfaces. In time a crumbling clayey material, full of detached 
crystals, separates the spheroids, and the residual cores of the latter ultimately 
lie loosely in a sort of loam. The abrupt contrast between the decayed outer 
layers and the unaltered central core has led in some cases to the suggestion 
that such spheroids are A'olcauic bombs thrown out into a bed of ash.- 

We must bear this contrast in mind when we attempt to explain the 
features of the Picture-Eock. The upstanding spheroids, connected with the 
main mass by their back surfaces only, are of various sizes, and of somewhat 
irregular form. Some are distinctly flattened from one side to another ; and 
the shape of each one depends on the proportions of the compartment in 
which it has arisen. A large spheroid measures 20 cm. in its longest 
diameter. The hollow round the spheroids may extend 6 cm. deep into the 
rock. In se\'eral cases a spheroid has fallen out altogether, lea\ing a mere 
empty box-like compartment. It is clear that the soft loam resulting from 
the decay of the outer shells has been completely washed away. The growth 
of lichens over the residual cores seems to show, on the other hand, that 
decay is now slow, if not arrested. I should regard this as due in some eases 
to the absence of furtiier curving joint-surfaces. The unjoiuted core has 
been reached by the removal of all the outer layers, except at the back of the 
spheroid, where rain penetrates with dithculty. Such spheroids will now 

' " I'etiograpliy of the Newark Igneous Roiks," Geol. Survey of New Jersey, Ann. Report, 
1908, p. 107. 

- See references iu (i. Cole, " The Red Zone ia the Basaltic Series of the county of .Vnliini." 
Geol. Mag., 1908, p. 341. 

116 Prnrerdings of the Royal Irish Acwlemti. 

only weather back like the general surface of the igneous sheet. Some of the 
spheroids, however, show a distinct tendency to flaking and onion-structure, 
even under their lichen-covered surface. When cut across by the rock- 
slicing machine, a zone of soft decomposed rock a millimetre or so thick is 
seen, and shows that alteration is still operating from the surface. 

The fact that original joints determine such onion-like weathering is 
clearly seen near Carrick-a-rede, in the county of Antrim, where the fresh 
basalt can be broken up into balls of various sizes, some of which are only 
two centimetres or so in diameter. The structure, in fact, is a coarse repre- 
sentative of the delicate perlitic structure of glassy igneous rocks. Even in 
glassy rocks, asG. P. Scrope showed long ago in the Ponza Islands,* globular 
structure may appear on a coarse scale. Scrope describes the pitchstone of 
the Chiaja di Luna as having " a tendency to the columnar division, the 
columns separating into large globes or ellipsoids, placed one above the other. 
These balls, when they have been exposed a short time to the weather, 
desquamate at a touch into numerous concentric coats, like those of a bulbous 
root, inclosing a compact nucleus, of wliich tlie lamime have not been 
sufficiently loosened by decomposition ; though the application of a ruder 
blow will produce a still further exfoliation. The globes vary from a few 
inches to three feet in diameter. . . . These varieties of natural division are 
certainly not produced by decomposition, which has evidently only assisted 
in disclosing an original configuration." 

Robert Mallet' jwinted out a similar tendency to di\ide into globes in a 
" trap-rock " near Galway. Here no decomposition had reached the mass, 
and the structure was unsuspected until the rock was blasted by gunpowder 
during quanying operations. 

Weathering action from the e.xposed surface, aided by the battering of 
rain, has doubtless produced the hollows that surround the spheroids of the 
Picture-Rock. Had the destructive agent been subterranean, as in the case 
of the rotting of rock-masses to produce kaolin, the coies of the spheroids 
would have become entirely detached. 

The walls that stand up round each compartment of the rock are evidently 
due to some strengthening of the groundmass by material intillered from llic 
joint-surfaces. The resisting ridges are sometimes worn away to a knife- 
edge, but arc sometimes 3 cm. or more in width. Each is marked near the 
centre by a plane of weakness, along which it divides when struck with the 

'"Notice on the Geology o( the Poiii« I«le»." Trwu. Geol. Sue, London, st^r. 2, vol. ii. 
(1827). p. 205. 

= " On an »:ructiitr in Trmp Bocka of coiint> Gal»«y." 'Jnins. K. lii.-li .\cs<l., 
Tol. xviii. (1837). p. 7J : and I'roc. R. Iiisb .*..-..d., toI. i. il836-40), p. 56. 

CoLK — The Picture- Rock r>r FScrihed Rock near Ralliviiilhtn. 117 

hamnicr. This plaiic rormed one siilu nr uihvx uf Uie oi'igiiial joiiiL-ci'ack, 
and Llie crack itself has been filled by cryHtallinc^ material. During the 
infilling of the cracks, chemical changes must have taken place in the rock to 
varying distances on cither side. This action may be judged, from field- 
inspection, to be hydrothermal, and to have gone on when the mass lay 
buried deeply underground. Sucii infiltrations, however, whereby original 
planes of weakness become strengthened, may take place even in calcareous 
shales. Several interesting examples were dug up some ten years ago near 
Harold's Cross, Dublin. The shale had crumbled away, except where 
cemented by calcium carbonate on either side of the joints, which formed 
two series crossing approximately at right angles. The layers of rock thus 
presented an open lattice-structure or meshwork of remarkable regularity, 
and detached pieces formed perfect crosses of stone. 

On examination in the laboratory, the igneous sheet of the Picture-Eock 
proves to be a fine-grained dolerite, almost andesitic on its surface, where it 
originally contained some glassy matter. 

It has been subjected to extensive alteration. In its present condition, 
rich in chlorite, it is a typical diabase, in Hausmann's sense of the term.' 
The specific gravity of two spheroids is 3"05 and 3'07 respectively, giving an 
average of 3'06. That of one of the strengthened layers along the joint- 
surfaces is 2'91. This difference in density is not one on which stress can be 
laid, as a greater degree of hydration probably now prevails among the 
minerals near the jomt-surfaces than among those near the centre of the 
spheroids. When the rock is broken along a joint-surface, abundant limo- 
nite is seen. Pyrite is a common constituent of the infilling of the joints, 
and has been introduced freely in specks into the rock on either side. 

In microscopic section, the veins now occupying the joints are seen to 
consist of fibrous green amphibole (hornblende or actinolite) granular quartz, 
pyrite altering into limonite, and occasional small rounded granules with 
high refractive index, which are very probably sphene. The aspect is that of 
a mineral vein on a small scale; and it is clear that the agents which l)rought 
up the infilling materials exerted considerable infiuence upon the bounding 
walls. I have elsewhere^ refeiTcd to the mineralizing eflect of a granite 
magma on its surroundings, and to the production of considerable crystals of 
amphibole. The hydrothermal action that led to the filling of the narrow 
veins tliroughout tlio Picture-Kock seems, however, to have actually imported 

' Rosenbusch has unfortunately appropriated the term 'diabase' for unaltered pyro.xene-plagioclase 

- " On tlie growth of crystals in ihe contact-zone nf Granite and Ampbibolite," I'roc. lioy. Irisli 
Acad., vol. XXV., sect. B (1905), p. 117. 


Proceedivga of the Roi/al Irish 

amphibolic material into the diabase. On either side of the vein, prisms of 
green amphibole have shot out at right angles to its walls. These have now 
become chloritic, like the groundmass. The adjacent rock has become 
partially foliated, and has assumed the shimmer of a fine-grained hornblende- 
schist; but it is difficult to suggest pressure as the cause of so local a 
phenomenon. The felspathic constituent of the diabase has disappeared ; and 
the rock is a dense mass of granules of pyroxene, abundant tufts of chlorite, 
brown mica, and a trace of colourless matter ; here and there a crystal of 
amphibole passes across it like a blade. The rock has been darl^ened on 
either side of the vein by an exceptional development of brown mica. 


-Tliiii stiui.ii ui juiiil-inick coiivi-ilcl into u iiiiiiuiul >eiii, with rliloiiliauii ampliib.-n; 
pviiulrutiii){ llie diabusv %i\\ vilLur side. riclurc-Uuuk, Co. Donegal, x II. 

Sections of the spheroids show how, even here, the felspar crystals liave been 
entirely changed. They can be seen as small white rods with the naked eye, 
but are now composed of minute prisms of zoisite, lying in all directions, an 
occasional gi-aiiule of epidote, and chlorite. This chlorite must be an impor- 
tation from the groundmass, in which it is abundant, togetlier wiih lirown 
mica, probably as the product of the alteration of granular pyroxene, as well 
as of undiHerentiated glassy matter. Dr. J. S. Hylaud, in his very accurate 
notes on the petrography of Donegal,' states that the felspars in the 
epidiorites of the region rarely retain traces of twin-structure, and have 

' Geol. Surv. Ireland, Mem. Ui sheets 3, \, Inn, (Itt&l), p. 133. 

Cole — The Picture-Rock or Scribed Rock near Rathmullan. 119 

commonly been converted into zoisite, calcite, and other minerals. In the 
Picture-Eock, they are now, through the introduction of chlorite, pseudo- 
morphs rather than reconstructions. 

The epidiorite condition does not seem reached in this particular intrusive 
sheet, except in the neighbourhood of the rectilinear joints. There, however, 
as we have seen, material has been added to the rock, and the bars of amphi- 
ole have led to a local toughening. They have thus enabled it to resist 
decay ; and it is satisfactory to have this microscopic evidence to explain the 
outstanding walls of the'compartments, which are so conspicuous a feature of 
the Picture-Eock. 

K. I. A. PROC, vol.. X.KVnl., SECT. B. \S] 

[ 120 ] 



By J. ADAilS, M.A., a.\d G. H. PETHYBEIDGE, Ph.D., B.Sc. 

Read Febrcabt 28. Ordered for Publication Mabch 2. Published June 8, 1910. 


Historical Introduction, 

Distribution in Ireland, 

Census of Species, 


List of Families, Genera, and Species, 



Hemiascomycetes, . 



. 120 
. 122 
. 123 
. 124 
. 129 
. 130 
. 131 
. 132 
. 132 

Hemibasidii, 137 

Protobasidioniycetes, . . . 137 
Autobasidiomycetes, . . . 138 

Fungi Iniperfecti 148 

Appendix I. Uncertain or doubtful records 

or insufficiently named species, . . 150 
Appendix II. List of Synonyms, . . 153 
Index of Genera, 163 

Historical Introduction. — While an enumeration of the species of all 
other groups of plants found in Ireland has at some time or other been made, 
this has never been attempted in the case of Fungi ; and yet the group 
embraces by far the largest section of the Flora as regards number of species, 
and, moreover, is of great importance from an economic point of view. 

Still it would not be correct to assume that the study of Irish Fungi has 
been neglected. A reference to the Bibliography at the end will show that 
a very considerable amount of attention has been devoted to the group. 
But much still remains to be done; and it is verj' probable that we are 
at present acquainted with not more than half the number of species which 
will ultimately be found to be natives of this country. 

Threlkeld, in his " Synopsis Stirpium Hibemicarum," published in 1726, 
mentions the names of sixteen species of Fungi found in Ireland ; but no 
descriptions or localities are given. In the Appendix to the above work 
three additional species are mentioned. 

The next reference to Irish Fungi occurs in " The Antient and Present 
State of the County of Down," published in 1744, where four species are 
described as having been found in that county. 

Rutty's "Natural History of County Dublin," published in 1772, 
mentions two species of Fungi, one of these being the Truffle in County 

Adams AND Pethybkidge — A Census G< 1 1 ahc/ue of Irish Fungi. 121 

But the credit of being the first serious investigator of the group belongs 
to Templeton, who collected and named 232 species prior to the year 1800. 
No account of this collection, however, was given to the world until the 
year 1840, when Dr. Taylor re-examined Templeton's .specimens, and publi.shed 
an account of them in the " Annals of Natural History " under the title 
" Catalogue of the species of Fungi obtained in the North of Ireland by 
John Templeton, Esq., of Cranmore, Belfast. 

Much earlier, however, as regards the date of publication, was a list of 
fifty-four species, chiefiy from County Dublin, published by Wade, in his 
" Plantae Eariores," in 1804. 

The next advance was made in the south, when a list of 218 species for 
the County of Cork was prepared by Mr. Denis Murray, and published, in 
1845, in the " Fauna and Flora of County Cork." 

A few years later, in 1852, W. T. Alexander published a list of 256 
species found in the neighbourhood of Cloyne in the same county.' 

The next extension of our knowledge was made by the late 
Mr. Greenwood Pirn, in connexion with the visit of the British Association 
to Dublin in 1878, when a list of 470 species found in Dublin and Wicklow 
was prepared for the " Handbook " issued in that year. 

In the North of Ireland a still further advance was made by Lett, in his 
" Fungi of the North of Ireland," published a few years later, in which 580 
species are recorded ; while, about the same time, Pim published an 
important paper on the " Fungi of Glengariff and Killarney." 

Extensive additions to the Fungal Flora of Counties Dublin and Wicklow 
were made subsequently by Pim and McWeeney, in a series of papers from 
1883 to 1898; while McWeeney added many new species in connexion with 
the excursions of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club to different parts of the 

An important list by Carleton Eea of 160 species additional to those 
already known for Dublin and Wicklow was the outcome of the British 
Mycological Society's visit to Dublin in 1898. 

Since that date Johnson and Pethybridge have been working chiefly at 
the parasitic species attacking cultivated plants ; while a few other 
investigators have added new species from time to time. Special mention 
must be made of an important paper by Father Torrend, in 1908, containing 
70 species not previously recorded for the Counties of Dublin and AVicklow. 

The foregoing are the most important sources of our information relating 
to the distribution of Fungi in Ireland. Other shorter contributions to the 
subject will be found in the Bibliography 

' We lire indebted to Miss M. C. Knowlea for calling our attention to the existence of this list. 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

lyistribution in Ireland. — To indicate the distribution of each species in 
Ireland the subdivisions of the country and the symbols proposed by 
Adams in the " Irish Naturalist " for August, 1908, and January, 1909, have 
been adopted. Each of the four proNinces of Ireland is diAdded into three 
sections, which are numbered from 1 to 3, that numbered i extending 
furthest south, that numbered 3 extending furthest north, while nxmiber 2 
is intermediate in position. The first letter of each province is used as an 
abbreviation for the name of that pro\-ince. The twelve sub-pro\-inces are 
as follows, and are shown on the accompanying map : — 

(A^ Clear 

Adams and Pe tuybridge —A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 1 23 


M I Kerry and West Cork. 

M 2 Mid-Cork, East Cork, Waterford, South Tipperary. 

M 3 North Tipperary, Limerick, Clare. 

C I Galway. 

C 2 Mayo. 

C 3 Sligo, Leitrim, Eosconmion. 

L I Wexford, Carlow, Kilkenny. 

L 2 Wicklow, Dublin, Kiklare, Queen's County, King's County. 
L 3 Louth, Meath, Westmeath, Longford. 

U I Down, Armagh, Monaghan, Cavan. 
U 2 Antrim, Derry, Tyrone. 
U 5 Fermanagh, Donegal. 

In a few cases the exact locality where the species occurred is not known; 
and in consequence it cannot be referred to any of the sub-provinces. All 
that it is possible to do in such cases is to indicate the province, using the 
symbol x, as, for example, M x. In some cases the province is not known, 
and it is only possible to indicate the distribution by the word " Ireland." 

Census of Species. — In the following tables will be found the number of 
species belonging to the different groups of Fungi recorded in each of the 
twelve sub-provinces, in the four provinces, and in the whole of Ireland : — 

Table I. 
Number of Species recorded in each Sub-Province. 



































Euasconiycetes, . 










82 4 









2 1 




















Fungi Imperfeuti, 






















Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Table II. 
Number of Species recorded in each Province and in the whole of Ireland. 



















Hcmiascomycetes, . 



























Fungi Imperfecti,. 












It will be evident from Table I. that hardly anything ia known of the 
Fungi occurring in half the sub-provinces of Ireland ; while Table II. shows 
that the same thing is true of the Province of Connaught. The tolal species 
so far found in Ireland, namely 1464, probably represent less than lialf the 
fungal tiora of the country, as nearly 6,000 species have been found ia Great 

Several of the parasitic species — as, for example, Phytophthora infestans de 
Bary, Ventnria inatqualis, Wint. and others — are certainly far more widely 
distributed than is indicated by the actual records of their occurrence. 
Many of them are, without doubt, universally distributed over Ireland, but 
actual records of their occurrence are still wanting. 


All sources of information on the distribution of Irish Fungi are, so far 
as known, indicated in the following list. The arrangement adopted is an 
alphabetical one ; and the list of papers indexed under each author's name is 
arranged chronologically. Any scattered information on Irish Fungi, such 
as exhibits before the Dublin Microscopical Club or accounts of species 
collected on field-club excursions, will be found in the pages of the journals 
indicated, such as " Irish Naturalist," " Quarterly Journal of Microscopical 
Science," &c. ITie Bibliography of Irish Fungi in the National Museum, 
Dublin, has also been consulted. 

Adams AND Pkthybwdge — A Census Catalogtm of L-ish Fungi. 125 

Adams, J. — Note on some Northern Fungi. Irish Nat., vol. xv, 1906. 
Irish Parasitic Fungi. Irish Nat., vol. xvi, 1907. 
Occurrence of Jew's Ear Fungus on Horse Chestnut. Irish Nat., 

vol. xvi, 1907. 
Puccinia uliginosa Juel. in Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. xvi, 1907. 
Cluster Cups on Barberry. Irish Nat., vol. xviii, 1909. 
Fusicladium dendriticum on Wild Crab. Irish Nat., vol. xviii, 1909. 
Alexai^der, W. T. — A List of the Fungi detected in Cloyne and its Vicinity 

in 1852. The Phytologist, vol. iv, 1856. 
Andrews, W. — Eemarks on the Fungi of the South-west of Ireland. Nat. 

Hist. Eev., vol. iii, 1856. 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 1881-6. 
Archer, W. — On Two New Species in Saprolegnieae referable respectively to 

the Genus Saprolegnia {Nees v. Esen.) and Achlya {Nees v. Esen.). 

Quart. Journ. Micr. Sc, vol. vii. New Series, 1867. 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club Eeports, 1883-8. 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. — Guide to Belfast. 2nd Ed., 1902. 
Berkeley, M. J., and C. E. Broome. — Notices of British Fungi. Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., vol. i, 1st Ser.-vol. xv, 5th Ser., 1838-85. 
Brenan, S. a. — Sphaerotheca Mors-Uvae Berkl. arid Curtis in Ireland. Journ. 

of Bot., vol. xxxviii, 1900 ; and Irish Nat., vol. x, 1901. 
Carpenter, G. H. — The Mingling of the North and the South. Irish Nat., 

vol. v, 1896. 
Cooke, M. C. — New British Fungi. Grevillea, vols, i-xxi, 1872-93. 

British Hyphomycetes. Grevillea, vols, xvi-xvii, 1887-9. 
Crombie, J. M.— Lichenes Britannici. 1870. 

CusACK, M. F. — A History of the City and County of Cork. 1875. 
Frazer, W. — On the Disease in Gold Fish, in connexion with the Develop- 
ment of Saprolegnia ferax. Nat. Hist. Eev., vol. iii, 1856. 
Eemarks upon Specimens of Fungi obtained adhering to Old Trees 

under a Bog near Tralee. Nat. Hist. Eev., vol. iv, 1857. 
Friend, H. — Trichia chrysosperma DC. Irish Nat., vol. ii, 1893. 
Gardener's Chronicle. 22nd Sept., 1883 ; 25th August, 1900. 
Grove, W. B. — Pimina, Novum Hyphomycetum Genus. Jouru. of Bot., 

vol. xxvi, 1888. 
Hammond, E. — Truffles in Co. Kildare. Irish Nat., vol. xviii, 1909. 
[Harris, W.] — The Antient and Present State of the County of Down, 1744. 
Harvet, Humphries, and Power. — Contributions towards a Fauna and Flora 

of the County of Cork. 1845. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols, i-xviii, 1892-1909. 

126 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Johnson, T. — The Flora of Ireland. [In " Ireland, Industrial and Agricul- 
tural," 1902.] 
Diseases of the Potato and Other Plants in Ireland. Journ. Dept. Agr. 

and Tech. Instr. for Ireland, vol. iii, No. 1, 1902. 
Some Eoot-Crop Diseases in Ireland. Journ. Dept. Agr. and Tech. Instr. 

for Ireland, vol. iv, No. 2, 1903. 
Phellomyces sclerotiophorus Frank : A Cause of Potato Scab and Dry 

Eot. Econ. Proc. Koy. Dub. Soc, vol. i, part 4, 1903. 
Willow Canker : Physalospora gregaria Sacc, Sc. Proc. Eoy. Dub. Soc. 

vol.x(N. S.), Part2, 1904. 
Swede Leaf-Spot. Journ. Dept. Agr. and Tech. Instr. for Ireland, 

vol. V, No. 3, 1905. 
The Gooseberry American Mildew. Irish Gardening, vol. i. No. 3, 1906. 
Some Injurious Fungi found in Ireland. Econ. Proc. Eoy. Dub. Soc, 

vol. i, Part 9, 1907. 
Spongospora solani Brunch. (Corky Scab.) Econ. Proc. Eoy. Dub. Soc, 

vol. i, Part 12, 1908. 
Chrysophlyctis eudobiotica Schilh. (Potato Wart or Black Scab) and 
other Chytridiaceae, Sc. Proc. Eoy. Dub. Soc, vol. xii (N. S.), 
No. U, 1909. 
Further Observations on Powdery Potato Scab Spongospora subter- 
ranea {Wallr.) Sc. Proc, Roy. Dub. Soc, vol. xii. (N. S.), No. 16, 
Johnson, W. F. — Cordyceps militaris Fr. on a Beetle. Irish Nat., vol. viii, 

Lett, H. W. — Fungus Foray in Ireland. Grevillea, vol. xii, 1883-4. 

The Fungi of the North of Ireland. Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 
Appendi.x, 1884-5. 
LiNDAU.G., et P. Sydow. — Thesaurus litteraturae mycologicae et lichenologicae. 

i, 1908 ; ii, 1908-9. 
Lister, A. — A Monograph of the Mycetozoa. 1894. 

Notes ou Mycetozoa. Journ. of Bot., vol. xxxix. 1901. 
Mackay.J.T. — A Brief View of the Botany of Ireland [in James Frazer's 

Handbook for Travellers in Ireland, 4th ed., 1854]. 
Masses, G. — A Monograph of British Ghistromycetes. Ann. of Bot.. vol. iv, 
British Fungi, Phycomycetes and Ustilagineae, 1891. 
A Monograph of the Myxogastres. 1892. 

New or Critical British Fungi. Grevillea, vols, xxi-xxii. 1892-4. 
Maunsell, E. L — Truffles in Co. Limerick. Irish Nat., vol. xv., 1906. 

AiMMS AND Petiiybiudgk — A Ccnstts Catalogue of Irish Funrji. 127 

McAeple, D. — A Morel new to Ii-eland. Irish Nat., vol. xv, 1906. 
Fungi [of Laiubay], Irish Nat., vol. xvi, 1907. 

Lentinus lepideus Fr. var. hiberuicus nov. var. Journ. of Bot., vol. xlvii, 

McWeeney, E. J.— Fungi from Central Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. i, 1892. 
Fungi from Lucan and Bray districts. Irish Nat., vol. i, 1892. 
Fungi from the south-west. Irish Nat., vol. ii, 1893. 
Fungi from Altadore, Co. Wicklow. Irish Nat., vol. ii, 1893. 
Fungi from Woodeuhridge, Co. Wicklow. Irish Nat., vol. ii, 1893. 
Fungi [of G-alway Excursion]. Irish Nat., vol. iv, 1895. 
A New Irish Fungus. Irish Nat., vol. iv, 1895. 
The Utility of noting Fungus Localities. Irish Nat., vol. iv, 1895. 
A Curious Coincidence. Irish Nat., vol. iv, 1895. 
Observations on Phoma Betae Frank, a fungus that injures Mangel. 

Jouru. Eoy. Agr. Soc. Eug., o ser., vi. ; Part iii, 1895. 
Fungi from Braekenstown, Co. Dublin. Irish Nat., vol. v, 1896. 
Fungi [from Clonbrock]. Irish Nat., vol. v, 1896. 
New Irish Fungi. Irish Nat., vol. v, 1896. 

Fungi from Brittas Bay Excursion, D.N.F.C. Irish Nat., vol. v, 1896. 
Two Sclerotia Diseases of Potatoes. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, vol. i, 


M00KE,D.— Experiments on preserving Potatoes conducted in the Glasnevin 
Botanic Garden, with Eemarks on Parasitical Fungi in general. 
The Phytologist, vol. ii, 1846. 

Moke, F. M.— Truffles in Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. x, 1901. 

Pethybeidge, G-. H. — American Gooseberry Mildew iu Ireland. Irish 

Gardening, vol. ii, No. 14, 1907. 
American Gooseberry Mildew. Irish Gardening, vol. iii. No. 26, 1908. 
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Pethybridge, G. H., and E. H. Bonvees. — Dry Eot of the Potato Tuber. 
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Pethybeidge, G. H., and E. Ll. Pkaegee. —The Vegetation of the District 
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No. 6, 1905. 

Philips, W. — A Manual of the British Discomycetes. 1887. 
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vols, ii-xiii, 1873-1885. 

R.l.A. PKOC, VOL. XXVni,, SECT. B. [T] 

128 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

PlM, G.— Iiish Fiingi. Quart. Journ. Micr. Se. 1877. 

The Fungi of the Counties Dublin and Wicklow. Sc. Proc. Eoy. Dub. 

Soc, vol. i, Part 3, 1878 ; and Brit. Assoc. Guide to County 

Dublin, 1878. 
Eamularia Crj'jjtostegiae Pirn. Grevillea, vol. \'iii, 1879-1880. 
A Mould on Ensilage, Gard. Chron. (K S.), xx, 1883. 
On Alliospora, a supposed new genus of Dematiei. Jouru. of Bot., 

xxi, 1883. 
Recent Additions to the Fungi of Counties Dublin and Wicklow. Proc. 

Key. Ir. Acad. Ser. ii, vol. iv, No. 1. 1884. 
The Sclerotium Disease of Potatoes. Gard. Chron. xxiii, 1885. 
Preliminary Report on the Fungi of Glengarriff and Killarney. Proc. 

Eoy. Ir. Acad. Ser. ii, vol. iv, Part 4. 1885. 
Cladotrichum Passiflorae, n. sp. Gard. Chron. xxiv, 1885. 
Periwinkle Disease, Puccinia Vincae Berli. Gard. Chron. 3 ser. ii., 

Pylhium in Impatiens Sultani. Gard. Cluon. 3 ser. iii, 1888. 
Two Notable Morels. Iiish Nat., vol. iii, 1894. 
New Fungal Disease of Rape. Journ. of Bot., vol. xxxv, 1897. 
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vol. vii, 1898. 
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Irish Nat., vol. ii, 1893. 
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Earth Stars in Co. Tipperary. Irish Nat., vol. v, 1896. 
A Big Boletus. Irish Xat., vol. \% 1897. 
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19th-24th September, 1898. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, vol. i, 
Additions to Mr. Greenwood Pirn's " Fungi of the Counties of Dublin 
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Rurrv, J.— Natural History of Co. Dublin, 1772. 

Adams AND Petitybuidgk — A Census Cafalorjue of Irish Fiiwji. 129 

Smith, A. L. — British Mycology. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, vol. i, ISOT-lOOl. 

Fungi Now to Britain. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, vol. i, 1S97-1 901 . 
Smith, A. L., and C. Eea. — Fungi New to Britain. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, 
vol. ii, 1904. 

New and Earo British Fungi. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, vol. iii, 1908. 
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vol. siv, 1905. 

Peziza Adae in Co. Antrim. Irish Nat., vol. xvii, 1908. 

Swan, A. P. — On the Genus Leptolegnia of the Saprolegniaceae. Irish Nat., 

vol. vii, 1898. 
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Ireland by John Templeton, Esq., of Cranmore, Belfast. Ann. of 

Nat. Hist., vol. v, 1840. 

Threlkeld, C. — Synopsis Stirpium Hiberniearum. 1726. 

TiGHE, W.— Statistical Survey of the County of Kilkenny. 1802. 

Toreend, C. — Additions to the Fungi of the Counties of Dublin and Wicklow. 
Irish Nat., vol. xvii, 1908. 

Trevelyan, H. — Hygrophorus intermedins in Ireland. Irish Nat., vol. x^i, 

TJequhart, J. T. — The Gooseberry American Mildew. Irish Gardening, 

vol. 1, 1906. 
Waddell, C. H. — Pleospora herbarum on Clover. Irish Nat., vol. xi, 1902. 
Wade, W. — Plantae Eariores in Hibernia Inventae. Sc. Trans. Eoy. Dub. 

Soc, vol. iv, 1804. 
Wright, E. P. — On a Species of Ehizophydium Parasitic on Species of 

Ectocarpus, with Notes on the Fructification of the Eetocarpi. 

Trans. Eoy. Ir. Acad., vol. xxvi, 1877. 


All species of Fungi hitherto published as occurring in Ireland up to the 
end of 1909 are, so far as known to us, included in the subjoined list. In 
addition to these, however, some records of species are now published for the 
first time. One of the copies of the "Fauna and Flora of Cork," in the 
National Library at Dublin, contains marginal notes of a number of species 
found at various places in County Cork, and these have been incorporated in 
the present list. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The classification adopted is that of Engler and Prautl, as given in the 
latest edition (1907) of theii- " Syllabus der PflanzenfamUien." In the case of 
the Agaricaceae, however, the species are arranged in the order given in 
Worthington G. Smith's "British Basidiomycetes " (1908). To facilitate 
reference, the species under each genirs are arranged in alphabetical order. 
An alphabetical index of Genera is given at the end of this paper. 

We have to acknowledge with grateful thanks considerable assistance in 
elucidating synonyms and obscure species from Miss A. Lorrain Smith, of 
the British Museum (Natural History), South Kensington. 

Plasmodiophora Alni Moll. L 2 

Brassicae Wor. Ireland 
Spongospora subterranea Johiuon M i 

Ci 2 L2 U3 

Ceratiomyxa mucida Schroel. C i L 2 


Licea flemosa Pert. L 2. 
Tubulina fragifonnis Pen. L 2 U 2 
Alwisia Eombarda Berk, el Br. L 3 


Entcridium olivaceum Ehr. L 2 

Dictydium umbilicatum Schrad. L2 

Cribraria argillacca Pen. M 2 

aurontiaca Schrad. L 2 

rufescens Pert. L 2 

Perichuena depressa Lib. L 2 

populina Fr. L 2 U 2 
Areyria albida Pers. M 2 L 2 

flava Pert. L 2 

incarnata Pers. Mi C i L 2 U 1 2 

punicea Pert. M 2 C 1 L 2 3 
Lycogala miniatum Pert. M i 2 C i 

L2 Ui 2 
Trichia afflnis de Bary. L 2 


Trichia Botrytis Pers. C i 

fallax Pers. L 2 

favoginca Pers. M i 2 L 2 3 U 2 

persimilis Karst. L 2 

varia Pers. L 2 U 2 
Hemitrichia clavata Rost. L 2 

Karstcnii List. L 2 

Serpula Rost. U i 
Prototrichia flagellifera Rost. L 2 

Reticularia Lycoperdon \_Bidl.'\ M2 

Amaurochaete atra Rost. L 2 
Dictydiaethalium plumbcuni Rost. L 2 



Enerthcnema elcgans Bowm. L 2 
Lamproderma echinidatum Rost. C i 
Comatricha laxa Rott. L 2 

obtusuta Preuss. M 2 L 2 3 U 2 

Persoonii Rost. L 2 

typhoides Rott. L 2 U 2 
Stemonitis ferruginea ^j^r. L 2 

fuaca .ffo^^. M 2 C i L 2 TJ i 2 

splendens .So«^ Mi C i L 2 

Spumaria alba DC. M 2 L 2 U i 2 


Didymium difforme Buby. L 2 
eff usum Zi'ni". L 2 

Adams AND Prthybridgk — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 1-31 

Didymium farinaceum Schrad. U i 

nigripcs Fr. M 2 L 2 
Chondi-iodcrmu globosum Rost. M 2 

liicidiim Cooke. L 2 
iiiveum Host. L 2 
spumarioides Host. L 2 


Leocarpus vernicosus Linlc. M 2 L 2 

Cruterium Icucocephalum [^Bitm.'\ A[ 2 

[ic'dunfulrttum Trent. 5[ 2 L 2 U 1 2 
Physarum bivalve [7Vr«.] U 2 

cinereum /*«;•«. C i U 1 

nutans Pers. L 2 U 2 

penetrale Rex. L 2 

psittaciuum Bitin. L 2 

Tiride Pers. L 2 
Badharaia iitricularis 5(7'Z-. L 2 
Fuligo septica Cjwe^. L 2 3 U 2 


1. Zygomycetes. 


Mucor amethysteus Berh. U \ 

caninus Pers. M 2 U 2 

olavatus \_Linh.'] L 2 

mueedo Linn. M 2 L 2 U 2 

stercoreus Linlc. M 2 L 2 
Sporodinia Aspergillus Schroet. L23 
Thamnidium elegans Z/wi. L 2 
Ehizopus nigiicans JEkrenb. M 2 L 2 
Pilaira anomala Sehroet. L 2 
Pilobolus crystallinus Tode. M 2 L 2 U 2 

longipes van Tiegh. L 2 

Chaetocladium Brefeldii frtw Tiegh. et 
Lemon. L 2 

Empusa muscae Colin. L 2 

2. Oomycetes. 

CystopuscandidusZ^y. M i 2 L2 TJ i 2 
Lepigoni rfe Barij. L 2 
Tragopogonis Scliroet. L 2 

Peeonospo raceae. 
Phytophthora infestans de Bary. T, 2 

Peronospora affinis Rossm. C 2 L 2 
arborescens rfe Bary. L 2 

Peronospora calotbeca <?« ^(rry. L 2 

Candida -F«tf^'. L 2 TJ i 

efiusa Rabenh. L 2 

Lamii Ae Bary. L 2 

parasitica de Bary. C i L 2 

Sebaclitii Z'itc/i;. L 2 

Schleideni Z7w<?. L 2 

Trifoliorum de Bary. L 2 

Urticae de Bary. L 2 
Plasmopara densa Scliroet. L 3 

nivea Sch-oet. L 2 

pygmaea Sehroet. L 2 

Saprolegnia androgyna Arch. Ireland 
ferax Nees. L 2 
monoica Pringsh. Ireland 
Achlya cornuta Arch. Ireland 
Leptolegnia caudata de Bary. M i 
Aphauomyces stellatus de Bary. Ire- 

Olpidium spbaccUum Kny. Ireland 

tumefacicns Berl. et de Ton. L 2 
Asterocystis radicis de Wild. TJ 2 
Chrysopblyctis endobiotica Schilh. U i 

Synchytrium Taraxaei de Bary et War. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academji. 
I. Phtcomtcetes — continued. 

Emycliasina Dicksonii Magnus. L 2 

Diplophysa Saproleguiae Schroet. M 1 

Cladochtteiaceae. Ptthiaceae. 

Physoderma meuyanthis de Bary. L 2 Pythium de Earyanuni Hesse. L 2 


Protomyces macrosporus Uiiff. L , 

Saccharomyces cerevisiac Meycn. Ire- 


Exoascus deformans Fuck. L 2 

Pruni Fuck. L 2 
Taphrina aurea F-. M 2 

Johausonii Sad. U 2 


Stegia ilicis Fr. il 1 2 I, 3 U i 2 
Propolis faginca Earst. C i L 2 
Melittosporiura lichenicolum Ma«i. 

Stictis radiata \_Pert.'] M 2 

Hetcrosphaeria Patella Qrev. L 2 U i 2 


Phacidium multiTolrc Kze. et Schum. 

Trochila buxi Capron. U 1 
craterium Fr. U 1 
ilicis Crouan. L 2 
Laoro-cerasi Fr. L 2 U i 2 
Schizothyrium Ptarmicao Detin. L 2 
Coccomycca coronatus [(/« iVb/.] L 2 

Rhytisma acerinum Fr. M i 2 L 2 3 
Ui 2 
Andromedae />. L 2 
saUcinum Fr. Mi L 2 

L 2 




Spliaerospora asperior Sacc. 

binominata Mass. U 3 

brunnea Mass. U 2 

hinnulca Mass. L 2 

trechispora iSfl«. L 2 3 
Plicnriella Crouani Rehm. 
Lachnca bulbocriuita Pliil. 

dalmonicnsis Phil. L 2 

hemisphaerica Gill. C i 

hirta [ Gill.'] 51 2 

hybrida Phil, L 2 

scutcUata Gill. Mi L 2 

stercorea ffiV/. >[ 1 2 C i L 2 U 1 2 

umbrorum Gill, h 2 
Humaria carbonigena Sacc. 

coDgrex Karst. L 2 

domestica Mast, L 2 

cxidiiformis Sacc. M 2 

granulata 5fl^c. M 1 2 
Ui 2 

humosa Sacc. 51 2 L 2 

rutilans Sacc, M 2 L 2 

violacea Saff . L 2 
Peziza Adae Sadler. U 2 

ammophila 7). <!$' .^. L 2 

badia Per*. 51 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

cerea [iSoK".] L 2 

coccinea Jacq. L 2 U i 2 


C I 



Adams AND Pkthybkidge — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 133 

III. EtTAScoMYOETES — Continued. 

Poziza cupularis Linn. ]• z 

reticulata 6rev. Ij 2 

saniosa Schrad. L 2 

subumbi'ina Baud. L 3 

vunosa Pers. L 2 U i 

vesiculosa Bull. M 2 L 2 U 2 
Otidea aurantia il/rtss. M i 2 1. 2 U 2 

coclileata #Mci. M 2 L i 2 II 2 

leporina i^«cZ;. L 2 U 2 

onotica Fuck. L 2 


Ascophanus argenteus Bond, L 2 

carneus Boud. L 2 

equinus Jfffss. L 2 
Saccobolus violascens Boud. L 2 
Ascobolus atrofuscus Phil, et Plow. L 2 

furf uraceus P«r«. M 2 L 2 3 U i z 

glaber Pers. L 2 

vinosus Berh. L 2 

Helot lACEAE. 
Cbl orosplenium aeruginosum de Not. 

Mi L2 U I 2 
Ciboria caucus i^«ci. L z 

ocbroleuca iLr«s«. L 2 

pseudotuberosa /S'sfc. L 2 
Sclerotinia parasitica Cav. L 2 

sclerotiorum Mass. C i L 2 U 3 
Araohnopeziza aurelia FucTi. L 2 
Lachnella cerina Phill. L 2 

oorticalis Fr. C i 

ecbinulata Phill. L 2 

nivea P/«'W, L 3 U 2 

Schumacberi PA«7?. L 2 
Dasyscypha aspidiicola ySatt. L 2 

bicolor i^iw/c. M 2 L 2 

calycina Fuch. M 2 L i 2 U i 2 

calyculaeformis Rehm. L 2 

canescens J/fl««. L 2 

ciliaris /Saw. L 2 

clandestiua /'(wi. L 2 

byalina Mass. L 2 

Dasyscypha nivea Mass. L 2 

papillaris Mass. M 2 U 2 

sulfurea Mass. L 2 

virginea i^i«;^. M2 Ci L23 Ui2 
Trichopeziza plano-umbiliciita <S'«<c. M 2 
Erinclla apala J/ff«s. L 2 

juuoicola 6'«tf(!. L 2 
Hymen oscypha calyculus PA«7/. U 2 

cyatboidea P/^?'?^. M 2 L 2 
Cyatbicula coronata de Not. U 2 
Helotiuni aciculare [Per*.] M 2 U 2 

bolare Jl/««s. L 2 

citrinum Fr. M i L 2 3 U 2 

claro-flavum Berk, il 2 L 2 

conigenum i^/'. L 2 

cyatboideum Karsf. L 2 

epipbyllum i^/'. L 2 

fagineum Fr. M 2 L 2 

imberbe Fr. L 2 

lentioulare -F;-. U 2 

lutescens jPr. L 2 

renisporum Fllis. L 2 

rhizopbilum Cooke. U i 

scutula Karst. L 2 

tuba [i^r.] L 2 

virgultorum Karst. M 2 L 2 
Ombropbila brunnea P/m'Z. L 2 

clavis CooA«. L 2 
Coryne atrovirens Sace. L 2 

sarcoides Tul. Mi L 2 3 TJ 1 2 


Mollisia ariindinacea Phil. L 2 
atrata Karst. Mi L 2 
atrocinerea P/h7. L 2 
cbrysostigma Mass. L 2 
cinerea Karst. M 2 C i L 2 U 2 
discolor Phill. L 2 
fallax e//;. L 2 
filicum P/»7/. L2 
flaveola Phill. L 2 
melaleuca jSrtcc. C i 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Ill . En ASCOJircETES — con tin tied. 

Pseudopiziza Eanunculi Fuch. L 2 

Trifolii Fuclc. L 2 
Orbilia auricolor Sacc. L 2 

leucostigma Fr. L 2 

rubella Karst. L 2 

vinosa Kant. L 2 

xanthostigma Fr. L 2 
Calloria diapliana Phill. M 2 

{asarioidcs /V. L 2 U 2 


Durella carestiae Sacc. L 2 

Patellaria atrata Fr. U 1 2 

Iccidcola Kant. U 2 

Ccnangium abietis Rthm. M 2 
Bulgaria polyraorpha Wettt. L 2 U 1 2 


Mitnila cucullata Fr. M z L 2 

olivacea Sacc. L z 

phalloides Chfv. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

viridis Kant. L z 
Ocoglo8sum difforme Fr. L z 

glabruni /*<•«. M 2 L 2 U 2 

glutinosum /'cr*. M i 

hirsutum Ptrs. M z L z U i 
Lcotia lubrica Pifr*. M i z L 2 3 U z 
Spatliulariu clavata Sacc. L z 
Vibrissca Guemisaci Croiutn. L 2 

truncorum />. Mi L z 
Morchclla conica P«r». L 2 

crassipes [P#r».] L 2 

elata /V. C i L 2 

esculcnta Pen. M z L z tJ z 

gigas Pen. L 2 

scmilibera DC. C i 
Helvclla crispa />. M i 2 L z 3 U i 

lacunosa j4/m/. L z U 2 
Hypoderma commune Duiy. Lz 

hederae tU Not. L 2 U i 2 

virgultorum Z)(7. M2 TJ2 

Lophodermiuui arundinaceum Chev. L2 
hysterioides Sate. M 2 
junipei'inum de Not. U 2 
pinasti-i C'hev. M2 L2 Uz 


Dichaena faginea Fr. M z 
strobiliua Fr. M 2 TJ i 

Glonium lineave (/<* iN'b^. M 2 
Hysterium angustatum [^A. Sf S.~\ M 2 
conigcnura Moug. et Nestl. M 2 U 2 
pulicarc P(?/-«. M 2 U 2 
Hysterographiiim fraxini [rf« Not."] 

Mz U2 
Lopliium elatum [ffrec] M 2 
mytiliiium [//•.] Mz 

Acrospcrmum compressum Tode. 
graminum Lib. L z 


Hydnotrya Tulasnei B. Sf Br. 
Tuber aestivum Fitt. M z 3 
dryophilum Till. M 3 


Gyranoaaeu8 Reesii Baran. L z 
Myxotrichum chartarum Kunze. 


Aspergillus candidus Link. L 2 

glaucuB Zi'n/;. Mz Lz Uiz 
Penicillium bicolor /V. L 2 

candidum Zi'n^. L2 

glaucum Link. M 2 L z 

sparsum [ffr<p.] Mz 


Onygena equina Pers. U z 


Elaphomyccs cervinus Schrot. U z 
variegatus FVW. M 2 U i 


Ci Lz3 



Adams amd Pethybkiuge — A Census Catuhyuc of Irish Fungi. I'iS 

III. EuASCOMYCETES — confitiued. 

Myriangium Duriaei Mont. ^ Berh. M i 2 

Sphaerothcca castagnci Lev. Mi L 2 

mors-uvae Berh. M i 2 C i L i 2 3 

paimosa Lev. L 2 
Podosphaera Oxyacanthae deBary. L2 
Erysiplic cichoracearum -DC. M2 L2 

galeopsidis DC. L 2 

graniinis BC. M 2 L 2 

polygon! DC. M i L 2 U i 

tortilis Fr. L 2 

iimbellifcrarum Lev. L 2 
Microsphaera Berberidis Lev. L 2 U i 

evonynii /S^fc. L 3 

grossiilariae Ze'i.'. Mi L 2 U i 2 
Phyllaotinia corylea Karst. L 2 
Uncinula Aceris DC. L 2 3 

neoator Burr. L 2 

Primastri Sacc. L 2 

Salicis Wint. L 2 


Asterina veronicae Cooke. L 2 

Hypomyces anrantius Tul. L 2 3 U 2 

cervinus Till. L 2 

rosellus Tul. L 2 
Melanospora leucotrielia Corda. U i 
Nectria Aquifolii Berk. 1,1 U i 

am-antiuni Kickx. L 2 

bicolor ^ ^- Br. L 2 

einnabarina i^/-. M i 2 L 2 U i 2 

coccinea i^/". M 2 L 2 U i 2 

cucurbitula i^r. U i 

dacrymella I^tjl. L 2 

ditissima [7(<Z.] L 2 

ocbracea Fr. 31 2 

Pandani Tul. L 2 

Peziza i^;'. M 2 L 2 

sanguinea Fr. L 2 

sinopica Fr. L 2 U i 


Calonectria lutcola Sacc. L 2 
Gibberella puliearis Sacc. L 2 
Sphaerostilbe flavo-viridis [^Fuck']. L 2 
Polystigma rubrum DC. il 3 C i L 2 
Hypocrea farinosa .B. ^- Br. U 2 

ruf a i^. L 2 3 

splendens \_Phil. et Plow.'] L 2 
Epichloe typhina T!</. M 2 C i L 2 

Ui 2 
Cordyceps capitata Link. M 2 

entomorhiza [i^/'.] L 2 

militaris Link. M 2 C i L 2 U i 2 

opbioglossoides Link. M 2 
Clavioeps Junci Adams. L 2 

microcepliala Ttd. Mi L 2 3 

purpiu'ea I'm?. C i L 2 
Ehopographus filicinus Fuck, L 2 U i 
Phyllachora graminis Fuck. L 2 

Podagrariae Earst. C i 

Tilmi i^«cZ,-. U I 
Dothidella ulmi J/-. L 2 


Hypocopra fimicola Sirfc^. C i 

stercoraria Sacc. M 2 

Cbaetomium ohartarum Ehrh. M i 

comatum jR'. M 2 L 2 
Trichosphaei'ia pilosa i^^ci. L 2 
Lasiosphaeria canescens Karst. L 2 

hirsuta Ces. «•< Not. M 2 L 2 

ovina Ce«. et Not. L 2 

spermicides Ces. et Not. M 2 U 2 
Herpotrichia Keitii [Saa".]. L 2 

macrotricba Sacc. L 2 
Chaetospbcria tristis Schrbt. U i 
Bertia moriformis Ces. et Not. L 2 U 2 
Rosellinia aquila de Not. L 2 CT 2 

mammaeformis Ces. et Not. C i L 2 

thclcna lial. L 2 


Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

U I 


M2 Uz 


Zignoella piilviscula Sacc. L 2 
Melanomma pulvis-pyrius Ftuk. 
L2 U2 


Nitschkia tristis Fuck. L 2 
Gibbera vaccinii Fr. TJ 2 
Cucurbitaria Berberidis Gray. ] 
elongata GV^r. M 2 TJ 2 
Laburoi Ces. et Not. L 2 


Mycosphaerella Brassicae Johnson 

latebrosa Cooke. U i 

maculacformis Cooke. 

ostruthii />. U i 

pinodcs Niettl. TJ i 

punctiforniis Rabenh. 

tabifica P/i//. el Del. 

taxi (7ooX-«. L z 3 
Stigmatca Nicholsoni Cooke 

ostruthii Oitd^m. L 2 

Robertiani /V. L 2 
Ticothecium calcaricolum Arnold. 

gemmiferum ITorb. Ireland 

leucomelarium Berl. et Vogl. 

pcrpusillum Arnold. C 1 

pygmacum Korb. TJ 1 

rimosicolum Arnold. Mi C 1 
Sphocrulina taxi Cooke. L z 3 

Physalospora gregaria Saa. C 1 
Venturia bryophila S<uc. M 1 

Geranii Wint. TJ 2 

ilicifolia CooA*. L z 

inacqualis fTin^. L i 
Lcptosphaeria acata Karti. 51 2 

anindinacea Sa<-ir. L 2 

culmiiraga Cm. «< iVo<. L 2 

Doliolum rf<! iVb<. L z 
Pyrenophora phaeocomes A'a^f . M z 

III. EtTAScoMTcaETEs — coutitiued. 

I Pleosporaherbaruni ^wJcM^. 11 2 
M 2 scirpicola Karst. U i 

tricliospora Diedick. M 2 L i 
Ulmi TTrt///-. M2 

Massaria pupula Tul. TJ i 

Gnomonia erytlirostoma Auersw. 51 2 
Gnomon Schriit. TJ 2 
setacea C««. et Not. L 2 

C 3 Vai.s.aceah. 

Valsa eunomia Nitxch. il 2 
Eutypa J?^i'«<. L2 
flavovirescens Wint. M 2 U 2 
lata Nilnch. M 2 L 2 TJ i 
Iciphcmia Wint. TJ i 
Icucostoma //•. TJ 1 
Prunastri Wint. Ireland 
salicina Fr. TJ 2 
Btellulata Fr. U 1 

Valsaria Tiliae de Not. \i z 
Melanconis lanciformis Tul. 


Diatrype bullata Fr. U i 2 
comiculata .5. ^- Br. M 2 
diseiforrais .Fr. M 2 L 2 
stigma i^r. 51 2 TJ 2 

Diatrypella nuclcata Sacc. TJ i 
pulvinata Nits. TJ 1 2 
strnmella /'kcX'. U 1 
vemicaeformis Ftick. U i 2 

Sillia ferruginca Karst. U i 

L 2 Xtlariaceab. 

Nummularia Bulliardi Tm^. L 2 
Hypoxylon atropurpureum i^/-. U 
coccineum Bull. M 2 U i 3 
cohaerens /v. TJ i 
fuscum FV. M 2 L 2 3 TJ 1 z 




U I 

Adams and Pethybridgk— yl Cnism Cafalof/itr of hixh Fmuji. 137 

III. Epascomtcetes — continued. 

Hypoxylon multiforn>o /''/•. C i L 2 

rubiginosum Fr. M x I, 2 3 U i 

serpens Fr. U 2 

udiim Fr. L 2 
Ustulina vulgaris Txd. ir 2 L 2 TJ i 2 
Diildinia concentrica Cos. et Not. M i 

Xylaria carpophila Fr. L 2 U z 
comiformis Fr. L 2 U i 
hypoglossa Grev. L 2 
Hypoxylon G'/-«e;. M i 2 L 2 U i 2 
polymorpha (zrev. L 2 
rhopaloides J/o»<. L 2 

2. Eubasidii. 

(1) Protohasidtomycetes. 


Endophyllum Euphor'biae Z)C'. M 2 U i 

Melampsora betulina Till. 51 i 2 
circaeae Schtmi. L 2 
epitea Thum. L2 
farinosa Schroet. M 2 C i L 2 3 
Helioscopiae Cast. M i 2 L 2 




Hypericorum Schroet. C i L 2 3 L" i 
lini Tm^. M 2 C I L 2 3 U i 2 
populina Lev. M 2 L 2 
Vacciniorum Schroet. L 2 
Vitellinae TImm. SI 2 

1. Hemibasidii. 


TJstilago Avenae Jens. C x 
Caricis -Fi/cfc. L 3 
longissima Tul. C 2 L 3 U 3 
Scabiosa TFw^. M 2 
segetum Bittm. il 2 C i L 2 TJ i 2 
Tragopogi Schroet. M 2 L 2 
Vaillantii 7m^. L 2 TJ i 


Tilletia Eau-svenhofii F. de Waldh. L 3 

striiformis Magnus. L 2 

Tritici TFiMi!. L 2 TJ 2 
Entyloma Eanunculi Schroet. L 2 
Urocystis Anemones Schroet. L 2 TJ i 

Violae Fisch. C i L 2 

C'oleosporium C'ampaniilac Lev. J[ 2 U 2 
Euplirasiae Wint. M 2 C i L 2 3 U i 
Senecionis Fr. M 2 C i L 2 3 
Sonchi Lev. M i 2 C i L 2 3 TJ i 

Calyptospora Goeppertiana [-fiTw/iw.] TJ 2 


Gymnosporangiiim claTariiforme Itees. 
il 2 L 2 TJ I 2 

juniperinum Fr. IT 2 C i L z 

Sabinae TVint. M 2 L 2 
TJromyces Alcbemillae Fuck. L 2 TJ 2 

Anthyllidis Schroet. C i L 2 

Betae Eiihn. L 2 

Dactylidis 0«^. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

Diantbi Niessl. L 2 

Fabae de Barij. 51 i 2 L 2 TJ i 

Ficariae Lev. L 2 TJ 1 

Geranii Otth. L 2 3 

Parnassiae i>C'. L 2 

Rumieis TVint. .M 2 L 2 U i 2 

Scillarum 7FJ«<. TJ i 2 

Trifolii Zci-. C I 

Valerianae Fuck. C i L 3 
Piiccinia aegra Grove. U i 

Aegopodii Link. TJ i 2 

Agrostidis Plou-. TJ i 

Angelicae i^wZ'. L3 

annularis Wint. L 2 

Baryi TTiVi^. L 2 

buUata Schroet. L 2 3 TJ i 

Biinii TFi'w^ L 2 

Buxi Z>C. L 2 3 U I 2 

Calthae Link. L 2 U 1 

[£7 -] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

IV. BisiDioiiYCETEs — continued. 

Puccinia Caricis Relent. C i L 2 
Circaeae Pers. M 2 L 2 3 U 2 
coronata Corda. L 2 3 U 2 
EpUobiii)C. M2 Ci Lz U2 
Fergussoni S. ^ Br. L 2 
fusca Selh. L 2 U i 
Galii Scfiicein. L 2 
Glechomatis DC. L 2 3 U i 
glomerata Grev. L 2 U 1 2 
graminis Pers. M 1 2 L 2 U i 2 
Hicracii Itart. M2 Ci L23 U12 
Hydrocotylcs Cooke. I, 2 
Lapsanae JV/ri-. L 2 
Mulvacearum Mont. L 2 3 U 1 
Mcntlme Pers. M 2 L 2 3 U 1 2 
Moliniae Ttil. C i L 2 
oblongata [ 7F(■«^] >[ 2 L 2 
obscura Schroel. L 2 
Phularidis /"/oir. L 2 U i 
PhragmitiB Korn. L 2 U 1 2 
Pimpincllac Zini. M 2 C 1 L 2 3 
Poarum Kiels. M 2 Ti 2 3 U 1 
Polygoni Winl. M 2 L 3 
Prenanthis Fiut. U 2 
Priinulae Duby. M2C1 L23U2 
pringshcimiana Klebahn. M 2 L 2 

Pruni Pers. L 2 
Uubigo-yera Wint. L 2 
Saniculae Grw. C i L 2 U i 
Saxifragac Schltthl. Mi L 2 
sessilis Schneid. L 2 U 1 
Silcnes Schroet. L 2 
silvatica Schroet. XJ i 2 
Smymii Corda. L 2 U i 
suaveolens Rostr. M 2 L 2 3 U i 2 
Taraxaci Pfoic. C i L 2 3 
uliginosa iTw*/. L 2 
Umbilici Giiep. L 2 U 2 
Veronicae Wint. L 2 3 
Vincae BC. M i L 2 
Violae J5C. M i 2 C i L 2 3 U 2 

Phragmidium Fragariastii Schroet. C i 

Potentillae Karst. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

Rubi /r/«Y. M2 L2 

Eubi-idaei Karst. M 2 L 2 TJ i 2 

Sanguisorbae Schroet, C 1 

subcorticatum Wint. C i L 2 

Tonnentillae Fiuk. L 2 

violaceum 7F"/«<. C i L 2 
Triphragmium Ulmariae Z/«/-. M 1 C i 
L 2 3 


Auricularia mesenterica Fr. M 2 L 2 
Hirneola Am-iculu-Judae Berk. M 2 
Lz Ui 2 


Stilbuni vulgarc Tode. L 2 U 2 


Exidia albida Bref. M 1 2 L 2 3 TJ i 2 
glandulosa Fr. M 1 2 C i L 2 
rccisa /v. M I 

Ulocolla foliacea Bref. L 2 U i 2 

Tremt-lla fimbriata Per*. M 2 U i 
indecorata Sommf Mi C i L z 
intumescens Sow. M i 2 TJ i 
mesenterica JUtz. M i 2 C i L 2 3 

viscosa Berk. L 2 

Nacmatilia encephala Fr. TJ i 
(2) Autobasidiomycetes. 

Dacromyces deliquescens Duby. L 2 
macrosporus ^ff. ^- .Br. L 2 
stillatus A'e'M. M2 Ci L23 TJ12 

Gucpinia merulina Quel. L 2 

Calocera cornea Wint. L 2 TJ 2 
viscosa Fr. L 2 


Exobasidium Vaccinii War. L 2 3 

TomentcUa fcrruginea Pers. L 2 

Adams and Petiiybridgic — A Census Catalogue of Irish Funcji. 139 

IV. Basidiomtcetes — continued. 

Corticium arachnoiclcuin Berh. U i 2 

calceum Fr. M 2 L 2 U 2 

cinereum Pers. M 2 

coeruleum Pern. L 2 U 2 

comeclens Fr. TJ i 

confluens Fr. M 2 U 2 

evolvens Fr. U i 

ferrugineum Pers. L 2 

lacteum Fr. U 2 

laeve Fr. L 2 U i 2 

nudum i^r. TJ i 

ochraceum Fr. M 2 

Sambuci -f/\ L 2 

vagum B. Sf G. Ireland 
Coniophora byssoidea Karat. M 2 

puteana Mass. L 2 

sulphurea Mass. L 2 
Stereum ferrugineum Fr. Ireland 

hirsutum Fr. M i 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

purpureum P«?-s. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

rugosum Psrs. M 2 

sanguinolentum -F/\ M 2 U i 
Thelepbora anthocepbala Fr. L 2 

caesia Pers. L 2 U 1 

caryophyllea Pers. M 2 

cristata i^/-. L 2 U i 

intybacea [Ps?-*.]. M 2 

laciniata Pers. M 2 L 2 U 2 

mollissima Pers. U i 

setacea Berli. L 2 

terrestris ^7ir. L 2 

undulata i^;-. M 2 
Craterellus clavatus i^r. L 2 

cornucopioides if>'. L 2 U i 

lutescens Fr. M 2 

sinuosus Fr. L 2 TJ i 
Cypbella capula Fr. L 2 

dochmiospora -C. ^- 5>'. L 2 

Goldbachii Weinm. L 2 

Pimii P/«7Z. L 2 

villosa Karst. M 2 L 2 U 2 

L2 Ui 





Solcnia anoraala Fr. L 2 
Pcniopliora cinerea Cooke. 

quercina Coohe. M i 2 

rosea if««s. L 2 

velutina Cooke. TJ i 2 
Hymenochaete avellana Lev 

oorrugata Lev. L 2 

rubiginosa Z^«;. M 2 L 2 


Typbula erythropus Fr. M 2 

gyrans [-f''-]. M 2 L 2 

tenuis Sow. M 2 
Clavaria abietina Selmm. M 2 

acuta Soiv. M 2 

argillacea i^V. M 2 

cinerea -Bk??. Mi L 2 U 2 

contorta Holmsk. L 2 

coralloides Zwi?*. M i 2 L 2 

cristata Holmsh. M i 2 L 2 

fastigiata Linn. M i 2 L 2 3 

fragilis Holmsk. M i 2 L 2 

fusiformis Sow. M i 2 

inaequalis Fl. Dan. M 

j uncea Fr. Mi L 2 

pistillaris Linn. TJ 2 

purpiu'ea ^k7^. L 2 

rugosa 5m/?. M 2 L 2 TJ i 2 

stricta P«r«. M i 

tuberosa Sow. TJ 2 

imcialis Grev. M 2 L 2 

vermicularis Scop. M 2 L 2 
Pistillaria culmigcna i^/'. L 2 

micans F/\ TJ i 

puberula Berk. TJ 2 

quisquiliaris Fr. M 2 L 2 
Sparassis laminosa [_Fr.'] TJ 2 

Phlebia contorta Fr. L 2 
Giandinia granulosa Fr. M 2 L 2 TJ i 
Odontia barba-Jovis Fr. M 2 L 2 
fimbriata Pers. L 2 


U I 2 

L23 Ui 
I L2 U2 


Proceedings of the Boyal Irish Academy. 

IV. Basidiomtcetes — continued. 

Eadulum laetum Fr. L 2 

orbiculare Fr. L 2 U i 

quercinum Fr. L 2 
Hydniim alutaceum Fr. L 2 

auriscalpium Linn. !M 2 L 2 

cinereum ^m//. L 2 

cyathiforme [ .Sc^rti'j^. ] M 2 

denticulatnm iVr». L 2 

farinaceum Pers. M i 

ferrugineum FV. L 2 

graveolens 2)«/. U 1 

imbricatum Linn. M i 

niveum Pen. L 2 

ochraccura Pern. M 2 L 2 

plumoBum Duly. L 2 

pudorinum //•. I, 2 

rcpaiidiim Zinn. 51 1 2 L J 3 U 1 2 

rufcBcens P#r«. L 2 

udum />. M 2 Li 

zonntum Battch. M 2 
Irpex fusco-TiolaceuB Fr. \. 2 

hcterodon Sacc. I. 2 

obliquus /V. L 2 U 1 


Morulius corium Fr. M 2 L 2 3 

lachrymaoB /V. M 2 L 2 U 2 
Poritt bombycina Fr. L 2 

ferruginosa llatt. >r 1 2 L 2 

hibcrnica ^. ^- Br. L 2 

mcdulla-panis CooXc U i 2 

mollusca ZVr«. M z 

obduccns P?r#. L 2 

purpurea Coo/t«. U i 

radula Fr. L 2 

Banguinolenta [^. ^ 5.] L 2 

vaporaria /V. M 1 L 2 3 U 1 

violacea Cooke. U i 

vitrea Pert. L 2 

vulgaris />. M 2 L 2 U 2 
Fomes aunosus Fr. L 2 U 1 2 

applanatus n'allr. L 2 



Fomes cytisinus Berl;. L 2 

fomentarius i^r. Mi L 2 3 U i ,! 

fraxineus Fr. L 2 U 2 

fulvus Fr. L 2 

igniarius FV. M i 2 L 2 TJ i 

Ribis Fr. L 2 

salicinus i^r. M 2 L 2 

ulmarius i'V. L 2 

variegatus Serr. C i 
Polyporus adiistus Fr. Jf 2 L 2 U i 

amorphus Fr. L 2 

armeniacus Berh. If 2 L 2 

betulinus Fr. Mi L 2 II i 

bruiiialis Fr. L 2 U 1 

cbioneus /V. L 2 U 2 

dryadeus i^r. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

clegans i^. L 2 

frondosus />■. M 2 

fumosus Fr. L 2 U 1 

giganteus Fr. M 2 L 2 3 U 1 2 

hispidus /y. L 2 

lentUB j5«r/-. L 2 U 2 

melanopuB />'. L 2 

nidulans /V. M 2 

pallesccns Fr. U 2 

percnnis Fr. M 1 2 Ji 2 U i 2 

picipeB Fr. L 2 

pinicola /Tin^. M 2 

rufescens /V. L 2 

salignuB Fr. U i 2 

spumeuB /v. U i 2 

squamosus /V. M 1 2 1,23 U 1 2 

BulphurcuB Fr. L 2 

varius Fr. L z U 1 
PolystictuB abietinus Fr. ^f 2 1- 2 U i 

fibula Fr. U 2 

radiatus Fr. L 2 U i 2 

velutinus PV. L 2 U i 

TerBicolor Fr. M 2 L 2 U 1 2 

Wynnei B. Sf Br. L 2 
Tratofttes mollis Fr. L 2 
Daedalca quercinu Pers. L 2 U 2 

Adams and PwritYBitiDGK — A Census Catalogue of Irish Funf/L 141 

IV. Basidiomycetes — continued. 

Dnedalea unicolor Fr. 
Lenzites betulina Fr. 

Fistxilina hcpatica Fr. 
Boletus aostivnlis Fr. 

M I 2 L 2 

M 2 L 2 U I 2 


aiirautiporus Fr. L 2 

badius Linn. L 2 

bovinus Linn. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

calopus Fr. M i 

castaneus Bull. TJ i 

chrysenteron i^/'. L 2 3 U 1 

crassus Jf(?s«. L 2 

cyanescens 5«//. L 2 

cdulis Bull. M 2 L 2 TJ i 2 

olegans Schum. Mi L 2 U i 

flavus With. M12 Ci L23 TJiz 

fragrans Vitt. TJ i 

granulatus Linn. L 2 TJ 1 

impolitus Fr. TJ i 2 

laricinus Berlc. Mi C i L 2 3 

Im'idus Schaeff. M i 2 L 2 3 TJ i 2 
luteus Linn. M12 Ci L23 TJ12 
MacWeeneyi W. G. iSm. L2 
olivaceus Schaeff. L 2 
pachypus Fr. Mi L 2 TJ i 2 
parasiticus Bull, L 2 
piperatus Bull. Mi L 2 TJ 2 
porphyrosporus Fr. L 2 
satanas Zcms. Mi L 2 TJ i 2 
soaber 2^/-. Mi L 2 TJ i 
subtomcntosus Zj»». M 2 L 2 

Ui 2 
sulphureus [i^/'.] L 2 
variecolor 5. ^ 5r. TJ i 
Ceriomyces albus Sacc. L 2 


Amanita aspera [Fr.'] M 2 
excelsa Fr. L 2 
lenticularis [ JF. ff. Sw.] L2 
niappa Fr. L 2 TJ i 
muscaria Fr. M i 2 L 2 3 TJ i 2 

Amanita pantherina Fr. L 2 TJ i 

phalloides Fr. M 2 L 2 TJ i 2 

porphyria Fr. L 2 

rubosoens Fr. Mi L 2 TJ i 2 

spissa Fr. Mi L 2 

strobiliformis Vitt. L 2 
Amanitopsis adnata ^. G. Sm. TJ: 

strangulata iJo3«. L 2 TJ i 

vaginata Hoze. L 2 TJ i 2 
Lepiota acutesquamosa Weinm. L 2 

amianthina Scop. L 2 

Badhami 5«r/;. M i 

cepaestipes Sow. M 2 L 2 

clypeolaria -Sm/^. M 2 TJ 2 

cristata^. ^- S. M i L 2 3 TJ 2 

delioata Fr. L 2 

excoriata Schaeff. L 2 

f elina P^r*. C 1 L 2 

graeilenta Kronib. TJ i 

granulosa Batsch. L 2 

holosericea i^r. L 2 

mesomorpba ^m^^. L 2 

procera ySco^. M 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

raohodes Vitt. TJ 1 

sistrata Fr. L 2 
ArmUIaria mellea Vahl. M i 2 L 2 
Ui 2 

mucida Schrad. L 2 TJ 1 2 

ramentacea ^i^^^. L 2 
Tricholoma albellum Fr. Mi 

albobrunneum [P«-«. J TJ i 

album Schaeff'. L 2 TJ i 

atrosquamosum C7(t'v. RI 1 

brevipes Bull. L 2 

caelatum Fr. L 2 

cinerasceus Bull. L 2 

colossum i^;\ TJ i 

columbetta Fr. Mi L 2 TJ 2 

cuneifolium /)•. JI i 

flavobrunncum Fr. Mi L 2 U i 

f ulvclhmi Fr. L 2 

gambosum Fr. L 2 TJ i 2 




Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Tricholoma grammopodium Bull. 
Lz Ui 

humile Pers. Mi L z 

imbrieatum Fr. !M i L 2 U i 

immimclum Berk. L 2 

inamoenum Fr. L 2 

lascivum Fr. L 2 

luridum Fr. L 2 

melaleucum jPsr*. L z 

militare Latch. U i 

murinaceum Bull. L 2 

nictitans i^-. M i L 2 

nudum Bull. Mi L2 U 1 

panaeolum Fr. 51 1 L 2 

personatum Fr. i[ 1 L 2 U i 2 

pes-caprac Fr. M 2 

resplendcns FV. L 2 

rutilans Schaeff. M 2 L 2 3 U 1 2 

saponacciim Fr. L 2 

scalpturatum /r. L 2 

Schumacberi /V. L 2 3 

sordidum Fr. M i 

spcnnaticum Fr. M i 

subpulvemlentum /Vr». Mi L 2 

sulpbureum Fr. M 1 2 

tcrreum Schaeff. M 1 2 L 2 3 U 

ustale Ft. M i 

vaccinum Fr. L 2 

virgatuni Fr. L 2 
Clitocybe bella Pen. L 2 U i 

brumalis Fr. L 2 U 1 

candicans Pert. Mi L 2 

cerussata /V. M i 2 L 2 U i 

cyathiformis Bull. M 2 L 2 IT 1 2 

dealbata Sow. L 2 U 2 

cctypa Fr. L 2 U i 

elixa Sow. V i 

flaccida Sow M - TJ i 

fragrans Sow. M i 2 L 2 U 1 2 

fumosa Pert. M i L 2 U 1 

gallinacea Scop. Mi L 2 

geotropa £u//. Mi L 2 U i 

IV. Basidiomtcetes — continued. 

Clitocybe gilva P«-«. Mi U i 

infundibuliformis Schaeff. Mi L 2 

inomata (Siwc L 2 

inversa Scop. L 2 U i 

laccata Scop. M i 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

maxima Fr. IT i 

nebulaiis Batsch. L 2 U i 2 

odora (Sow. L 2 TJ i 

tumulosa Kalch. M 1 
CoUybia aeervata i'V. L 2 

atrata Fr. L 2 

butyracea Bull. L 2 U i 2 

caulicinalis 5«//. TJ i 2 

claviis Ztnn. L 2 U 2 

collina >Sco/>. L 2 

confluens Pert. L 2 U i 2 

conigena Pert. M 2 L 2 

dryopbila ^m?/. Mi L 2 3 U i 2 

f usipes Bull. M 2 L 2 

inolcns />•. M i 

longipes Bull. L 2 

maculata A ^- S. L 2 3 U i 

nitcUina Fr. L 2 

platyphylla i'r. L 2 

pk'xipcs /r. L z 

protracta Fr. L 2 

radicata Relh. M i 2 L 2 3 U i 

tenacella Pert. L 2 

tuberosa .Bm//. M 2 L 2 

velutipes JV. il 2 L 2 U 1 z 
Mycena acicula Schaeff. L 2 

alkalina />. Mi L 2 U i 

amicta Fr. L 2 

ammoniaca Fr. L 2 

capillaris Fr. L 2 

cohaerens /V. U 2 

corticola />. L 2 U i 2 

cruenta Fr. L 2 U 2 

dissiliens Fr. M i 

clegans Pert. L 2 U 2 

cpipterygia iSVo/w. M 2 L 2 U i 

Glopes ^u//. C I L 2 

Adams and Petiiybridge — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 143 



TJl 2 

M2 L2 


Mycena galericulata Scop. 

Ul 2 

galopus Fr. M i 2 L 2 

haematopus Pers. L 2 

hiemalis Osbeck. L 2 

iris 5eri. L 2 

juncicola /'r. C i 

lactea Pers. L 2 II i 

leucogala Conhe. L 2 

pelianthina //•. Mi U 

pelliculosa Fr. IT i 

polygramma Bull. M i 2 

prolifera Soio. M i 

pterigena Fr. L 2 

pullata -B«Wf. ^ Cooke. 

pura /*«;■«. M i 2 L 2 

rorida Fr. U i 

rugosa Fr. L 3 

sanguinolenta ^. 6; 8. 

speii'ea Fr. L 2 

stylobates Pers. C i L 2 

tenella Fr. U i 

tenerrima -5«/A. II i C j L 2 3 

tintinnabulum i^/'. L 2 

vitilis i^/-. Mi L 2 

vulgaris Pws. Mi L 2 
Omphalia fibula Bull. M i 2 C i L 
U I 

grisea />•. U i 

iiitegrella Pers. L 2 

muralis Soet'. Mi L 2 

pyxidata Bull. Mi L 2 U 2 

rustica Fr. L 2 

stellata Fr. U 2 

telmatiaea -SwX-. ^- Cooke. L2 

umbeUifera Zmm!. Mi L 2 U i 2 
Pleurotus acerosus 7^»\ C i L 2 U 2 

applicatus Batsch. M 2 U 2 

corticatus i^;'. L 2 U i 

craspedius Fr. L 2 

dryinus Pers. L 2 TJ i 

lignatilis Fr. M i 


IV. Easidiomxcktes — continued. 
M I 2 L 2 

Pleurotus mitis Pers. Mi L 2 

salignus Pers. U i 

septicus Fr. L 2 

subpalmatus /)•. L 2 

ulmurius jBmW. L 2 U I 
Volvaria bombycina Fr. U 2 

parvula //•. L 2 

speciosa Fr. L 2 U 2 
Pluteus cervinus Scheieff. L 2 3 U i 
Entoloma ameides B. ^' 5/\ U i 

clypeatum Linn. U 2 

costatum Fr. L 3 

belodes i^r. Mi C i U i 

jubatum Fr. L 2 U i 

nidorosuin Fr. L 2 U i 

rhodopolium Fr. L 3 U i 

sericellum Fr. L 2 

sericeum Fr. L 2 U i 

sinuatum Fr. U 2 
Clitopilus carneoalbus With. L 2 

cietatus B. Sf Br. L 2 

prunulus Scop. L 2 U 2 
Leptonia aetbiops Fr. Mi L 2 

chalybaea Pers. M 2 U 2 

incana i^r. L 2 

lampropus /V. L 2 

solstitialis />. M i 
Nolanea paseua Pers. M i 2 L 2 U 2 

pisciodora Cesati L 2 

rufo-carnea 5g/'i. U i 
Eccilia griseorubella Zasch. L 2 
Claudopus depluens Batsch. C i L 2 

variabilis Pws. M2 L2 TJ i 2 
Pholiota adiposa Fr. L 2 

aurea J/rt<(f. il 2 L 2 U x 

aurivella Batsch. L 2 

caperata P«r*. U 2 

capistrata Cooke. 
dura Bolton. L 2 
erebia [/V.] L 2 
Junonia Fr. U i 
iiiarginata Batsch. 




Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acactemi). 

IV. Basidiomtcetes- 

Pholiota mutabilis Sckaeff. L 2 U 2 

praecox Pers. L 2 

spectabilis Fr. L 2 U i 2 

squarrosa Mull. M 1 2 L 2 U i 2 
Inocybe asterospora Quel. L 2 

calamistrata Fr. L 2 TJ i 

cincinnata Fr. L 2 

Curreyi Berk. L 2 

destricta Fr. L 2 

eutheles 5. ^- ^r. M i L 2 

fastigiata Schaeff. Mi L 2 

fibrosa Soi^. II 1 L 2 U i 

flocciilosa .fitvi. M i 

geophylla Fr. M 1 2 L 2 U x 2 

hiulca /v. M i 

lanuginosa Bull. Mi U i 

perlata Cooke. L 2 

plumosa Bolton. Mi U i 

pyriodora P»r«. Mi L 2 

rimosa .6m//. M i 2 L 2 3 U 2 

Bcabra />. L 2 U 2 
Hebeloma crustuliuiformc Bull. M i 
L2 Ui 

fustibile /'r. Mi L 2 U i 2 

longicaudum P^r». Mi L 2 

mcsophaeum />. M i 

sinapizans Fr. U 1 2 

testaceum Bat-sch. L 2 

Flaromula flavidu Schaeff. L 2 U 2 
inopus Fr. M 2 L 2 
lenta /Vr». Mi L 2 
sapinea />. U 1 

Naucoria badipes Fr. L 2 
conspersa Per». Mi L 2 
erinaceu Fr. L 2 
eschoroides />. L 2 U i 2 
melinoides Fr. L 2 
pediates />. Mi L 2 
scolecina Fr. L 2 
semiorbiculoris Bull. L 2 
sideroides .6u//. L 2 

2 U I 2 



Galera hypnoiuni Batuh. IT i 2 C i 
L23 TJi 

mniophila Lasch. L 2 

ovalis Fr. L 2 

rubiginosa Pers. L 2 

tenera Schaeff. M 2 L 
Tubaria f urf uracea Pers. 

paludosa Fr. L 2 

pellucida .5m//. M 2 
Crepidotiis alveolus Lasch. 

chimonopliilus B. Sf Br. 

mollis Fr. L 2 U 1 
Psalliota ai'vensis Schaeff'. 

campestris Linn. M i 2 


haemorrhoidaria Magnm. 

silvaticn QuH. Mi L 2 

xanthoderma Genev. L 2 
Stropharia aeruginosa C'«r/. 
Ui 2 

albocyanea Desm. L 2 

inuncta Fr. L 2 

semiglobata Balsch. M i 2 
TJ 12 

stercoraria /V. L 2 
Hyplioloma appendiculatum Bull. L 2 

dispersura Fr. L 2 

egenulum B. ^" .Br. L 2 

epixanthum Fr. L 2 3 

fasciculare Huds. M i 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

hydrophiltim Bull. L 2 

lacrymabundum //•. U i 

Bublateritum Schaeff. L 2 3 TJ 2 

velutinum Pen. L 2 
Psilocybe areolata KloUch. L 2 3 

ceriiua Mull. M i 

clivensis ^. ^- Br. L 2 

ericacea P^r*. M 2 L 2 

foenisecii /"er*. L 2 TJ i 

seniilanceata Fr. Mi L 2 

spadicea tr. L 2 

L 2 3 D I 2 
C I L I 2 3 


M2 L2 

Ci L2 

AiJAMS AND Petiivbridgk — A Ceiisus Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 145 

IV. Basidiomtck 

Psilocybu sublateritius Fr. M 2 
Psatbyra corrugis Pers. L 2 

spadiceogrisea Schaeff. L 2 
Anellaria finiiputris Karst. Mi C : L 2 
Ui 2 

separata Karnt. L 2 U i 2 
Panaeolus campanulatus Z('«». L 2 

papilionaceus i^r. L 2 

phalaenarum i^/-. C i £23 
Psathyrella atomata Fr. L 2 

disseminata Fers. M 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

gracilis Fr. L 2 

hiascens Fr. TJ i 
Coprinus atramentaiius Fr. Mi L 2 
Ui 2 

comatus Fr. M 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

congregatus Fr. M 2 

deliquescens Fr. L 2 

domesticus i^r. L 2 

epliemerus ^r. C i L 3 

extinctorius Fr. L 2 

fuscescens Fr. U i 

hemerobius Fr. \iz U i 

lagopus i^r. L 2 

micaceus i^?\ M 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

niveus Fr. M 2 L 2 U i 

ovatus -Fr. U 2 

picaceus i^r. U i 

plicatilis Fr. M 2 L 2 U i 2 

radiatus Fr. M 2 L 2 

tomentosus Fr. L 2 
Bolbitius Boltoaii Fr. U 2 

f ragilis i^/-. L 2 U 2 

tener .6«;-^. L 2 3 U i 
Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) claricolor 
Fr. M I 

fulgens Fr. L 2 

glaucopus Fr. L 2 

infractus Fr. L 2 

largus Fr. L 2 

purpurascens -F/". L 2 U i 

Bcaurus /';-. U 2 

;te8 — continued. 

Cortinarius tnlu.s Fr. L 2 
testaceus Cooke. M 2 
turbinatus />. L 2 
varins /^r. M 2 L 2 U i 
(Myxacium) collinitus Fr. L 2 TJ 2 

elatior Fr. L 2 
(Inoloma) alboriolaceus Fr. L 2 

Bulliai'dii Fr. U 2 

callisteus /;■. TJ i 

camphoratus Fr. M i 

cyanites Fr. TJ i 

pholideus Fr. M i 

sublanatus Fr. L 2 TJ 2 

violaceus Linn. M 2 L 2 
(Dermocybe) anomalus i^r. L2 Ui 

caninus Fr. L 2 

cinnamomeus /)•. M i 2 L 2 
U I 2 

militinus Fr. L 2 

sanguineus Fr. M 2 L 2 

uliginosus Berk. L 2 
(Telamonia) evemius F>'. TJ 2 

gentilis //•. TJ 2 

helvolus Fr. M 2 

hemitriclius Fr. L 2 

binnuleus Fj\ L 2 

iliopodius i^?'. M 2 

paleaceus /^r. L 2 

torvus Fr. L 2 
(Hydrocybe) acutus Fr. L 2 TJ 2 

arraeniacus Fr. Mi L 2 

castaneus /)•. L 2 

dilutus F>-. U 2 

leucopus /)•. L 2 
(Gomphidius) glutiuosus Fr. L 2 TJ i 

gracilis Herk. L 2 

viscidus />. L 2 3 TJ i 2 
(Paxillus) gigauteus Fr. M 2 ir2 

iuvolutus Fr. M i 2 L 2 U i 2 

panaeolus Fr. L 2 

pannoides Fr. L 2 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

lY. Basibiomtcetes — continued. 


Hygrophorus(Liinacium) ebumeus Bull. 

L2 U I 2 

hypothejus Fr. M z 
(Caraaiophyllus) nemoreus Fr. L 3 
nireus Fr. L 2 3 U 1 
ovinus Bull. M i 2 L 2 TJ 2 
pratensis Fr. 31 i L z 3 TJ i 
russocoriacens B. Sf Br. L 3 
virgiaeus Widf. M i 2 L 2 U 1 
(Hygrocybe) calpytraeformis Berk. 
Mi L23 
ceraceus Wulf. M 1 2 L 2 U i 
chlorophanus Fr. L 2 3 TJ i 2 
coccineus Schaeff. M 2 L 2 3 U 1 2 
conicus Fr. Mi L 2 3 TJ i 2 
Houghtonii FT. M i 
intermedius Pa*». TJ 3 
lactus />. Mi L 2 
miniatus /r. Mi L 2 
nitratus Pert. L 2 
obmBseus FV. TJ i 2 
psittacinus Schtuff. M 

Ui 2 
punicens ^r. il 2 L 2 
ungulnosus ^r. L 2 
Lactarius acer A)-. M 2 

blt-nnius /'r. il i L 2 3 

cumphoratus Fr. L 2 

chrysorrhcus Fr. L 2 

cilicioidcs /"";•. TJ 2 

circellatus />. L 2 

controversus /Vr«. M z 

deliciosas Fr. M i 2 L 

fuliginosiis Fr. L 2 

glycioBtnus Fr. M i L 2 - 1 

hysginus Fr. L 2 U i . 

insulsuB Fr. Mi L 2 

mitissimus /V. Mi TJ i 

pallidus Fr. Mi L 2 U i 2 

pergamenus i^r. TJ i 

piperatus Fr. L 2 TJ i 

pyrogalus Fr. Mi L 2 




2 Ul 2 

Lactarius quietus Fr. Mi L 2 TJ 1 

rufus SfOjt;. L 2 U i 2 

serobiculatus i^/-. M 2 L 2 

serifluus F/-. Mi L 2 TJ i 2 

subdulcis Fr. JI i L 2 3 TJ i 2 

subumbonatus Lindgr. L 2 

theiogalus Fr. M 2 TJ i 

tonninosus Schaeff. Mi L 2 TJ i 

turpis Fr. Mi L 2 TJ i 

vellereus /;•. i[ i L 2 TJ i 

voleinus Fr. Mi L 2 TJ i 

zonariuB F/-. L 2 U i 2 
Kussula adusta Fr. M 2 L 2 TJ i 

alutacea FV. Mi L 2 TJ 2 

armeniaca Coo^'«. L 2 

consobrina Fr. L 2 

cyanoxantha Schaeff. L 2 

decolorans Fr. L 2 

delica Fr. L 2 3 

depallena Fr. L 2 

drimcia Cooke. L 2 TJ i 

emetica Fr. M i 2 L 2 TJ i 2 

fellea Fr. L 2 

foetens Fr. L 2 

fragilis Fr. Mi I, 2 U i 

f areata Fr. Mi L 2 

galochroa Fr. L 2 

granulosa Cooke. L 2 

hetcrophylla Fr. Mi L 2 U 2 

intepra Fr. L 2 TJ i 

lepida Fr. L 2 

lutea Fr. M 2 L 2 

nigricans Fr. M i L 2 TJ i 2 

ochroleuca Fr. Mi L 2 

puellaris Fr. L 2 

Queletii Fr. L 2 

rosacea Fr. M 1 

rubra Fr. L 2 TJ 1 2 

sardonia Fr. Mi L 2 

subfoetens W. G. Sm. L 2 

vesca Fr. L 2 

Adams and Pethvbridge — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 147 

IV. Basidiomyceiks — continued. 

Russula virescens Fr. Mi L 2 U i 
Cantharellus albidus Fr. C i 

aurantincus Fr. L 2 XT i 

cibarius Fr. M i 2 L z U i 2 

cinereus Fr. L 2 

lobatus Fr. M 2 L 2 U 2 

musoigenus Fr. L 2 

retirugus Fr. L 2 

tubaeformis Fr. L 2 
Nyctalis asteropbora Fr. L 2 

parasitica i^r. L 2 
Marasmius androsaceus i^;\ M 2 C 
L2 U2 

caulicinalis /'r. L 2 

epipbyllus i^?\ L 2 

erythropus Fr. TJ i 

graminum Berh. L 2 

Hudsonii P^rs. L 2 

impudicus i^r. L 2 

institius [/^r.] L 2 

oreades Fr. M 2 L 2 3 U i 

perforans Fr. M 2 

peronatus Fr. L 2 U i 

ramealis i^r. M 2 C i L2 

rotula i^r. M I 2 L 2 3 U i 2 

terginus Fr. L 2 

urens />. Mi L 2 U i 

Vaillantii i^r. L 2 
Lentinus cocbleatus ^z'. M 2 

fiabelliformis /V. TJ 2 

lepideus /^r. M 2 L 2 

tigrinus Fr. U 2 
Panus styptious Fr. L 2 

torulosus i^;\ L 2 
Schizophyllum commune /'V. M 2 

Clathrus cancellatus Tournef. M x 

M I 


2 3 

Mutinus caninus Fr. L 2 
Ithypballus impudicus Fisch. 
L 2 3 U I 2 

Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. 
Octaviania asterosperma Vitt. 


Lycoperdon Bovista Linn. M 2 
TJi 2 
caelatura Bull. Mi L 2 U i 2 
exoipuliforme \Pers.~\ M 2 
gemmatum Batsch. M i 2 L 2 3 TJ i 2 
pyriforme Schaeff. M 2 L 2 3 TJ i 2 
saccatum Vakl. Mi L 2 U i 

Bovista nigrescens Pers. M i 2 L 2 
U I 2 
plumbea Pers. M 2 L 2 TJ i 
pusilla Pers. M 2 TJ 2 

Geaster fimbriatus Fr. M 2 3 

Miehelianus ^F. G. Sm. L 2 
lufescens Pers. M 2 L 2 



Nidularia pisiformis Tid. L 2 
Crucibiilum vulgare Tul. M 2 L 2 
Cyathus striatus IToffm. M 2 L 2 
vemicosus DC. M 2 L 2 TJ 2 



Scleroderma Bovista Fr. Mi L 2 TJ 2 
cepa \_Pers.] M 2 
Geaster [2^/-.] L 2 
verrucosum Pers. M 2 L 2 
vulgare -Fr. M i 2 L 2 3 TJ i 2 

Spbaerobolus stellatus Tode. M 2 L 2 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


1.— Sptaeropsidales. 
Phyllosticta atro-zonata Voxx. L 2 
Phoma asteriscus Bull. L 2 

concentricum Desm. U i 

Grossulariae Schtih et Siicc. Ireland 

solanicola Pril. et Del. L 2 
Cicinnobolus Ulicis Adamn. L 2 
Asteroma reticulatum Berk. TJ 1 

rosae DC. Mi L 2 
Vermicularia Dematium Fr. L 2 
Cytospora carphosperma /r. M 2 

leucosperma Per*. M 2 
Ceuthospora lauri Grev. tJ 2 
Ascochyta dianthi Berh. V 1 

graniinicola Sacc. L 2 
Diplodina Solicis West. M 3 
Diplodia herbanim Lev. L 2 

Ilicis Fr. V 2 

Taxirf<»7Vo<. U2 
Dichomera Saubinctii Cooke. L 2 
Septoria aceris B. ^- Br. L 1 

Castanicola Detm. U i 

Petroselini Detm. Ireland 

Veronicae Detm. L 2 

Leptostbomatacf.a k. 
Piggottia astroidca B. ^- 5r. L 2 

gliidioli /"//H. L 2 
ActinothTrium graminis A'mmw. M. 2 


Dincmasporium gi-aminum [Z^f.]. L 2 
Discella carbonacea i?. ^- Br. U i 

2. — Helanconiales. 
Gloeosporium ficariae Berk. L 2 
fructigenum 5erjt. L 2 
Orcbidfariun Kant, et liar. L 2 
Melanconiuni bicolor JVw*. U i 

Pandani Lh. L 2 
Coryneum Beijcrinckii Oudem. L 2 
disciforme Kunze. TJ i 

3. — Hyphomycetes. 


Oospora Crustacea Sacc. L 2 

fasciculata S. &: V. L 2 

lactis (Srtrf. Ireland 

iiiicrospemia S. ^-V. L 2 
Monilia aurea Gmel. C i L 2 

racemosa Piirt. U 2 
Oidium chrysanthemi Rabenh. L 2 

f arinosum Cooke. L 2 

fasciculatum ^c?Z-. M 2 

monilioides Z('«^-. L 2 
Fusidium griseiira Z('«^. L 2 
Cylindrium flavovirens J5om. L 2 

heteronemuni iSffcc. L 2 
Geotrichum caiididun] Link. L 2 
Rhopaloniyces Candidas B. ^- i?;-. L 2 

pallidas i?. JJ- Br. L 2 
Cephalosporium Acremonium Corda. L 2 
Papulospora sepedonioides Preuss. L 2 
Trichodcrma viride Pert. i\I 2 
Botryosporium diSusum Corda. C 1 L 2 

pulchrum Corda. L 2 3 
Alliaspora Sapu(;aya Pi';«. L 2 
Haplaria grisea Zi'mX-. L 2 
Acremonium verticillatum Z/m/-. L 2 
Rhinotrichum repens /"/WM*. Ci L2 
Sporotrichum flavissimum Littk. L 2 

laxum Link. M 2 
fiotrytis cana K. Sf Scfim. L 2 U 1 

dichotoma Corda. L 2 

cffiisa Grev. M 2 

parasitica Ca». Ireland 

Tillctii Detm. L 2 

vera Berk. U 2 

vulgaris Fr. L 2 
Sepedonium chrysospermum Fr. M 2 

roseum Fr. M i 
Verticillium alboatrum Bke. et Berth. 

aspergilluB B. ^ Br. L 2 

Adams AND Pethybuidqe — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi, 149 

V. Fungi Imperfecti — continmd. 

Verticillium lateritium Berk. L z 

nanum B. Sf Br. L 2 

Rcxianura Sacc. L 2 
Clonostachys Araucaria Curda. L 2 
Trichotheciura obovatum Sacc. L 2 

piriforuin iSffce. L 2 

roseuiu Link. Mi L 2 3 
Arthrobotrys rosea Mass. L 2 
Diplooladium macrospoiiuin Mass. L 2 

minus Bon. L 2 
Mycogone rosea Link. L 2 
Macrosporium cbeii'antVii Fr. L 2 
Eamularia calcea Ces. L 2 

cryptostegiae Pmw. L 2 

rapae P/;». L 2 

urticae C#s. L 2 
Septocylindrium Bonordeiiii Sacc. L 2 

elongatisporium Sacc. L 2 
Helicomyces roseus Link. L 2 


Torula expansa Pers. L 2 

berbarum Link. L 2 

ovalispora Berk. L 2 

parasitica Pm. L 2 

pinophila C7(«v. L 2 

pulveracea Corda. L 2 

puh'illus P. ^- 5;'. L 2 

sporendonema ^. ^' 5r. L 2 
Eohinobotryum atruni Corda. L 2 
Stacbybotrys atra Corda. M i L 2 

lobulata Berk. L 2 
Perioonia byssoides Pers. L 2 U i 

calicoides Berk. L 2 
Zygodesmus fuscus Corda. L z 
Glenospora Ciirtisii Berk. L 2 
Monotospora spbaerocephala B. ^~ Br. 

Acremoniella fusca Sacc. L 2 
Haplograpbium delicatulum B. Sf Br. 

Myxotrichella deflexum Sacc. L 2 

Menispora ciliata Corda. L 2 3 

lucida Corda. L 2 
Pimina parasitica Orove, L 2 
Staohylidiiira bicolor Z(mZ:. M 2 

cyclosporura Orove. C i L 2 

diffusum /"r. M 2 U i 2 
Cladotrichum Passiflorae Pirn. Ireland. 
Bispora monilioides Corda. L 2 
Passalora bacilligera Mont, el Fr. L 2 
Polytbrincium Trifolii Kunze. L 2 
Cladosporiuni compactum Sacc. U i 

epipbyllum iV««s. L 2 3 

fasciculare Fr. M 2 

fulvum Cooke, M 2 

berbarum Link. M 2 C i L 2 U i 2 

nodulosum Corda. L 2 
Clasterosporium opacum Sacc, L 2 
Septonema irregulare B, 8f Br. L 2 
Napieladium Brunaudii Sacc. U 3 
Helmintbosporium ecbinubitum Berk. 

gyninostacbyii Pirn. L 2 

molle 5. ^ C, L 2 

simplex Kunze. L 2 

tiliae /)■. M 2 L 2 

velutinum Link. L 2 
Heterosporium echinulatum Cooke. L 2 

exasperatnm Berk. L 2 
Spondylocladium atrovirens Han. C i 
Dendrypbiura comosum Tfallr. L 2 
Sporoscbisnia mirabile B. ^" ^z'. L 2 
Coniotbecium effusum Corda. L 2 
Sporidesmium Solani Vaiiha. Ireland. 
Speii'a toruloides Corda. L 2 
Tetraploa aristata B. ^- .S/-. L 2 
RIystrosporium Stempbylium Corda. 

Septosporium bulbotricbum Corda. L 2 
Alternaria tenuis iVc««. L i 
Cercospora Bloxamii B. ^- Br. M i 
Ci 3 L2 U3 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

V. Fttngi IiLPERFECii — continwd. 

Cercospora resedae FcTcl. Ireland. 
Fumago vagans Pers. L 2 


StUbella bicolor Lind. U 2 

erythrocepbaliim Lind. L 2 3 

fimetarium Lind. L 2 

toraentosum Lind. L 2 3 
Lasiodenna flavo-virens Bur. el Mont. 

Ceratiuni hjdnoides A. if S. Mi L 2 

Isaria farinosa Fr. M 2 

fuciformis Berk. L z 
Graphium Grovci Sacc. L 2 3 
Sporocybe byseoides £om. L 2 
Stysanus putredinis Corda. L 2 

Stemonitis Corda. L 2 U i 

ulmariae J/'cJF'. L23 


Tuberculina persicina Sacc. L 2 

vinosa Sacc. L 2 
Aegerita Candida Fers. L 2 
Tubercularia Aesculi Opi^. L2 

conflueus i't-w. M 2 
Dendrodochiiim rubelluni [Sncf.] 
Yolutella ciliata Fr. L 2 

hyacintborum Berk. L2 

pbaii Pi'm. L 2 

roseola Cooke. L 2 

setosa jScri. L 2 
Bactridium flavum Kunte Sf Schum. 
Fnsarium solani Sacc. L i 
Pionnotes Betae Sacc. L i 
Epicoccum neglectuni Deem. L 2 

purpurascens Ehr. L z 
Myrothecium cinereum Cooke. L 2 

inundatum Tbrf?. L 2 



Uncertain ok Doubtful Records or Insufficiently Named Species, or 
Species whose Classification is Doubtful. 

Many of the species in this list were recorded with no authors' names ; 
hence it is impossible to be certain what species they really represent. 
Many others are probably recorded with incorrect authors' names, and in 
one or two cases tlie species themselves are doubtful. Both genera and 
species are arranged in alphabetical order. 

Aecidium confcrtum [(?r«-.] 

crassum var. periclymeni DC. 

periclymeni DC. M 2 L 2 

rubellum TJ 2 

toraxaci M 2 
Agaricns amethystinus Sow. L 2 

aurantius Ireland 

baccatus M 2 

caespitosns L i 

campanulatus With, L 2 

U I 2 

Agaricus cainpropus Fr. 
caataueus Bolton. L 2 
cinereus Ireland, 
comatus Afull. M i 2 
corticola Bull. M 2 
crassipes Sou>. L 2 
cretaceus Sow. L 2 
cristatus Fr. L 3 
ebumeus Sotc. L 2 
epipbyilus Per$. M 2 

L 3 

Adams AND Pethybridge— J Ceimts Catalogue oj Irish Fungi. 151 
Uncertain ok Dottbtful Species— coM<i'n?M(f. 

Agaricus floeeosus IM i 

Georgii With. M 2 

granulosus Scop. M 2 L 2 

integer With. L 2 

macrophorus M 2 

Maiiae Klotzsch. M 2 

nebulosus U 2 

nimophilus Lasch. L 2 

papyraceus M 2 

pluteus Batsch. M 2 

ruber M 2 

rubescens Pc». M 2 L 2 

scaber B^dl. M 2 

scaber Sow. L 2 

semiovatus M 2 

stercorarius jBmW. M 2 

strobiliformis Fr. L 2 3 

tortilis Bolton. Ireland 

trilobus Bolton. L 2 

vulgaris M 2 

zonarius ?Fi'</;. M 2 
Amanita aspera (i^r.) i\I 2 

ceciliae 5. ^- Br. L 2 U i 

lenticularis ( R^. G^. 6'w(.) Lz 

vaginata {Bull.) L 2 U i 2 
Antbina flammea [i'/'.] M 2 
Arcyria nutans Bull. M 2 U 2 
Boletus esculentus M 2 

igniarius L 2 

squamosus L 2 

suberosus L 2 

versicolor {Rostk.) Ireland 
Briarea orbiculata Bon. L 2 
Capnodiuiu citri [Pfi?j2.] Ireland 
Chalara sp. L 2 

Cbytridium barkerianum Arch. L 2 
Clavaria corniculata M 2 

vennicidata /Sw^. U 1 2 
Clitocybe ovina M 2 
Clitopilus phlebopborus M z 
Coprinus congregatus (/^)-.'\ M 2 


Cryptosphaeria acuminata M 2 

acuta M 2 

aegopodii !\I 2 

arundinacea M 2 

bifrons I\I 2 

duplex M 2 

hederae M 2 

Lauri M 2 

Lonicerao M 2 

semi-immersa M 2 

subconfluens M 2 

taxi M 2 
CyKndrosporium concentricum M 2 
Daedalea biennis M i 
Didymium album Nees. M 2 

cinereum Batsch. M 2 

farinaceum Fr. M 2 L 2 

hemisphaericum 5?</7. M 2 

nutans P^r«. M 2 

physaroides P«rs. W 2 V 2 
Elapbomyces granulatus All. et Schw. 

Foenaria sanguinea Pirn. L 2 
Gymnoascus f raxini (/<; i^'b< L z 
Hebeloma scabrum .3/j<ZL U 2 
Helvella mitra L 2 
Heterosphaeria sclerodermis i/ass. L z 
Himantia Candida Pws. M 2 
Humaria auriflava Cooke. L z 
Hydnum cyathiforme {Schaeff.) M 2 

imbricatum {Linn.) M i 

stenodon Pc;'*. L 2 

uber L 2 
Hymenochacte fcrruginca ^rt'«. L 2 
Hypboloma fasciculatum L z 
Hysterium gramiucum M z. 
Irpcx pachyodon Brcs. L 2 
Laestadia Eabenhorstii Sacc. U i 
Leptolegnia bandoniensis Swan. M i 
Leptomitus pisidicola L 2 
Lycoperdon excipuliforme [Per*.] M 2 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

IJKCERTAnf OK DoTJBTFtJL SpEciEs — Continued. 

LycoperdoD Proteus With. Ireland 
Macrosporium Solani Ireland 
Merulius androsaceus Sow. L 2 

cantharellus Sow. L 2 

squamula Sow. L 2 

umbellifenis Bolton. L 2 
Mortierella sp. L 2 
Mycena spinipes M 2 
Myxotrithum deflexum Berk. L 2 
Nectria lagenae Mass. L 2 
Nodularia harveyana L 2 
Odontia crinalis /;•. L 1 

uda /;•. L 2 
Oraphalia ericetoriira .M 2 
Peronospora nivea Ung. L 2 TJ 1 

sclileideniana de liary. L 2 
Peziza atrobrunnea PAi7/. C 1 
Phallus osculentus L i 
Phiidua chrysocoma M z 

cinerca M 2 

claro-flava M 2 

conigona M 2 

herbaram M 2 

pediccllata M 2 

vulgaris rar. fi. diii|iluina M 2 
Plilebia livida Bret. L 2 

mcsenteriea Dickt. M 2 
Phragmidium bulbosum LitJc. M i 
U I 2 

mucronatum Zi>i/t. U i 2 
Pilobolus roridus Schum. M 2 L 2 
Polyporus colopus M 2 

lucidus (/V-.) M I 

luridus M 2 

lutcus M 2 

suaveolens Linn. M 2 
Polysticta carmichaelianus M 2 
Poriu sanguinolenta (^. ^- 5.) L 2 
Psilocybe bullata ^u//. L 3 
Pnccinia circbcae Per*. M 2 L 2 3 TJ 2 

Puccinia compositarum Schlecht. U i 2 

fallens Cooke. TJ i 2 

glomerata ZmZ,-. TJ i 

graveolens Pers. L 3 

lycbnidciirum Link. C i L 3 TJ i 

silenes Scv. L 2 

tumida [ffr^c] M 2 

umbelliferum M 2 
Retieularia hydnoides Ireland 
llbacodiura cellularc \_Pers.'] L2 
Jtthizomorpha divergens Grev. M 2 

subcorticalis P«;-«. M 2 
Rhytisma corrugatuin I\I 2 
RuBSula lepias L 2 
Saprolegnia philomukes W. Sin. L 2 
Scleroderma geaster (Z^/".) L 2 
Sclerotium durum [Pw«.] M 2 

ptcridis M 2 

varium Pers. M 2 
Sparassis laminosa {Fr.) TJ 2 
Sphaeria botryosa Fr. L 2 

occllata ^. if Br. TJ 2 

profusa Sow. M 2 
Sphaeronema subulatum M 2 
Sporotrichum suli)liureuni [6Ver.] M 2 

tenuissimura i^I 2 
Stagnospora pini TJ r 
Stemonitis fasciculata M 2 
Thelophora calcca M 2 

corium M 2 

fraxinca M 2 

incrastans M 2 

intybacea (P«r«.) M 2 
Tremella ferruginea M i 

intestina Ireland 

tremella />. M 1 
Tricbia nuda L 2 
Typbula gyrans {Fr.) M 2 
Uredo frumenti L 1 
i Verticillium epimyces B. ^- 5;-. L 2 

Adams and Pktiiybkidge — A Census Gulahxjuc of Irish Vuniji. 153 


List of Synonyms. 

These are arranged in alpliabetical order. The name given is that 
under which the species was originally recorded, while the second is the one 
under which the species is recorded in the foregoing list. Authors' names in 
square brackets denote that these authors' names were not quoted in the 
original record ; Imt there is every reason to believe that they are correct. 

Aorosporium fascioulatum Grev. = Oospora fasoiculata .S. ^- V, 
Aecidium AUii Grev. = Puccinia ses.silis Schneid. 

Aquilegiae \_Pers.'\ = Puccinia Agrostidis Plow. 

Ari Berh. = Puccinia Phalaridis Plow. 

Berberidis Pers. - Puccinia graminis Peru. 

Calthae Grev. = Puccinia Calthae Link. 

canccllatum Pers. = Gyninosporangium Sabinae Wint. 

compositarum var. Tussilaginis P. - Puccinia poarum Nielsen. 
„ ,, Jacobaeae Grev. = Puccinia sylvaticu Schrdt. 

cornutura \_Gmel.'\ = Gyninosporangium junipcrinum Fr. 

crassum Pers. = Puccinia coronata Corda. 

Epilobii Z)C. = Puccinia Epilobii DC. 

Euphorbiae Pers. = Endopbyllum Euphorbiae DC. 

Grossulariae Sehum. = Puccinia pringsheimiana Klelahn. 

laceratum Soie. = Gyninosporangium clavariiforme Pees. 

leucosperraum \_DC.'] = Puccinia fusoa Relh. 

Mentbae DC. = Puccinia Menthae Pers. 

Pini \_Pers.'] = Coleosporium Senecionis Fr. 

Primulae DC. = Puccinia Primulae Duhy. 

Ranunculaceanim DC. = Uroinyces Dactylidis Olth. 

Sonchi West = Coleospoiium SonchiZci'. 

Taraxaci K. et Schm. = Puccinia Prenantbis Fuch. 

Tussilaginis [_Gmel.'] = Puccinia poarum Nielsen. 

Urticae DC.= Puccinia Caricis Reb. 

Violae Sckum. = Puccinia Violac DC. 
Aethalium septioum Fr. = Fuligo septica Omel, 
Agaiicus lateritius Schaeff, = Psilocybe sublateritius Fr. 

iovtiWa Bolt. = Clitocybe tortilis i?o/<. 
Alcuria granulata Bull. = Humaria graiiuluta Sa€C, 

humosa Fr. = Humaria bumosa Sacc. 
Amanita adnata Sm. = Amanitopsis adnata W. G. Sm. 


154 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academii. 

List op Sthosths — continued. 

Amanita ceciliae B. ^ Br. = Amanitopsis strangulata Ro%l. 

eristata Fr. = Lepiota cristata A.^i' S. 

vaginata Bull. = Amanitopsis vaginata Bull. 
Arcjria cinerea Schum. = A. albida Bers. 
Aregma bulbosnm Fr. = Phragmidium Rubi Pers. 

gracLle Grer. = Phragmidium Rubi-idaei Pers. 
Ascomyces deformans Berk. = Exoascus deformans Fuck. 
Ascophora ilucedo Tode = Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenh. 
Asterophora agaricola Corda - Jfyctalis asterophora Fr. 
Auricularia ferruginea [5m//] = Stereum ferrugineum Fr. 

Barlaea Crouani Ma««. = Plicariella Crouani Rehm. 
Boletus Grevillei El. = B. flavus With. 

suberosns [S^w.] = Fomes cytisinus Berk. 
Bulgaria inquinans Fr. = B. polymorpha Wttt. 

Callona chrysostigma[PAi7/,] = Pezizella chrysostigma Sacc. 

vinosa A. ir H. = Orbilia vinosa Eartt. 

xanthostigma Fr. = Orbilia xanthostigma Fr. 
Cantharcllus lutescens [/r.") = Craterellus lutescens FV. 

undulatus [/>.] = Thelephora undulata Fr. 
Ccnangium ferruginosum [/V.] = C. abietis Rthm. 
Chaetomium elatum Eutae = C. comatum Fr. 
Chaetosphaeria phaeostroma Fuck. = C. tristis Schrot. 
Clavaria cornea Fr. = Caloccra cornea TFint. 

ericetorum [Pert. J.] = C. argillacea Fr. 

hypoxylon [Zinn.] = Xylaria hypoxylon Grm. 

pratensiB Pert. = C. fastigiata Berk. 
Clitocybe gigantea /V. = Paxillus giganteus FY. 
Coleosporium petasites Lfv. {if DC.)= C. Sonchi Pert. 

rhinantbaccarum Zw. = C. Euphrasiae Schm. 

Bonchi-arrcnsis Lev. = C. Sonchi Peri. 

tusailaginis Lh. = C. Sonchi Pert. 
Comatricha Friesiana de Bary = C. obtusata Preuti. 
Cortitium quercinum Pert. = Peniophora quercina Cookt. 

roseam Pert. = Peniophora rosea Matt. 

veludnam Fr. = Peniophora velutina Cooke, 
Cortinarius caperatu3 Fr. = Pholiota caperata Pert. 
Craterium minutum Fr. ■ C. peduncolatom IVent. 
Cribraria micropus [Schrad.'\= C. argillacea P«-«. 
Crj-ptosphaeria faginea [Grev.'] = Dichaena faginea Fr. 

herbarum = Pleospora herbarum Rabh. 

Adams AND Pethybridge — A Census Catalogue of Irish Funcfi. 155 

List op Synonyms — continued. 

Cryptosphacria millcpunotata [Grev.^ = Valsa ounomia Vitset. 

punctiformis [P«r«.] = MycosphaercUa pimctiformis liahL 

strobilina = Dichaena strobilina Fr. 
Cucurbitaria coccinea ^€frev.'\ = Nectria coccinca Fr. 

Dactylium dench'oides Fr. = Hypomyces rosellus Tul. 
Dematiuni articixlatum [^Pers.^ = Cladosporiuni fasciculan^ Fr. 
Diatrype ferrugiuea Fr. = Sillia ferriigiuea KarU. 

nucleata Gurr. = Diatrypella nuoleata Sacc. 

quercina Tul. = Diatrypella piilviaata IfUs. 

strumella Fr. = DiatiypeUa strumella Fuch 

veiTucaeformis Fr. = Diatrypella verrucaeforrais Fuck. 
Diderma globosum [P^'s.] = Chondrioderaia glol)osuin Rnst. 

vernioosum Pers. = Leocavpus vernioosus Link. 
Didymium furfuraceum Fr. = Physarum nutans Pers. 

melanopus Fr, = Didymium farinaceum Sckrad. 
Dothidea filicina Fr. = Rhopograpbus filieinus Fuck. 

typbina Pers. = Epicbloe typhina Tid. 

Tilmi Fr. = Phyllachora Ulmi Fuck. 
Eccilia variabilis Pers. = Claudopus variabilis Pers. 
Elaphomyces granulatus Fr.= E. cervinus Schrdt. 

muricatus Fr. = E. variegatus Vitt. 
Erineum aureum [Pers.] = Taphrina aniea Fr. 
Erysiphe communis Schl. = E. cicboracearum DC. 

lamprocarpaZe'y. = E. Oaleopsidis DC. 

Martii Link. = E. Polygoni DC. 

Montagnei Lev.= E. cichoraceanim DC. 
Eurotium herbariorum Link. = Aspergillus glaucus Zink. 
Eutypa Acharii Tul. = Valsa eutypa Wint. 

flavovireseens Tul. = Valsa flavovirescens TFint. 

lata Tul. = Valsa lata Nitsch. 
Eutypella Prunastri [Pt'rs.] = Valsa Prunastri Wint. 

stellulata Sacc. = Valsa stellulata F)\ 

Fusicladium dendriticum Wallr. = Venturia inaequalis Aderh. 

Galera sphagnorum Pers. = G. hypnorum Batsch. 
Ganoderma applanatum Fr. = Eomes applanatus Wallr. 
Geopyxis animophila Sacc. = Peziza ammopbila D. ^- 21. 

coccinea Mass.= Peziza coccinea Jatq. 

cupularis Sacc. = Peziza cupularis Linn. 
Gnomoniella vulgaris Sacc. = G. Gnomon Schrdt. 
Gyrodon rubeUus McW. = Boletus McWccnyi W. O. Sm. 

156 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadcmi/. 

List of Stnontms — continued. 

Hebeloma calamistrata Fr. = Inocybe calamistrata Gill. 

euthela £. ^- Br. = Inocybe eutheles Quel. 

fastigata Fr. = Inocybe fastigata QtUl. 

fibrosa Sow. = Inocybe fibrosa Gill. 

flocculenta Bull. = Inocybe lanuginosa Quil. 

flocculosa B^rh. = Inocybe flocculosa Sacc. 

geophyUa Sow. = Inocybe geophyUa QuM. 

hiolca Fr. = Inocybe hiiilca Gill. 

plumosa Bolt. = Inocybe plumosa Quel. 

pyriodora Pen. - Inocybe pyriodora Qttil. 

rimosa Bull. = Inocybe riraosa Quel. 
Helniinthosporium gramineuni Baih. = Pleospora trichostoma Died. 
Hclotium acniginosum Fr. = Chlorosplenium aeruginosum de Not. 

calyculus Fr. = Hynu-noscypha calyculus Phill. 
Helvella mitra [Scfiaef.'} = Helvella lacunosa Afz. 
Humaria liinnulea B. ^ Br. = Sphaerospora hinnulea Mass. 
H5Tnenoscyplia tuba Bolt. = Helotium tuba Fr. 
Hypochnus ferrugineus Ptrs. - Corticium ferrugineum Pers. 
Hypoxylon concentricum 6rev. = Daldinia concentrica Ces. et Not. 
Hysterium arundinaccum [ScArnrf.] = Lophodermium arundinaeeum Chev. 

foliicolum \_Fr.~\ = Lophodermium hystorioides Sacc. 

fraxini Pers. = Hystcropraphium fraxinum d« Not. 

juniperinum D.N. - Lophodermium juniperinura de Not. 

linearc [^r.] = Glonium lineare dt Not. 

pinastri Scfirad. = Lophodermium pinastri Chev. 

rubi [Pwf.] = HjT)oderma virgultorum DC. 

virgultorum DC.= Hypoderma virgultorum DC. 

Lnccaria bella Pers. - Clitocybe beUa Fr. 

laceata Scop. = Clitocybe laccata Scop. 
Lachnea bicolor [£m//.] = DasyBcypha bicolor /Wi. 

coccinea Jacg. = Oeopyzis coccinea Mass. 

hinnulea B. ^ Br. = Sphaerospora hinnulea Mass. 

papillaris [PAiY/.] = Dasyscyplia papillaris Mass, 

plano-umbilicata [(rrrt».] = Trichopeziza plano-umbilica Sacc. 

trechispora B. ^ Br. = Sphaerospora trechispora Sacc. 

umbrosa [ r.] = L. umbrorum Gill. 

virginea [^Balsch.'] = Dasyscypha virginea P\ift. 
Lactarius exsuccus Otto = Kussula deUca Fr. 
Lecythea lini Lev. = Melampsora Lini Pers. 
Lepista nuda Bull. = Tricholoma nudum Q«//. 

personata Fr. = Tricholoma personatum Qufl. 

AuAMS AND Pkthvbuidge — A Ccnsus Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 167 

List of Stnontms — continued. 
Licea cylindrica Fr. - Dictydiaetbalium plumbcuiii Rost. 

fi'agiformis Fr. - Tubulina fragiformis Pers. 
Lycogala cpidendrum Fr. = L. miniatum Pers. 
Lycopwdou giganteum Batsch. = L. Bovista Lmn. 

globosum Bolton = Bovista nigrescens Pei's. 

nigrescens Vitt. = Bovista nigrescens Pers. 

plumbeum Pers. = Bovista plumbea Pers. 

pratonse Pers. = L. gemmatuni Batsch. 

pusillum Batsch. = Bovista pusilla Perf. 

Melampsora eupborbiae Cast. = M. Helioscopiae Pers. 

salicina Lev. = M. farinosa Pers. 
Microspbaera comata Lev. = M. Evonymi Sacc. 
Mitropbora gigas LSv. = Morchella gigas Pers. 

semilibera Lev. = Morcbella semilibera DC. 
Mitrula abietis [/)••] = M. cueullata Fr. 

paludosa Fr.= M. pballoides Chev. 
Mucor stolonifer Ekr. = Ehizopus nigricans Ehr. 

Nemaspora crocea Pers. = Spbaeria profusa Sow. 
Nidularia oampanulata With.= Cyatbus vernicosus DC. 

crucibulum \_Fr.'] = Crucibulum vulgai-e Tul. 

striata Bull. = Cyatbus striatus Moffm. 
Nolan ea aetbiops Fr. = Leptonia aetbiops Fr. 

Oidium balsamii B. ^- Br. = Erysibe Polygoni D C. 

lactis [_Fres.'] = Oospora lactis Sacc. 

Tuokeri Beri. = TJncinula necator Burr. 
Olpidiopsis Saproleguiae Cornu. = Diplopbysa Saprolegniae Schroet. 

Panaeolus fimiputris Bull. = Anellaria finiiputris Karst. 

separatus Linn. - Anellaria separata Karst. 
Patellaria Carestiae de Not. = Durella Carestiae Sacc. 
Penicillium crustaceum Fr. = P. glaucum Link. 

olivaceum Corda. = Briarea orbicula Bon. 
Peronospora gangliformis Berk. = Bremia Lactueae Regel. 

pygmaea Ung. = Plasmopara pygmaea Schroet. 
Peziza acicularis Bull. = Helotiuni acicularc Pers. 

atrata Pers. = Mollisia atrata Karst. 

aurautia Fr. = Otidea aurantia JIass. 

bicolor Bull. = Dasyscypba bicolor Fuck. 

brunnea A. ^ S. = Spbaerospora brunuea Mass, 

calycina Schum. = Dasyscypba calyuina .Fuck 

158 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

List op SnfONnis — continued. 

Peziza cinerea BatscJi. = Mollisia cinerea Karst. 

claroflava Grev. = Helotium claroflaviun B&rk 

cocoinea Jacq. = Geopyxis coccinea Mass. 

cochleata Linn. = Otidea cochleata Fuck. 

cyathoidea Bull. = Hymenoscypha cyathoidea Phtll. 

exidiiformis B. ^- Br. Humaria esidiiEorniis Smc. 

faginea Pers. = Helotium fagineutn Fr. 

fructigena Bull. = Helotium rirgultorum Karst. 

fusarioides Berk. = Calloria fusarioides Fr. 

granulata Fr. = Humaria granulata Bull. 

hinnulea B. Sj- Br. = Sphaerospora hinnulca Mass. 

humosa Fr. = Humaria humosa Smc. 

inflcxa Bolt. = Cyathicula coronata De Not. 

leporimi Batich. = Otidea leporina Fxick. 

niveu Fr. = Lachnella nirea Phill. 

papillaris Bull. = Dasyscypha papillaris Mass. 

poatuma Berk. Sf Wilton = Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Mass 

rutilaus Fr. = Humaria rutilans Sace. 

sclerotiorum [-iiA.] = Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Mass. 

scutcUata Linn. = Lachnea scutcUata Oill. 

stcrcorca Pivi. {if /V.) = Lachnea stercorea Gill. 

trechispora B. Sf Br. = Sphaerospora trechispora Sacc. 

villosa Peri. = Cyphella villosa Kartt. 

violacca Pert. = Humaria riolacea Sacc. 

virginea Balteh. = Dasyscypha virginea f\tck. 

Wilkommii Ilartig. = Dasyscypha calycina Ftuk. 
PczizeUa chrysosdgma Sacc. = Mollisia flaveola Phill. 
Phacidium coronatum Fr. = Coccomyces coronatus De Not. 

ilicis Fr. = P. multivalve Kuni. et Schum. 

trifolii Boud. = Psoudopeztza Trifolii Fuck. 
Phallus csculentus Sow. = RIorchella esculenta Sou>. 

impudicus Linn. = Ithyphallus impudicus Fitch. 
Phoma Betae Frank. = Mycosphaerella tabifica Prill, el Del. 
Phragmidium gracile Grev. = P. Rubi-idaei Pers. 

obtiisatum Fr. = P. Tormentillae Fuck. 

obtusum Link. = P. Potentillae Kartt. 
Phyllachora aegopodii fhck. = P. Podagrariae Kartt. 
Phyllactinia guttata Uv. = P. corylea Karst. 
Physarum bulbiforme Schum. = P. nutans Pert. 

sinuosum \_Bull.'\ = P. bivalve Pert. 
Pleospora herbarum Pert. = Laestadia Rabenhorati Sacc. 
Pluteus nidorostus Fr. = Eatulumu uidurusum Fr. 

Adams AND Pethybhidgk — A Census Catalngue of Irish Fungi. 159 

List of Svnonyms — continued. 

Poilisoma junipeii Fr. = Gymnosporaiigiuin clavariaeforme Bees. 

juniperi-sabiiiao Fr. = Gymnosporangium clavariaeforme Hees. 
Podospliaera clandestina Lev. = P. oxyacanthae de Bary. 

niyi'tillina Kiinze. = P. oxyacanthae de Bary. 
Polyporus abietinus \Fr.~\ = Polystictus abietinus Cooke. 

annosus Fr. = Femes annosus Cooh. 

ferrugineus Fr. = Poria fermginosa Karst. 

fibula Fr. = Polystictus fibula Fr. 

foiiientarius Fr. = Fomes fomentarius Karst. 

fraxineus Fr. - Femes fraxineus Coohe. 

hibernicus B. ^- Br. = Poria bibernica Cooke. 

igniarius Linn. = Fomes igniarius Fr. 

molluscus Pers. = Poria mollusca Cooke. 

obdueens Fr. = Poria obducens Cooke. 

purpureus Fr. = Poria purpurea Cooke 

radiatus Fr. = Polystictus radiatus Cooke. 

salicinus Grev. = Fomes salicinus Karst, 

yaporarius Fr. = Poria vaporaria Cooke. 

velutinus Fr. = Polystictus velutinus Cooke. 

versicolor Linn. = Polystictus versicolor Fr. 

violaceus Fr. = Poria violacea Cooke. 

vitreus [Pers.] = Poria vitrea Pers. 

vulgaris Pe7-s. = Poria vulgaris Cooke. 

Wynnei [J5. ^' Br.~j = Polystictus Wyunei Cooke. 
Polystictus hibernica B. ^ Br. = Poria bibernica Cooke. 

perennis Fr. = Polyporus perennis Fr. 
Protomyces mcnyanthis de Bary. = Pliysoderma menyantbis de Bary. 
Psatbyra disseminata Fr. = Psatbyrella disseminata Quel. 

biascens Fr. = Psatbyrella hiascens Quel. 
Ptycbogaster albus Corda. = Ceriomyces albus SaJC. 
Pucciuia anemones [/"«•».] = P. fusoa Belh. 

apii Corda. = P. bullata Schroet. 

arundinacea Hcdw. = P. pbragmitis Silium. 

ceiitaureae Mart. = P. Hieracii Se/iuin. 

f abae Ziiik. - Uromyces f abae Pers. 

globosa [_Grei\'\ = Uromyces fabae Pers. 

gracilis \_Grev.^ = Pbragmidium Eubi-idaei Karst. 

luzulae [Zi'i.] = P. oblongata Link. 

Potentillae \_Pers.'] = Pliragmidium Potentillae Karst. 

pulverulenta Grev. = P. Epilobii L>C. 

rubi [_Sow.~\ = Pbragmidium lUibi Pers. 

stiiola Link. = P. Caricis Schum. 


160 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

List of Synonyms — continued. 

Puccinia variabilis Grev. = P. Hieracii Schum. 
veronicarum DC. = P. Yeronicae Wint. 
violanim ZiiiJ:. = P. ^•iolae Schum. 

Eetieiilai'ia umbrina Fr. = R. LTCoperdoii Bull. 

llliizophydiuni Dicksonii E. P. Wright. = Eurychasma Dicksonii-3/«^»«s. 
lloestelia lacerata Tul. = Gymnosporangium clarariiforme Rees, 
Eosellinia mastoidea Fr. - R. ruuminaofonuis Ces. et Not. 

Schiozia Alni Wor. = Plasmodiophora Alni Miill. 
Septoria Ulmi [Fr.] = Pleospora Ulmi TTal/r. 
Soppittiella caesia Mats. = Thelephora caesia Pers. 

cristata Mass. = Thelephora cristata Fr. 

sebatca Mast. = Tlielephora sebacea Berk. 
Sordaria fimicola Ces. et de Not. = Hypocopra fimicola Sacc. 
Sphaeria acuta Hoff. (^- Moug.) = Leptosphaeria acuta Karst. 

aquila Fr. = Koscllinia aquila de Not. 

cnncsccns Pers. = La.siosphacria canescens Karst. 

capitata Hulmsk. = Cortlyceps capitata Link. 

cinnabarina Tode. - Nectria cinnabarina Fr. 

cocriiiea Pen. = Nectria coccinea Fr. 

dousta Hoff. = Ustulina vulgaris Tul. 

disciformis Hoff, = Diatrypc distiformis Fr. 

fragifurinis Pert. = Hyjioxylon coccincum Bull. 

gnomon Tode. = Qnomoniulln vulgaris Sacc. 

hirsuta [/V.] = Lasiosphafria hirsuta Cet. el de Not. 

hypoxylon Ziiin. = Xylaria Hypoxylon Grev. 

Keitii B. ^- Br. = Heipotriehia Eeitii Sacc. 

lata Pert. = Eutypa lata Tul. 

roacrotricha B. JJ- Br. = Hcrpotrichia raacrotrichu Sacc. 

mammifurmis Pert. = Boscllinia mammiformis Ces. et de Not. 

militarig Linn.= Cordyceps militaris Link. 

morifonnis Tod-:' = fiertia moriformis de Not. 

ochracca Grev. = Nectria ocbracea Fr. 

ophioglosaoides Ehr. = Cordyceps ophioglossoides Link. 

Peziza [ Tode] = Nectria Peziza Fr. 

phacocomes Beb. = Pyrenophora phaeocomes Sacc. 

phaeoatroma Mont. = Chaetosphacria pbaeostroma Ftuk. 

pinodes B. ir Blox. = Sphaerella pinodes Niessl. 

pulvinus-pyriiis Pers. = Melanomma Puh-is-pyrius Fuck. 

scirpicola DC. = Pleospora scirpicola Karst. 

spermioides Hoffm. = Lasiosphaeria spciinioides Ces. et de Not. 

stercoraria [_Sow.] - Hypocopra sti-rcoraria Sacc. 

Adams and PetiiybkiDge — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fwifji. 101 

List of Synonyms — continued. 

Sphaeria stigma Boff. = Diatrype stigma Fr. 

taxi \_Sow.'] - Diplodia Taxi de Not. 

tiliae Pers. = Hercospora Tiliac Ttd. 

tiiburculosa \^Sow.'\ = Hypoxylon fuscum Fr. 
Spongospora solaiii Brunch = S. subtcrranea Johns. 
Steiiionitis obtusata Fr. = Comatricha obtusata Preuss. 

ovata Pers. = Comatricha obtusata Preuss. 

typhoides \_Auct.'] = Comatricha typhoidcs Post. 
Stictis liobenicola Mont. = Melittosporium lichcnicoliim Mass. 
Stigmatea geranii Fr. = Ventiiria Gerauii Wint. 

ranunculi Fr. = Pseudopeziza Eanunculi Fuck. 
Stilbum bicolor Pers. = Stilbella bicolor Lind. 

ei-ythrocephalum \_I)itm.^ - Stilbella erytlirocepluila Lind. 

fimetarium B. Sf Br. = Stilbella fimetaria Lind. 

tomentosum Schr. = Stilbella tomentosa Lind. 
Stromatosphaeria comiculata \_Grev.~\ - Diatrype cornieulata B. ^- Br. 

decorticata \_Orev.'\ = Diatrype stigma Fr. 

deusta \_Grev.'] = Ustulina vulgaris Tul. 

disciformis \_Grev.~\ = Diatrype disciformis Fr. 

elliptioa [Grev.^ = Hypoxylon rubiginosum Fr. 

fusca [ Grev.^ = Hypoxylon fuscum Fr. 

lata \_Grev.'] = Valsa lata N'itsch. 

multiceps [G'rw.] = Valsa ilavovirescens Wint. 

Thelephora avellana Boiss. = Hymenocliaete Avellana Lev. 

byssoides Pers. = Coniophora byssoidea Karst. 

calcea \_Fng. Fl.'] - Corticium calceum Fr. 

cinerea Pers. = Corticium cinereum Pers. 

epidermea Pers. = Corticium confluens Fr. 

granulosa Pers. = Grandinia granulosa Fr. 

hirsuta Willd. = Stereum hirsutum Fr. 

oohracea Fr. — Corticium ocliraceum Fr. 

purpurea Pers. = Stereum purpureum Pers. 

quercina Pers. = Peniophora quercina Coolcc. 

rubiginosa Sckrad. = Hymeuochaetu rubiginosa Lh. 

rugosa Pers. = Stereum rugosum Pers. 

sanguinolenta A. Sf S. = Stereum sanguinolentum Fr. 
Tillctia caries 7 til = T. tritici JFinf. 
Togaria aurca Bull. = Pholiota aurea Matt. 
Torrubia militaris Fr. = Cordyceps militaris Link. 
Treniella albida Huds. = Exidia albida Bref. 

arborea [5^«r/s.]= Exidia glandulosa Fr. 

16:^ Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

List of Stkostms — continued. 

Tremella foliacea Pers. = UlocoUa foliacea Bref. 

indecorata Sommf. = ExiJia iadecorata Kant. 

sarcoides With. = OmbropHla sp. 
Trichia chrysosperma D C. = T. favoginea Pers. 

serotina Schrad. = Alwisia Bombarda B. 4" Br. 

serpula Pert. = Hemitrichia Serpula Host. 

turbinata fFith. = T. faroginea Pert. 
Trichobasis petroselini Berk. = Puccinia buUata Pert. 

rumicum DC.= Uromyces Ruiuicis Schum. 

snaveoleos Lev. = Puccinia suaveolens Pert. 
Tuber cibariuiD [Soir.] = T. aestivum Vitt. 
Tubercularia vulgaris Tode = Xectria cinnabarina Fr. 
Tubulina cylindrica Rott. = T. fragiformis Pert. 

Uncinula adunca Lh. = U. Salicis fVint. 

bicornis Ler. = U. Aceris Saec. 

gpimlis Berk, et Curt. = U. necator Burr. 

"Wallrothii Lh.= U. Pniuastri Sacc. 
Urcdo bifrons Grtv. = Uromyces Kumicis Wint. 

namponulac [Per*.] = Coleosporium Campanulae Ur. 

Candida Pert. = Cystopus can<lidus Uv. 

cicboracearum [-DCj = Puccinia Hicracii Schum. 

enpborbiac Reh. = Mclampsora Hclioscopiae Catt. 

farinosa \_Peri.'\ = Mclampsora farinosa Schroet. 

flosculomm \_DC.'\ = Ustilago Scabiosa Wint. 

gyrosa Reh. = Phragmidium Rubi-idaci Kartt. 

Hclioscopiae '^_Peri.'\ = Mclampsora Hclioscopiae Catt. 

Hcmclei [<rr#r.] = Puccinia Pimpinellae Strautt. 

hypcricoriim DC. = Mclampsora hypericorum DC. 

Labiatarum \_DC.] = Puccinia Menthae Pert. 

linearis \_Lh.'\ = Puccinia graminis Pert. 

Lini [i)C'.] = Mclampsora Lini Tul. 

oblongata \_Grev.'\ - Puccinia oblongata Link. 

ovata [&r*r.1 = Mclampsora betulina Tul. 

Populina [Gr^r.J = Melampsora popiilina Jacq. 

potentillanim DC.= Phragmidium Potentillac Kartt. 

primulae DC.= Puccinia Primulae Duby. 

Rhinantbacearum [^C] = Coleosporium Euphrasiae Wint. 

rosae DC. = Phragmidium subcorticatum Wint. 

Rubomm [-DC] = Phragmidium Ruli Wint. 

Rumicum iDC.'\ = Cromyces Rumici-; Wint. 

segetum Perk. = Ustilago eegctum Ditm. 

Adams and PhtHybkidgk — A Census Caiulo(/tie of Irish Funyi. 163 

List ok Synonyms — co/Uiiiiwd. 

Uredo senecionis Sch. = Coleosporium Sonecionis Fr. 

suaveolens [Pers.] = Pucoinia suavcolcns Rostr. 

Tussilaginis \^Schu)n.'\ = C'oleosi)orium Sonchi Lev. 

violarum I)C.= Pucoinia VioLie DC. 

vitollinae [DC?.] = Melampsoia Vitellinae Thuin. 
Urocystis pompholygodcs Scldecld. = U. Anemones Wint. 
Uromyces apiculosa Lev. = U. Rumieis TFint. 

appendiculata Lev. = U. Fabae Pers. 

concentrica Lh. = U. Scillaruni Whit. 

intrusa Lev. = U. Aloliemillae Pers. 

poae Eabh. = U. Daotylidis Otth. 
TJstilago caibo Tul. = U. segetum Wint. 

flosouloi'um BC. = U. Scabiosa Wint. 

receptaculorum Fr. = U. Tragopogi Schroet. 

Vibrissea margarita White = V. truncorum Fr. 
Xyloma ooncavum \_Orev.'\ = Stegia Ilicis Fr. 









Cercospora, . 




Auricularia, . 


Ceriomyces, . 








Bactridium, . 






Badhamia, . 










AUiaspoia, . 

. . 148 



Chlorosplenium, . 


Alternaria, . 






































Clasterosporiuni, . 












Claudopus, . 


Armillaria, . 


Calonectriu, . 










Ascobolus, . 




Clitocybe, . 


Asuochyta, . 








Cenangiiim, . 




Aspergillus, . 


Cephalosporiiim, . 


Coccomyces, . 















Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Index oi' Geneka. — contimied. 




Comatricha, . 






Coiiiophora, . 






Coniotheciura , 




Heterospbaeria, . 






Hetei'osporium , 


Cordyceps, . 


Enteridiiim, . 






Entoloma, . 




Cortinarius, . 


Entylonia, . 


Hydnotrya, . 








Coryneum, . 


Epi(:occum, . 


Hydrooybe, . 


CratereUiis, . 




Hygrocybe, . 


Cratcrium, . 






Crepidotus, . 












Cniciliultim, . 




nymcnoEcyplia, . 






Ilypliolonia, . 


Cyathicula, . 


Fistulina, . 

Ilypocopra, . 





Uypocrea, . 


Cylindrium, . 




Hypodeniia, . 


CyphoUa, . 




Hyponiyces, . 






Hypoxylon, . 


Cytospora, . 




Hysteriuni, . 


Fusnrium, . 




DacTomyces, . 
















Daiyscypha, . 


Geoglossutt', . 


Irpcx, . 




Gootricbiiui, . 


Isaria, . 






IthyphuUiis . 


Dcimotybe, . 


Gibbrrelln, . 


Dintrypella, . 


Glenospora, . 



Lacbnella, . 




Gnomonia, . 




Dicbomcrn, . 


Laeiodernia, . 


Dictydium, . 


Grandinia, . 




Didymiiim, . 




Dinemajporiiini, . 








Leocarpus, . 






Lcotia, . 


Diplodina, . 






Oiplophysa, . 








Haplograpbium, . 




Dolhidclla, . 


Hebeloma, . 








Licea, . 




LimaciuDi, . 








EcbinobotryuD), . 




Lopbodermiuni, . 


Adams and Pethybridge — A Census Catalogue of Irish Fungi. 105 

Index of Geneha — continued. 




Lycogala, . 


Omphalia, . 




Lycoperdon, . 




Poiia, . 










Protomyces, . 


Marasniius, . 












Panaeolus, . 




Melanconis, . 




Psathyrella, . 
















Patellaria, . 




Mellittosporium, . 






Menispora, . 


Penicillium. . 






Peniophora, . 




Perichaena, . 








Eamulark, . 






Reticularia, . 










Phacidium, . 




Morchella, . 






















EoseUinia, . 


Mycogone, . 






MycosphaereUa, . 







135 Saccharomyces, 






Saccobolus, . 






Saprolegnia, . 


Myxacium, . 


Physariini, . 
















Piggottia, . 


Solerotinia, . 


Naematilia, . 




Sepedonium, . 




Pilobelus, . 


Septocylindriiiin, . 






Septonenia, . 




Pionnotes, . 




Nidularia, . 


Pistillaria, . 




Nilschkia, . 


Plasmodiophoia, . 

130 ' 

Sillia, . . . . 




Plasmopara, . 

131 j 





Pleospora, . 






Pleurotus, . 


Spatbularia, . 


PUcariella, . 


Speini, . . . . 


Octaviania, . 














Polypoius, . 




Olpidiuni, . 


Polystictus, . 




Ombrophila, . 


Polystigma, . 





Procecdinys of I he Royal Irish Academy. 

Spondy locladi ii ni , 



Sporocybe, . 

Sporodinia, . 






Stegia, . 










Telamonia, . 

IxDEX OF Gkneea — cotiUnued. 




Tetraploa, . 






Thelepliora, . 









Tomentella, . 






Trametes. . 



TremcUa, . 







































130 ; 










Valsa, . 















[ 167 ] 



By J. ADAMS, M.A. 

Read Fedjiuarv 28. Ordured for Publication March 2. Published June 8, 1910. 



Additional Species, 

. 206 


A. Fresh-water Species, 

B. Marine Species, 

. 206 
. 207 


Corrections and Enata, 

. 209 


Revised Census of Species, 

. 212 

Additional Bibliography, 

. 213 

Introduction, . , 

List of Synonyms, 

A. Fresh-water Species, 

B. Marine Species, 


About two years ago I published a " Synopsis of Irish Algae," giving a 
list of the species observed in this country during a period of rather more 
than a hundred years. As the old name under which the species was 
first mentioned is in many cases quite different from that in use at the 
present time, a list of these names, with theu" modern eqviivalents, will 
obviously be of much service to future investigators of the group. Such a 
list is now available, the names of the genera and species in each group being 
arranged in alphabetical order, and the fresh-water species being given in a 
separate list from the marine species. 

Great difference of opinion prevails among botanists as to the actual 
limits of a species. In the " Synopsis " I followed De Toni's " Sylloge 
Algarum " for the most part ; but it is now more than twenty years since 
the first volume of that work was published. In 1908 the third volume of 
"West's " Monograph of the British Desniidiaceae " appeared; and as that 
publication is likely to remain for a long time the standard work on the 
Desmids of the British Isles, it seems advisable to follow the views expressed 
therein on the limits of species and varieties. As several volumes, however, 
have still to appear, Professor West, of Birmingham, has kindly revised for 
me not only the Desmids, but the whole of the fresh-water species. As a 
result, a considerable number of names which were considered as species by 
De Toni, but which Professor West I'egards as only varieties, will disappear 
from the list. Furthermore, in a list containing over two thousand names, 

R. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVni., SEOT. B. [2 A] 

168 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

errors were bound to creep in. Some few species were included twice under 
a different name, and in several cases a marine species was put among the 
fresh-water species. These and some other errors are indicated iu a sepai-ate 
section. Since the " Synopsis " was published a few additional sources of 
information on the distribution of Algae iu Ireland have been discovered, of 
which the most important is Gough's Paper on the " Plankton collected at 
Irish Light Stations " Altogether new species to the number of 102 have 
been added, and these are given in a separate section. In addition to new 
species, a considerable number of new localities have been found for species 
already listed in the " Synopsis." In some other cases the records of 
distribution ia the Pro^-inces have been deleted, as the e\-idence in favour of 
their retention was r^arded as insufficient. I have not thought it advisable 
to give a list of these new or deleted localities in the present Paper. There 
is, however, appended a revised census of species, gi^'ing the figures as they 
stand at present. There is, finally, a list of additional Bibliographical items, 
which, it is hoped, makes this section complete to the end of the year 1909. 


The name in the first column is that under which the species was 
pre\iously recorded in Ireland, while the name in the second column is that 
in iise at the present time. The symbol = means that the specimen is 
identical with or is included under the name which follows. 


I. Peridinieae. 

alatom Garbini = P. Willei Huit/eldt-Kaas. 

II. — Diatomaceae. 

flexella Breb. - Achnanthidium flexellum Br«6. 

coarctatam Brcb. = Achnanthes coarctata Grun. 

lanceolatom Brdb. = Achnanthes lanceolata Grun. 

lineaie W. Sm. = Achnanthes linearis Grun. 

microcephalom Euts. - Achnanthes microcephala Grun. 

aflSnis Kuts. = A. oralis Kiii:. 

minaiisiima W. Sm. = A. oralis Euts. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 1 G9 

II. — DuTOMAOEAE — contitiiied. 

costatus W. Sm. = C. hibernicus Ehr, 

spiralis W. S;?!. = Surirella spiralis Eiitz. 

Atnphioxys Babh. = C. Arcus Eiltz. 

Thwaitesii U\ Sin. - Acbnanthidium flexellum Br&b. 

cistula EliT. = Cymbella cistula Eirchn. 

cymbiforme Ehr. = Cymbella cymbiforinis Ehr. 

cornutum Ehr. = Cymbella lanceolata Eirchn. 

lanceolatum Ehr. = Cymbella lanceolata Eirchn. 

parvum W. Sm. = Cymbella cymbiformis Ehr. 

neglectum TMo. = Navicula gracilis Eiltz. 

vulgare TMo. = Vanheurckia vulgaris H. Van. Heurck. 

Smithii W. Sm. = Melosira distans Eiitz. 

punctata W. Sm. = Coscinodiscus lacustris Grun. 

Kotula Eiitz = Stephanodiseus Astraea Grun. 

apiculata W. Sm. = C. Solea W. Sm. 

parallela W. Sm. = G. Eegula Ealfs. 

turgida Greg. = Encyonema turgidum Grun. 

ventricosa Ag. = Encyonema ventricosum Grun. 

zebra Hass. = Epithemia Zebra Eiltz. 

erassula Nag. = D. tenuis Eiitz. 

mutabUis W. Sm. = Odontidium mutabile TT'", Sm. 

obtusa Kiitz. = Nitzschia Denticula Gnm. 

oceUata W. Sm. = 'D. elegans Eiitz. 

sinuata Sm. = Nitzschia sinuata Gr^m. 

flocculosum Aij. = D. vulgare Bory. 

grande W. Sm. = D. vulgare Bory. 

tenue Eiitz. = D. elongatum Ag. 

caespitosum Kiitz, = Cocconema caespitosum G. S. West. 

[2 A*] 

170 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 

II. — DiATOSIACEAE — coTitiiiued. 

granulata Kiitz. = E. turgida Eiitz, 

longicornis Ekr. = E. Argus Eiits. 

rupestris W. Sm. = E. gibberula Kiitz. 

incisa Greg. = E, Veneris Eiitz. 

fasciculata Grev. = Synedra pulchella Eiitz. 

aequalis Eeii>. = F. virescens Balfs. 

hiemalis Lyngh. = Diatoma hiemale Heib. 

mesolepta Babh. - F. capucina Desmaz. 

pectinalis L<jngh. = F. capucina Desiiiaz. 

rhabdosoma Ehr. =F. capucina Destnaz. 

undata H'. Stn. = F. virescens Balfs. 

fasciata Ag. = Synedra Ulna Ehr. 

neglecta Dc Toni = Navicula gracilis Kiitz- 

sasonica Rabh. = Navicula rhomboides Ehr. 

Ulna Eiitz. = Syneda Ulna Ehr. 

\'iridis Kiitz. = Na\ncula viridis Eiitz. 

vulgaris De Toni - Vanheurckia vulgaris H. Van Ecurck. 

Cl&vuB Brib. = G. acuminatum Ehr. 

curvatum Kiitz. = Rhoicosphenia curvata Grtin. 

hebridense Greg. = G. Vibrio Ehr. 

minutissimum Grev. = G. exigunm Eiitz, 

minutum Ag. = G. dichotomum Eiitz. 

rostratum H'. Svi. = G. parvulum Kiitz. 

balfouriana W. Sm. =■ Diatomella balfouriana Grev. 

arcus TF. Svi. = Eunotia Arena Ehr. 

bidens Ehr. = Eunotia praerupta Ehr. 

gracile Ehr. = Eunotia gracilis Rabh. 

majus W. Sm. = Eunotia major Rabh. 

pectinale Kiitz. = Eunotia pectinalis Rabh. 

Soleirolii Kiitz. = Eunotia Soleirolii Rabh. 

undulatum W. Sm. = Eunotia pectinalis Babh. 

anglica Rolfs. = N. Placentnla Eiite. 

Adams — A List of Sijnonyms of Irish Algae. 171 

II. — DiATOMAOEAE — coutiwiied. 

arenaria Donlc- N. lanceolata KiHz. 

crassinervia Breh. = Vanheurclda rhomboides Brib. 

dirbynchus Ehr. = rbynebocepbala Kutz. 

dubia Ehr. = N. Iridis Ehr. 

gracilis Ehr. =N.viridula KiHz. 

gracillima Greg. = N. mesolepta Ehr. 

Hebes Ralfs. = N. obtusa W. Sm. 

Heufleri Grun. = N. cincta Eiitz. 

humilis Donk. - N. hungarica Grun. 

isocephala -B/w. = N, mesolepta Ehr. 

Kotscbyi Grun. = N. Kotschyana Grun. 

lacustris Greg. = Sfcauroneis scandinavica Lagerst. 

minor Gixg. = Synedra Vaucheriae Eiitz. 

nodosa Ehr. = N. mesolepta Ehr. 

oblongella Niig. = N. elliptica Eiitz. 

ovalis W. Sm. = N. elliptica Kiltz. 

pachyptera Eh/r. = N. lata Brib. 

patula W. Sm. = N. latiuscula Eiitz. 

subsalina Ehr. = N. Amphisbaena Bory. 

tumens W. Sm. = N. rostrata Ehr. 

tumida W. Sm. = N. Placentula Eiitz. 

veneta Eiitz. = N. cryptocepbala Eiitz. 

tenuis W. Sm. = N. linearis W. Sm. 

acicularis Babh. = Nitzschia acicularis W. Sm. 

anomalum W. Sm. = Diatoma anceps Gnm. 

hiemale Lyngb. = Diatoma biemale Hieb. 

inflatum W. Sm. = Denticula tenuis Eiitz. 

mesodon Ehr. = Diatoma biemale Heib. 

parasiticum W. Sin. = Fragilaria construens Grun. 

sinuatum W. Sm. = Nitzschia sinuata Grun. 

Tabellaria W. Sm. = Fragilaria construens Grun. 

arenaria D. Moore = Melosira arenaria Moore. 

Dickiei Thio. - Melosira Dickiei Eiitz. 

orichalcea W. Sm. = Melosira crenulata Eiiti. 

punctata W. Sin. = Melosira granulata Balfs. 

Roeseana Eabh. = Melosira Koeseana Babh. 

1 72 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

II. — DiATOMACEAE — continucd. 

acuminata TT. Sm. = Navicula acuminata W. Sm. 

acuta W. Sm. = Navicula radiosa Eiitz. 

alpina TV. Sm. = Navicula alpina Ralfs. 

borealis Ehr. = Navicula borealis Kiltz. 

Brebissonii Eabh. = Navicula Brebissonii Kutz. 

cardinalis Ehr. = Navicula cardinalis Ehr. 

divergens W. Sm. = Navicula divergens Balfs. 

gibba Ehr. - Navicula gibba Riitz. 

bemiptera Rabh. = Navicula hemiptera Kiitz. 

interrupta TF. Sm. = Navicula mesolepta Ehr. 

latestriata Greg. = Navicula borealis Kiitz. 

major Eabh. = Navicula major Kiitz. 

mesolepta fl'. Sm. = Navicula mesolepta Ehr. 

nobilis Ehr. = Navicula nobilis Kiitz. 

nodosa H'. Sm. = Navicula Legumen Ehr. 

oblonga Rabh. = Navicnla oblonga Kiitz. 

RabenLorstii Ralfs. = Navicula Rabenborstii Ralfs. 

radiosa Rabh. = Navicula radiosa Kutz. 

stauroneiformis W. Sm. = Navicula Brebissonii Kiitz. 

Tabellaria Ehr. = Navicula Tabellaria Kiitz. 

viridis W. Sm. = Navicula viridis Kiitz. 

attenuatum TF. Sm. = Gjrosigma attenuatum Rabh. 

Spencerii TF. Sm, = Gyrosigma Spencerii 0. K. 

Legumen Rabh. = Stauroneis Legumen Ehr. 

Harrisonii ir. Sm. = Odontidium Harrisonii TF. Sm. 

amphicepbala Kiitz. = S. anceps Ehr. 

linearis Ehr. = S. anceps Ehr. 

punctata Kiitz. = Navicula Tascula Ehr. 

angusta Kutz. = S. ovalia Br6b. 

Brightwellii H'. Sm. = S. ovalis Brib. 

Craticula Ehr. = Navicula sp. 

crumena Brib. = S. ovalis Brib. 

nobilis TF. Sm. = S. robusta Ehr. 

ovata Kiitz. = 8. ovalis Brib. 

panduriformis fV. Sm. - 8. ovalis Brib. 

Adams — A List of Sjjnonijms of Irish Algae. 173 

II. — DiATOMAOEAE — continued. 

pinnata IK. Sm. = S. ovalis Br6b. 

salina W. Sm. = S. ovalis Br6b. 

acuta Kiitz. = S. Ulna Khr. 

debilis Kiitz. = Nitzscliia Palea W. Sm. 

delicatissima W. Sm. = S. Acus Z'wte. 

longissima W. Sm. = S. Ulna Khr. 

lunaris Ehr. = Eunotia lunaris Grun. 

obtusa IK. Sm. = S. Ulna Eh?: 

salina W. Sm. = S. Ulna Ehr. 

splendens Kiltz. = S. Ulna Ehr. 

angustata W. Sm. = Nitzschia angustata Grun. 

debilis Am. = Nitzscbia debilis Grun. 

gracilis W. Sm. = Nitzscbia Tryblionella Hantzsch. 

Hantzscbiana Grun. = Nitzschia Tryblionella Eantzsch. 

laevidensis W. Sm. = Nitzscbia Tryblionella Hantzsch. 

victoriae Grun. = Nitzscbia Tryblionella Hantzsch. 

III. — Cyanophyceae. 


impalpebralis Bory. = Spbaerozyga flexuosa Ag. 

intricata Kiitz. = Nostoc Linckia Born. 

licbeniformis Bory. = Cylindrospermum licbeniforme Kiitz. 

spiralis Thompson = A. circinalis Rabh. 

marginata Menegh. = Microcystis marginata Kiitz. 

recurvum Morren = A. Flos-aquae Ralfs. 

parietina Nag. = A. virescens Rabh. 

nidulans Richter. = A. clathrata W. S G, S. West. 

alatus Grcv. = Scytonema alatum Borzi. 

purpurea Lamarck. = Porpbyridium cruentum Nag. 

Dillwynii Cooke = Desmonema Wrangelii Born, ct Flah. 

distorta Ag. = Tolypotbrix distorta Kiitz. 

174 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

III. — Cyanophyoeae — continued. 

intermpta Carm. = a Lichen. 

mirabilis Kiitz. = Tolypothrix lanata Wartm. 

rhizomatoidea Reiiisch = Hapalosiphon fontinalis Bo7'n. 

minor Niig. = C. minimus Lemm. 

lyngbyaceus Thur. = Hydrocoleus lyngbyaceus Kiitz, 

repens Kiit:. = Miorocoleus vaginatus Gom. 

aeruginosa Henfrey = Microcystis aeruginosa G. S. West. 

mooreana Barv. = AphaDothece prasina A Br. 

Myocbrous Dillw. = Scytonema Myochrous Ag. 

vaginata Dillw. = Miorocoleus vaginatus Goin. 

flesuosom Rabh. = Auabaena oscillarioides Bonj. 

macrospermum Kiitz. = C. stagnale Born ct Flak. 

majus Kiit:. = C. stagnate Borti. ct Flah. 

ferrnginea Griffith = Lyngbya ocbracea Thur. 

devia Nig. = G. rupestris Bom. 


Pisam Thur. = G. ecbinulata P. Richter. 

lividus llciss. = Gloeocapsa livida Katz. 

rupestris Hon. => Gloeocapsa polydermatica Rati. 

Braunii Nag. = H. fontinalis Born. 

ocellata Has$. = Stigonema ocellatum Thur. 

montana Kiitz. = A. Bacterium. 

Kiitzingii Rabh. = I. vaginata Niig. 

ocbracea Kulz. = Lyngbya ocbracea Thur. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 176 

III. — Cyanophyceae — conlimied. 

minutula Kiitz. = Eivularia minntula Born, et Flah. 

Schnidimanni A. Br. = Rivi;laria minutula Bor)i. ct Flah. 

aeruginea Eiitz. = Calothrix fusca Born, et Flah. 

repens Harv. = M. vaginatus Gom. 

intricata Berk. = Nostoc Linckia Born. 

foliaceum Ag. = N. commune Vauch. 

lichenoides Ag. = N. spbaericum Vauch. 

rupestre Kiitz. = N. microscopicum Carm. 

variegatum Moore. = N. canieum Ag. 

aerugescens Hass. = 0. tenuis Ag. 

aerugineo-coerulea Kiitz. = Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea Gom, 

anguina Kiitz. = 0. ehalybea Go7n. 

antliaria Jurgens. = Phormidium autumnale Gom. 

autumnalis Ag, = Phormidium autumnale Gom. 

Corium Ag. = Phormidium Corium Gom. 

decortieans Grev. = Phormidium autumnale Gom. 

Friesii Ag. = Schizothrix Friesii Go^n. 

gracillima Kiitz. =0. splendida Grev. 

Grateloupii Bory = 0. princeps Vauch. 

leptotricba Kiitz. = 0. splendida Grev. 

natans Kiitz. = 0. tenuis Ag. 

ochracea Grev. = Lyngbya ochraeea Thur. 

spadicea Carm. = Phormidium subfuscum Kiitz, 

subfusca Vauch. = Phormidium subfuscum Kiitz, 

tenerrima Kiitz. = 0. amphibia Ag. 

cruenta Ag. - Porphyridium cruentum Niig. 

hyaliua Lyngb. = Aphanocapsa hyalina Hansg. 

montana Ag. = Glcecapsa Magma Kiitz. 

mooreana fl"a?-i'. = Aphanothece prasina.J. Br. 

alatum Berk. = Scytonema alatum Borzi. 

inundatum Kiitz. = P. autumnale Gom. 

membranaceum Kiitz. = P. subfuscum Kiitz. 

K.I.A. I'ltOC, VOL. XXVIII., SKCT. B. [2 B] 

176 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

in. — Ctanophyoeae — continued. 

rupestre Kiitz. = P. uncinatum Gom. 

spadiceum K\itt. - P. subfuscum Ki'itz. 

vulgare Kittz. =P. autumnale Gom. 

punctiformis KMz. = Nostoc punctiforme Har. 

aeruginosa KiiU. = Microcystis aeruginosa G. S. West. 

elongata TF. <& G. S. West = Microcystis elongata W. & G. S. West. 

incerta Lemm. = Microcystis incerta Lomm. 

prasina Wiltr. = Microcystis prasina Lcfmm. 

angulosa Boss. = Gloeotrichia natans Babh. 

angulosa Ag. = Gloeotrichia natans Eahh. 

calcarea Sin. = R. Haematites Ag. 

durissima Kiltz. = Gloeotrichia echinulata P. Richter. 

echinattt Cooke = Gloeotrichia echinulata P. Richter. 

echinulata Born, et Flak. = Gloeotrichia natans Babh. 

minor Eiitz. = Gloeotrichia natans Rabh. 

natans Welw. = Gloeotrichia natans Rabh. 

Pisum Ag. = Gloeotrichia echinulata P. Bichter. 

decoloratus Ndg. = Calothrix parietina Thiir. 

delicatissima W. dt G. S. West = Hypheothris delicatissima Fortt. 

funalis 11'. £ G. S. West = Inactis funalis Forti. 

ambiguum Kiiiz. = Fischerella ambigua Gom. 

calotrichoides Kiitz. = S. mirabile Thur. 

clavalum Kiitz = S. crustaceum Ag, 

contextum farm. = S. mirabile Bom. 

dictyonema A<j. = A Lichen. 

fasciculatum Kiitz. = S. ocellatom Lytigb. 

gracillimum Eatz. = S. mirabile Born. 

Hiberaicum Hass. = S. Myochrous Ag. 

Julianum Menegh. = 8. Ho£fmanni Ag. 

minutum Ag. = Stigonema minutum Hass. 

tomentosum KUtz. b S. Myochrous Ag. 

alpinus Kiitz. = Stigonema panniforme Eirchn. 

Adams — A List of Si/noni/ms of Irhh Algae. 177 

III. — Cyanophyoeae — continued. 

compactus Acj. = Stigonema hormoides Born, ct Flah. 

coralloicles Kiitz. = Stigonema informo Kiitz. 

hormoides Kiitz. = Stigonema hormoides Bom. ct Flah. 

ocellatus Dilhv. = Stigonema oceilatum Thur. 

pulvinatus Brib. = Stigonema sp. 

grumosa Hass. - Gloeocapsa paroliniana Brib. 

Hassallii Kiitz. = Anabaena circinalis Eabh. 

polysperma Kiitz. = Anabaena variabilis Kiiti. 

Kalfsii Thiu. = Anabaena oscillarioides Bory. 

variabihs Kiitz. = Anabaena variabilis Kiita. 

miuutissimum Hass. = Spirulina major Kiitz. 

Thompsoni Hass. = Anabaena circinalis Babli. 

Jenueri Kiitz. = Arthrospira Jenneri Stiz. 

oscillarioides Turp. = S. major Kiitz. 

Thuretii Grotian. = S. subsalsa Oersted. 

atrovirens Ag. = A Lichen. 

interruptum Hass. = A Lichen. 

mammiferum Kiitz. = S. mammillosum Ag. 

Ralfsiana Kiitz. = Schizothrix Friesii Gom. 

Friesii Kirchn. = Schizothrix Friesii Gom. 

crassus Arch. = S. major Schroet. 

elongatus Nag. = S. aeruginosus Niig. 

parvulus Xdg. = S. aeruginosus Ncig. 

aegagropila Kiitz. = T. lanata Wartin. 

Dillwynii Hass. = Desmonema Wrangelii Born, et Flah. 

punctata Hass. = T. lanata Wartm. 

pygmaea Kiitz. = T. tenuis Kutz. 

Nostoc iwi/j. = Nostoc commune Vaiicher. 

Flos-aquae Eal/s. = Anabaena Flos-aquae Brib. 

[2 B*] 

178 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

m. — Ctaxophyoeae — cmitinucd. 

incurTUS^ZZ;7M7i= Anabaena Flos-aquae Breb. 

spiralis Balfs. = Anabaena circinalis Babh. 
Zonotricliia - 

alpina Eiitz. = Eivularia Haematites Ag. 

rivuiaris Nag. = Kivularia Haematites Ag. 

I¥ . — Desmidiaceae. 

coustricta Arch. = Cosmocladiuni constrictum Jush. 

longiconiis Boy. = Staurastrum jaculiferum West. 

Rallsii West. = A. Incus Hass. 

Borreri Bal/s. = Gj-mnozyga moniliformis Ehr. 

directum Arch. = C. Ulna Focke. 

linea Perty. = C. acutum Brib. 

obtasum Brib. = Boya obtusa W. <f G. S. West. 

protuberans Sprcng. = Mesotaenium macrococcum Boy. d Biss. 

dissiliens DUlw. = Hyalotheca dissiliens Brib. 

mucosa Mert. = Hyalotbeca mucosa Ehr. 

angustatum Nord. = C. pokornyauum W, & G. S. West. 

ansatum Kutz. = Euastrum ansatum Balfs. 

bipapillatum West. = C. Boeckii 11 'i7^. 

concinnum Beinsch. = C. angulosum Brib. 

confusum Cooke. = C. margaritiferum Metiegh. 

crenatum Balfs. = C. undulatum Corda. 

crennlatum Nag. = C. Meneghbiii Brib. 

curtom Halfs. = Penium curtum Breb. 

cylindricum L'alfs. - C. Balfsii Brib. 

dissimile Nordst. - Euastrum sublobatum Brib. 

elegans Nordst. = C. annulatum De Bary. 

Elfvingii Kacib. = C. rectangulare Grim. 

emarginulum Perty. = C. Hammeri Beinsch. 

gemmiferum Brib. = C. Botrjtis Mencgh. 

gotlandicum Wittr, = C. rectangulare Gnin. 

Klebsii Giitw. = C. subtumidum Sordst. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 179 

IV. — Desmdiaoeae — continiied. 

malinvernianum Schmidle. = C. margaritifcrum Memgh. 

Nuttallii West. = C. subundulatum Wille. 

odontopleurum Arcli. = C. repandum Nordst. 

Scenedesmus Del23. = C. depressum Luiid. 

schliephackeanum Grun. = C, pygmaeum Arch. 

sendtnerianum Beinsch. = Euastrum sendtnerianum Bcinsch. 

sinuosum Lund. = C. decedens Bacib. 

sublobatum Arch. = Euastrum sublobatum Breb. 

subpunctulatum Nordst. = C. punctulatiim Breb. 

Subreinscbii Schmidle. = Euastrum moutanum W. d- G. S. West, 

sucoisum West. = C. tinctum Balfs. 

Borreri Balfs. = Gymnozyga moniliformis Ehr. 

mucosum B^-eb. = Hyalotheca dissiliens Breb. 

furcigerus B^'eb. = Staurastrum furcigerum Breb. 

longispinum Bail. = Staurastrum longispinum Aixh. 

Borreri Balfs. = Gymnozyga moniliformis Ehr. 

Grevillei Eiitz. = Desmidium cylindricum Grev. 

asperum Brib. = Gonatozygon asperum Cleve. 

clavatum Kiitz. = Pleurotaenium Trabecula Nag. 

coronatum Br 6b. = Pleurotaenium coronatum Babh. 

dilatatum Limd. = D. undulatum Bail. 

Ehrenbergii Balfs. = Pleurotaenium Trabecula Nag. 

minutum Balfs. = Penium minutum Cleve. 

nobile Lnmd. = D. undulatum Bail. 

nodosum Bail. = Pleurotaenium nodosum Lund. 

uodulosum Brib. = Pleurotaenium coronatum Babh. 

truncatum Breb. = Pleurotaenium truncatum Nag. 

anceps Ltmd. = Cosmarium anceps Lund. 

angustatum Wittr. = E. binale Elir. 

armstrongianum Arch. = E. pingue Elfv. 

circulare Hass. = E. ansatum Balfs. 

declive Beinsch. =E. elegans Eiitz. 

lobulatum Breb. = E. binale Balfs. 

pyramidatum West. = E. crispulum W. dt G, S. West. 

Kota Ehr. = Micrasterias trmicata Brib. 

180 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

IV. — Desmidiaceae — continued. 

scitam West. = Cosmarium nasntum Nordst. 

spinosum Ealfs. =E. elegans Kiitz. 

dissiliens Berk. = Hyalotheca dissiliens Breb. 

mucosum Birk. = Hyalotheca mucosa Ehr. 

Biebissonii De Bary. = G. aspernm Cleve. 

laeve HUse. = G. asperum CUve. 

minuttun West. = G. asperuin Cleve. 

Ralfsii De Bary. = G. monotaenium De Bary. 

aspernm Arch. = Gouatozygou asperum Cleve. 

Km&h&ni Arch. = Gonatozygon Kinabani Rabh. 

Portii Arch. = Gonatozygon asperum Cleve. 

Braunii De Bary. = M. macrococcum Roy. <t Biss. 

micrococcum Kirchn. = M. macrococcum Roy. £ Biss. 

angulosa Hant^sch. = M. denticulata Rolfs. 

brachyptera Lund. = M. apiculata Menegh. 

fimbriata Rolfs. = M. apiculata Menegh. 

furcata Ag. = M. rotata Ralfs. 

mucronata Rabh. = M. oscitans Ralfs. 

radiosa Ralf$. = M. Sol. KiiU. 

filiforme Roy. d Biss. = 0. nordstedtiana Turn. 

protaberans Ag. = Mesotaeniom macrococum Roy. <£ Biss. 

Berginii Arch. = P. Navicula Breb. 

Brebissonii Menegh. = Cylindrocystis Brebissonii Menegh. 

closterioides Ralfs. = P. Libellula Nordst. 

Digitus Brib. = Netrium Digitus ItiUjs. £ Rotlie. 

interruptum Breb. = Netrium interruptum LUtkem. 

lamellosum Breb. = Netrium Digitus Itzigs. £ Rothe. 

Naegelii Breb. = Netrium Naegelii W. £ G. S. West. 

oblongum De Bary. = Netrium oblongum Liitkem. 

rufopellitum Roy. = P. rufescens Cleve. 

clavatuui De Bary. = P. Trabecula XOg. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 181 

IV. — Desmidiaokae — contirmed. 


minutum Delj}. = Penium minutum Cleve. 

nobile Bichier. = Docidiiim untlulatum Bail. 

nodulosum De Bary. = P. coronatum Rabh. 

rectum Delp. = P. Trabecula Ncig. 

Sceptrum W. £ G. S. West. = P. tridentulum West. 

filiforme Elir. = Onychonema nordstedtiana Turn. 

secedens De Bary. = Spondylosium secedens Arch. 


endospira Arch. = S. bryophila Rabh. 
muscicola De Bary. = S. bryophila Rabh, 


pulcliellum Arch. = Spbaerozosma pulchellum Babh. 


braehycerum Breb. = S. polymorphum Breb. 
convergens Ehr. = Arthrodesmus convergens Ehr. 
depressum Nag. = S. muticum Brib. 
eustephanum Balfs. = S. furcigerum Breb. 
Incus Breb. = Arthrodesmus Incus Hass. 
octocorne Ehr. = Arthrodesmus octocornis Ehr. 
Pringsbeimii Beinsch. = S. polytrichum Perty. 
pseudofurcigerum Beinsch. = S. furcatum Breb. 
Sancti-Sebaldi Beinsch. = S. Sebaldi Beinsch. 
stellatum Beinsch. = S. sexangulare Babh. 
subulatum Kiitz. = Arthrodesmus subulatus Kiitz. 
tenuissimum Arch. = Arthrodesmus tenuissimus Arch. 
terebrans Nordst. = S. elongatum Barker. 
trachynotum West. = S. aculeatum Mcnegh. 
tricorne Menegh. = S. hesacerum Wittr. 


mucronatum Arch. = Micrasterias oscitans Balfs. 
oscitans Dixon = Micrasterias oscitans Balfs. 
pinnatifidum Dixon = Micrasterias oscitans Balfs. 


bisenarium Ehr. = X. cristatum Brib. 

furcatum Ehr. = X. armatum Brdb. 

octocorne Ehr. = Arthrodesmus octocornis Ehr. 

182 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Y. — Other Conjugatae. 

ericetomm Both. = Zj-gnema ericet-omm Hansg. 

genuflexa Dillw. = Mougeotia genuflexa Ag. 

pnrpurascens Cam. = Zygnema ericetorum Hansg. 

nummuloides Hass. = Mougeotia nummuloides floss. 

parvulus Hass. = Mougeotia parvula Hass. 

robustus De Bary. = Mougeotia robusta Wittr. 

sealaris Hass. = Mougeotia scalaris Hass. 

sticticum Euts. = Cboaspis stictica 0. Euntze. 

ortbospira yug. = S. majuscula Eiitz. 

princeps Vauch. = S. nitida Link. 

coerulescens Hass. = Mougeotia capucina Ag. 

gracillimom floss. = Mougeotia gracillima Wittr. 

quadratom Hass. = Mougeotia quadrata Hass. 

viride Eiitz. = Mougeotia viridis Wittr. 

cruciata Han. = Zygnema crnciatum Ag. 

pectinata Harv. = Zygnema pectinatum Ag. 

declminum Ag. = Spirogyra decimina Eiitz. 

nitidum Ag. = Spirogyra nitida Link. 

quininom Ag. = Spirogyra porticalis Ckve. 

didymom Babh. = Zygnema ericetorum Hansg. 

ericetorum Eat:. = Zygnema ericetorum Hansg. 

YI. — Chlorophyceae. 

aciculifer Lagerh. = Trochiscia aciculifera Hansg. 

globosa Wolle = Cbaetosphaeridium globosum Elebahn. 

repens A. Br. = Herposteiron confervicola Ndg. 

pringsbeimiana Arch. =B. insignia Pringsh. 

Adams — A List of Siinoiiyma of Triah Alfjae. 183 

VI. — Chlorophyoeae — contimied. 

endiviaot'olia Ag. = C. Cornu-Daniao Ag. 

pluvialis A. Br. = Sphaerella lacustris Wittr. 

botryoides Kiitz.- Protococous botryoides Kirchn. 

gigas G-run. = Gloeooystis gigas Lagerh. 

humicola Babh. = Pleurococcus vulgaris Mencrjh. 

humicolum yug. = Pleurococcus vulgaris Menegh. 

macrococcus Babh. = Urococcus insignis Kiitz. 

rufescens Niig. = Pleurococcus rufescens Brib. 

Arnottii Harv. = A Fungus. 

aureus Kiitz. = Trentepoblia aurea Ifart. 

ebeneum Ag. = A Fungus or Lichen. 

Jolithus^g'. = Trentepoblia Jolitbus Wallr. 

lichenicolus Ag. = Trentepoblia licbenicola Ag. 

umbrinum Kiitz. = Trentepoblia umbrina Bom. 

aegagropila Ces. = C. Sauteri Kiitz. 

subtile Brcb. = Ankistrodesmus falcatus Balfs. 

abbreviata Wille. = Microspora abbreviata Lagerh. 

aegagropila Linn. = Cladopbora Linnaei Kiitz. 

aurea Dillw. = Trentepoblia aurea Mart. 

bombycina Ag. = Tribonema bombycinum Verb, et Sol. 

Brownii Dillw. = Cladopbora Brownii Harv. 

capillaris Linn. = Oedogonium capillare Kiitz. 

cryptarum Borjj. = A Moss Protonema. 

flavescens Both. = Cladopbora penicillata Kiitz. 

floecosa Ag. = Microspora floccosa Thur. 

fontinalifi Berk. = Rbizoclonium bieroglypbicum Kiitz 

glomerata Linn. = Cladopbora glomerata Kiitz. 

licbenicola Dillw. = Trentepoblia licbenicola Ag. 

nana Dillw. = Myxonema nanum (Dillw.). 

ochracea Kiitz. = Microspora abbreviata Lagerh. 

pacbyderma Wille. = Microspora pachyderma Lai/erh. 

stagnorum -ffiiis. = Ulothrix subtilis Kiitz. 

zonata Web. et Mohr. = Ulotbrix zonata Kiitz. 

K.I. A. PltOC, VOL. XXVIII., SKCT. B. [2 C] 

184 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

VI. — Chlorophyceae — contimied. 

platyistbmum Arch. = Tetraedron platyisthmum G. S. West. 

tenuis Ag. = Myxonema tenue Babh. 

mucosas A. Br. = Sphaerocystis Schroeteri Chodat. 

SLrmpla. Kiitz. = G. gigas Ijigerh. 

regularis W. d G. S. West = Chlorobotrys regularis Bohlin. 

reticulata Dang. = Coelastrum reticulatum Senn. 

globosum Nordst. = Chaetospliaeridium globosum Klcbahn. 
repens Wittr. = H. confervncola .V<i</. 

bicolor Cooke = Ulothrix zonata Cooke. 
moniliformis Babh. = Ulothrix moniliformis Kiitz. 
subtilis Kiitt. = Ulothrix subtilis Kiid. 
tenuis De Toni = Ulothrix tenuis Kiitz. 
zonata Aresch. = Ulothrix zonata Kutz. 

transrersalis Brdb. = Schizogonium thermale Kutz. 

heteromorphum Beinsch. = Characium heteromorpbum Beinsch. 

neglecta TT. d G. S. West = Botryococcus Braunii Kiitz. 

roemerianum Kiitz. = Gloeocystis infusionum W. £ G. S. West. 

muralis Ag. = Prasiola crispa Meiugh. 

vulgaris Babh. = M.floccosa Thur. 

globosa Boni = Chaetospbaeridium globosum Klebahn. 

apophysatum A. Br. = 0. borisianum Wttlr. 
echinospermum Pringsh. = 0. cleveanum Wittr. 
gemelliparum Pringsh. = 0. Landsboroughii Kiitt. 
rostellatum Pringsh. = 0. crispum Wittr. 
setigerum Vaup. = 0. borisianum Wittr. 

Adams — A List of S/jnotiijms of Irish Algae. 185 

VI. — Chlorophyoeae — continued. 

crassa Wittr. = 0. Marssonii Lemm. 

setigera Arch. = Chodatella amphitricha Ghod. 

botryoides Kiltz. = Gloeoeystis botryoides Niig. 

angulosum Ehr. = P. Tetras Balfs. 

Ehrenbergii A. Br. = P. Tetras Balfs. 

ellipticum Balfs. = P. eonstrictum Hass. 

granulatum Kiltz. = P. boryanum Menegh. 

heptacfcis Ehr. = P. Tetras Balfs. 

pertusum Kiltz. = P. duplex Meyen. 

rotula A. Br. = P. biradiatum Meyen. 

caudatum Lagerh. = Tetraedron caudatum Hansg. 

enorme De Bary = Tetraedron enorme Hansg. 

gigas Wittr. = Tetraedron gigas Hansg. 

lobulatum Ndg. = Tetraedron lobulatum Hafisg. 

longispinum Babh. = Cerasterias longispina Beinsch. 

minimum A.Br. = Tetraedron minimum Hansg. 

tetraedrieum Niig. = Tetraedron regulare Kiltz. 

tetragonum Ndg. = Tetraedron tetragonum Hansg. 

trigonum Ndg. = Tetraedron trigonum Hansg. 

rivularis Vaucli. = Cladopbora insignis Kiitz. 

angulosus Corda = Pleurococcus angulosus Menegh. 

coccoma Kiitz. = Botrydium granulatum Cfrev. 

infusionum Kirchn. = Gloeoeystis infusionum W. d G. S. West. 

minor Kiltz. = Pleurococcus vulgaris Menegh. 

nivalis Ag. = Sphaerella lacustris Wittr. 

tectorum Kiitz. = Pleurococcus tectorum Trevis. 

viridis Ag. = Pleurococcus vulgaris Menegh. 

vulgaris Menegh. = Pleurococcus vulgaris Menegh. 

aciculare A. Br. = Ankistrodesmus falcatus Balfs. 

contortum Thur. = Ankistrodesmus falcatus Balfs. 

convolutum Babh. = Ankistrodesmus convolutus G, S. West. 

falcatum Corda = Ankistrodesmus falcatus Balfs. 

fusiforme Corda = Ankistrodesmus falcatus Balfs. 

longissimum Schroder = Closteriopsis longissima Lemm. 

polymorphum Fresen. = Ankistrodesmus falcatus Balfs. 


lS6 Proceedings of the Roifal Irish Academy. 

VI. — Chlorophyoeae — contimied. 

quadriseta Lemm. = R. botryoides Lcnim. 

aeutus Meijen. = S. obliquus Ki'itz. 

alternaus Beinsch. = S. bijugatus Kiik. 

dimorphus Eutz. = S. obliquus Kiitz. 

obtusus Mcyen. - S. bijugatus Kiitz. 

murale Kiitz. = Prasiola parietina Wille. 
Sciadium Br. = Ophiocytium Arbuscula Rahh. 

cocblearo A. Br. = Ophiocytium cochleare A. Br. 

crispa Berk. = Ulothrix zonata Kiitz. 

enorme Ralfs. = Tetraedron enorme Hansg. 

beteracantba Nordst. = Crucigeiiia heteracantha (Nordst.). 

rectangiilaris A. Br. = Crucigenia rectangularis W. d G. S. West. 

amoenum Eiitz. = Myxonema amoena Hazcn. 

faatigiatum Kiitz. - Myxonema fastigiatum {Kiitz.). 

protensum Kiitz. = Myxonema protensum Dillw. 

aubsecundum Kiitz. = Myxonema subsecundum Hazcii. 

tenue Babh. = Myxonema tenue Rahh. 

longispinum (Rabh.) = Cerasterias longispina Beinsch. 

pulchella Ag. " Myxonema nanum {Dillw.). 

abbreviatum {Wilk.) = Microspora abbreviata Rabh. 

pachydermum (Wille.) = Microspora pachyderma Lagerh. 

Raciborskii {Gutw.) = Microspora amoena Ag. 

bicolor Ral/n. = U. zonata Kiitz. 

compacta Kiitz. = U. subtilis Kiitz, 

radicans Kiitz. = Prasiola crispa Mencgh. 

stagnorum Kiitz. = U. subtilis Kiitz. 

variabilis Kiitz. = U. subtilis Kiitz. 

bullosa Roth. = Tetraspora bullosa Ag. 

caluph^lla i>i)rc)Uj.= i'lasiola calophyllu Meiiegh. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 187 

VI. — Chlorophyoeae — continued. 

crispa Light/. - Prasiola crispa Menegh. 

furfuracea Horn. = Prasiola furfuracea Menegh. 

incrassata Huds. - Chaetophora Cornu-Damae Ag. 

caespitosa Ag. = V. geminata D. G. 

racemosa Walz. = V. geminata D. C. 

sericea Lyngh. = V. ornithocephala Ag. 

globator Ehr. = V. aureus Ehr. 

YII. — Rhodophyceae. 


atrum Both. = B. Dillenii Bory. 

atra Dilho. = Batrachospermum Dillenii Bory. 

fluviatilis Bory. = Saclieria fiuviatilis Sirocl. 


I. — Diatomaceae. 


undulatus Bail. = Actiuoptycbus undulatus Balfs. 

senarius Ehr. = A. undulatus Balfs. 

sigmoidea W. Svi. = Nitzschia Sigma W. Sm. 

constricta Ehr. = Navicula simulans Donk. 

didyma W. Sm. = Donkinia sp. 

elegans W, Sm. = Plagiotropis elegans Grun. 

pusilla G-re(/. = A. lepidoptera Greg. 

vitrea W. Sm. = Plagiotropis vitrea Grun. 

antediluviana Ehr, =Biddulphia antediluviana H. V. H. 

dubia Grey. = A. arenaria Donk. 

granulata Greg. = A. lineata Greg. 

lyrata Ch'eg. = A. angularis Greg. 

nana Greg. = A. elliptica Kiitz. 

proboscidea Greg. = A. commutata Grun. 

188 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

I. — DiATOMACEAE — cotitimied. 

quadrats Greg. = A. Gregoryi Pritch. 

sulcata Boper = A. erassa Greg. 

ventricosa Greg. = A. turgida Greg. 

paradoxa Grun. = Nitzschia paradoxa Gmel. 

mobiliensis Bail. - B. Baileyii W. Sm. 

radiata TF. Stn. = B. Smithii H. Van. Heurck. 

cribrosus W. Sm.= C. Ecbeneis Ehr. 

parvulus TF. Sm. = C. Tburetii Brcb. 

simulans Greg. = C. Tburetii Breb. 

binotata Grun. = Ortboneis binotata Grun. 

coronata Brightw. = Ortboneis coronata Grun. 

excentrica Donk. = Anortboneis excentrica Grun. 

fimbriata Brightw. = Ortboneis fimbriata Grun. 

piunata Greg.= C. brundusiaca Rabh. 

punctatissima Grev. = Ortboneis punctatissima Lagerst. 

eximium Kits. = Pleorosigms eximiom Grun. 

Ebrenbergii O'Meara = C. lineatns Ehr. 

omphalanthus Ehr. = C. Asterompbalus Ehr. 

radiolfttus Ehr. = C. fimbriatus Ehr. 

fcurria Grev. = Stepbanopyxis turris Rolfs. 

dallasiana TF. Sm. <• C. striata Grun. 

scotica KuU. = Hyalodiscus scoticus Grun. 

nana Greg. = Dimeregranuna nanum Bai/s. 

Willi&msonii W. Sm. = Glypbodesmis Williamsonii Gnm. 

auritum Lyngb. = Biddulpbia aurita Breb. 

fasciculatum Ag. = Synedra aflSnis Kutz. 

byalinum Kutz. = Fragilaria byalina Grun. 

marinum Lyngb. = Grammatopbora marina Kutz. 

obliqaatum Lyngb. = Isthmia sp. 

Adams — A List of Hynonyms of Irish Alga?.. 189 

I. — DiATOMAOEAE — Continued. 

sti'iatulum Ag. = Kbabdonema arcuatum KiUz. 

truncatum Grev. = Synedra affinis Kiitz. 


pinnata Balfs. = Schizonema mosogloGoides Kiitz. 

ulvoides Berk. = Navieula ulvacea H. Van Heurck. 


distans Greg. = Glypliodesmis distans Grun. 

nanum Greg. = D. minus Balfs. 


compaeta Balfs. = Ehoicosigma compactum Grim. 


constrieta W. Sin. = E. Musculus Kiitz. 

marina Dank. = Hantzschia marina Grun. 


pulehella Arnott. = Entopyla pulehella Gi-^m. 


sculptus W. Sm. = Auliscus sculptus Balfs. 


truneata Grev. = Synedra affinis Kiitz. 


aequalis Heib. = F. virescens Balfs. 

aurea Carm. = F. striatula Lyngb. 

diatomoides Grev. = F. striatula Lyngb. 


marinum W. Sm. = Rhoicosphenia marina W. Sm. 

paradoxum Ag. = Licmopliora paradoxa Ag. 


macilenta W. Sin. = G. oceanica Ehr. 


Jurgensii Ag. = Fragilaria striatula Lyngb. 


liliformis W. Sm. = Nitzschia filiformis W. Sm. 

Martiana Ag. = Nitzschia Martiana H. Van Heurck. 

sigmoidea W. Sm. = Nitzschia fasciculata Grim. 


nummuloides W. Sm. = Melosira uummuloides Ag. 

Westii W. Sm. = Melosira Westii W. Sm. 

Wrigbtii O'Meara = Melosira Wrigbtii O'Meara. 


globifera Harv. = Podosira Montagnei Kiitz. 

190 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

I . — DiATOMAOE AE — contiiiued. 

lineata Ag. = Lysigonium moniliforme Link. 

marina Jan. ct Babh. = M. sulcata Eiitz. 

subflexilis Kutz. = Lysigonium moniliforme Link. 

angulosa Greg. = N. palpebralis Brib. 

apis Ehr. = N. didyma Ehr. 

arraniensis O'Meara. = N. nitescens Balfs. 

bicuneata Grun. = N. maxima Greg. 

clavata Greg. = N. Hennedyi W. Sm. 

convexa W. Sm. = Scoliopleura latestriata Grun. 

cj'prinus Ehr. = N. digito-radiata Balfs. 

donkiniana O'Meara. = N. musca Greg. 

Jennerii W. Sm. = Scoliopleura tumida Babh. 

meniscus Schum. = N. peregrina Eiitz. 

minutula IF. Sm. = N. pygmaea Eiitz. 

punctulata W. Sm. = N. marina Balfs. 

roslellifera Greg. = N. cancellata Donk. 

Schmidtii O'Meara. = N. Eugenia A. Schm. 

scutellum O'Meara. = N. Smitbii Brdb. 

Westii W. Sm. = Scoliopleura Westii Grun. 

birostrata W. Sm. = N. longissima Balfs. 

closterium W. Sm. = N. curvirostris Cleve, 

hyalina Greg. = N. spathulata Brdb. 

virgata Boper. = Hantzschia virgata Grun. 

anrita Ag, = Biddulpbia aurita Brib. 

anglicus Donk. = Tbalassiosira Nordensldoldii Cleve. 

excentricus Ehr. = Coscinodiscus excentricua Ehr. 

areolata Ehr. - Actinoptychua undulatus Balfs. 

angulata Greg. = Coscinodiscus decipiens Grun. 

marina TF. Sm. = Melosira sulcata Eiitz. 

sulcata Ehr. - Melosira sulcata Eiitz. 

sulcata Cleve. = Melosira sulcata Kiitz. 

distans W. Sm. = Navicula distans Ealfs. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irinh Ahjao. IHl 

I. — DiATOMAOEAK — conliniuid. 

divancata O'Meara. = Navicula latissima Greg. 

marginata O'Meara. = Navicula marginata O'Meara. 

peregrina Ehr. = Navicula peregrina Eiltz. 

scutellum O^Meara. = Navicula Smitbii Brib. 

Vickersii O'Meara = Navicula Vickersii O'Meara. 

aestuarii W. Sm. = P. angulatum W. Sm. 

delicatulum W. Sm. = P. angulatum W. Sm. 

giganteum Grim. = P. validum Shadb. 

mirabile O'Meara. = P. pulchrum Grun. 

quadratviin W. Sm. = P. angulatum W. Sm. 

strigosum W. Svi. = P. angulatum W. Sm. 

transversals W. Sm, = P. naviculaceum Breb. 

maculata W. Sm. = Hyalodiscus stelliger Bail. 

Ehrenbergii Kiitz. = Licmophora Ehrenbergii Gnin. 

Juergensii Kiltz. - Licmopbora Juergensii Ag. 

Lyngbyei Kiltz. = Licmopbora Lyngbyei Grun. 

hyalina Kiltz. = Fragilaria byalina Grim. 

minima Balfs. = Fragilaria byalina Grun. 

Tabellaria O'Meara = Fragilaria Tabellaria O'Meara. 

Jonesii O'Meara = Cocconeis Scutellum Ehr. 

Moorei O'Meara = Cocconeis Scutellum Ehr. 

suborbicularis O'Meara = Campyloneis Grevillei Grun. ct Eul. 

elongata Kiltz. = Licmopbora gracilis Grun. 

paradoxa Kiltz. = Licmopbora paradoxa Ag. 

crucigerum W. Sm. = Navicula crucigera TT'. Sm. 

Dillwynii Ag. = Berkeleya rutilans Grun. 

gracillimum W. Sm. = Berkeleya parasitica Grun. 

Grevillei Ag. = Navicula Grevillei Ag. 

obtusum Grev. = Berkeleya obtusa Grtm, 

parasiticum Harv. = Berkeleya parasitica Grun. 

quadripunctatum Ag. = Berkeleya rutilans Gran. 

ramosissimum Ag. = Navicula ramosissima Ag. 

virescens Harv. = Berkeleya rutilans Grun. 

R. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIII., SECT. B. [2 D\ 

192 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

I. — DiATOMACEAE — contitvued. 

convesa W. Sm. = S. latestriata Grim. 
Jennerii W. Sm. = S. tumida Babh. 

ampbioxus Crreg. = Stauroneis Gregoryi Balfs. 
crucicula W. Sm. = Navicula crucicula Donk. 
pulchella W. Sm. = Navicula aspera Ehr. 

arcuata Ag. = Ehabdonema arcuatum Eiitz. 

constricta W. Sm. = S. Smithii Ealfs. 
craticula Ehr. = Navicula sp. 

Frauenfeldii Qrun. = Thalassiothris Frauenfeldii Grun. 
gracilis Kiltz. = S. aflinis Kiitz. 
tabulata Ag. = S. affinis Kiitz. 

catena Ehr. = Rhabdonema arcuatum Kiitz. 
iuterrupta Ehr. = Striatella interrupta Heib. 

curvata Castr. = Synedra nitzschioides Grim. 

alternans Bail. = Biddulphia altemans H. Van Hcjirck. 
favus Ehr. = Biddulphia favus E. Van Eeu/rck. 

acuminata W. Sm. = Nitzscbia acuminata Gnm. 
apiculata Greg. = Nitzscbia apiculata Gnm. 
constricta Greg. = Nitzscbia constricta Grun. 
marginata W. Sm. = Nitzscbia navicularis Grun. 
Neptuni Schum. = Nitzscbia punctata Grun. 
punctata IF. Sm. = Nitzscbia punctata Gnm. 
scutellum W. Sm. - Nitzscbia circumsuta Grun. 

II.— Cyanophyceae. 

caespitula Harv. = Hydrocoleus comoides Gom. 
hydnoides Harv. = C. pulvinata Ag. 
luteola Grev. = Lyngbya luteola Crouan. 
paunosa Ag. = Lyngbya aestuarii Licbm. 
semiplena Harv. = Symploca hydnoides Kiitz. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. Id'-i 

II. — Cyanophyoeae — continued. 

confervicola Both. = Calothrix confervicola Ag. 

majuscula Dilltu. = Lyngbya majuscula Harv. 

nitida Batt. = H. caespitosa Born, et Flah. 

feiTuginea Arj. = L. aestuarii Licbm. 

lyugbyaceus Tlmr. = Hydrocoleus lyngbyaoeus Kiltz. 

chthonoplastes Hoffm. = Microcoleus chthonoplastes Thur. 

Biasolettiana Menegh. = E. coadunata Fosl. 

plana Harv. = Isactis plana Harv. 

plicata Cam. = R. nitida Ag. 

Carmichaeli Harv. = Anabaena torulosa Lagcrh. 

Thwaitesii Harv. = Anabaena variabilis Kiitz. 

hemispherica Linn. = Eivularia atra Both. 

III. — Chlorophyceae. 


laetevirens Harv. = Urospora isogona Batt. 

diffusa Harv. = C. Hutchinsiae Harv. 

nuda Harv. = C. rupestris Kiitz. 

aerea Dilliv. = Chaetomorpha aerea Kiltz. 

albida Huds. = Cladophora albida Kiitz. 

arcta Dilliu. = Cladophora arcta Kiltz. 

arenosa Carm. = Ehizoclonium arenosum Kiitz, 

bangioides Harv. - Urospora bangioides Holm. cC Batt. 

bullosa Wade. = Cladophora fracta Kiltz. 

crassa Ag. - Chaetomorpha crassa Kiltz. 

diffusa Roth. = Cladophora Hutchinsiae Kiitz. 

fracta Fl. Dan. = Cladophora fracta Kiltz. 

glaucescens Orijf. = Cladophora glaucescens Harv. 

gracilis Griff. = Cladophora gracilis Kiitz. 

Hutchinsiae Dillio. = Cladophora Hutchinsiae Kiltz. 

implexa DUlw. = Ehiijoclouium implexum Batt. 


194 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

III. — Chlokophyoeae — continued. 

intricata Grev. = Chaetomorpha tortuosa Kutz. 

Kaneana McCalla. = Cladophora rudolphiana Han. 

laetevirens Dillw. - Cladophora laetevirens Eiitz. 

lanosa Both. = Cladopbora lanosa Eiitz. 

Linum Han: = Cladophora crassa Eiitz. 

Melagonium Web. ct Mohr. = Chaetomorpha Melagonium Eiitz. 

nuda Harv. = Cladophora rupestris Eiitz. 

pellucida Huds. = Cladophora pellucida Eiitz. 

rectangularis Griff. = Cladophora rectangularis Harv. 

refracta Wyatt. = Cladophora albida Eiitz. 

riparia Both. = Ehizoclouium ripariimi Harv. 

rupestris Lirm. = Cladophora rupestris Eiitz. 

sericea Lyngb. = Cladophora sericea Eiitz. 

tortuosa Dillw. = Chaotomorpha tortuosa Eiitz. 

erecta Harv. = E. paradoxa EUtz. 
Hopkirkii McCalla = E. paradoxa Eiitz. 
percursa Hare. = Percursaria percursa Bosoiv. 

Flustrae Beinke = Endodcrma Flustrao Batt. 

Carmichaelii Harv. = Urospora isogona Batt. 
speciosa Carm. = Urospora isogona Batt. 

Bljttii Wittr. = M. fuscum Wittr. 
lactuca /. Ag. = M. Grevillei Wittr. 

adnata Huds. = Gloeocystis adnata Schm. 

flacca Thur. = Urospora isogona Batt. 
speciosa EUtz. = Urospora isogona Bait. 

bullosa Eiitz. = Monostroma buUosum Wittr. 
olathrata Ag. - Enteromorpha clathrata J. Ag. 
compressa Linn. = Enteromorpha compressa Grev. 
Grevillei Le Jot. = Monostroma Grevillei Wittr. 
intestinalis Linn. = Enteromorpha intestinalis Link. 
latissima J. Ag. = U. Lactuca Linn. 
Linza Linn. = Enteromorpha Linza J. Ag. 
plumosa Huds. = Bryopsis plumosa Ag. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 195 

III. — Chlorophyceae— coM<m«e(Z. 

penicilliformis Aresch. = U. isogona Batt. 

marina Lyngb. = Derbesia marina Kjelbn. 

velutina Ag. = V. Thuretii Woroiv. 

lY. — Phaeophyceae. 


parvula G-rev. = Cutleria multifida Grev. 

reptans Cm. = Cutleria multifida Grcv. 

Leclancherii Magn. = Chilionema Nathaliae Sauv. 

ecbinatus Grev. = A. fistulosus Hook. 

pusillus Hook. = Litosiphon pusillus Harv. 

Turner! Lamour. = A. bullosus Lamour. 

Laminariae Lyngb. = Litosiphon Laminariae Harv. 

Cabrerae Kiitz. = C. costata Batt. 

lomentaria Lyngb. = Seytosiphon lomentarius J. Ag. 

plumosus Holmes. = Chaetopteris plumosa Kiits. 

curta Billw. = Elachistea flaecida Aresch. 

flaccida Dillw. = Elachistea flaecida Aresch. 

fucicola Velley = Elachistea fucicola Fries. 

fusca Hicds. = Sphacelaria cirrhosa Ag. 

littoralis Linn. = Pylaiella littoralis Ejcllm. 

Mertensii Dilliv. = Tilopteris Mertensii Kiltz. 

paradosa Both. = Spermatochnus paradoxus Kilts. 

pennata Eng. Bot. = Chaetopteris plumosa Kiitz. 

radicans Dillw. = Sphacelaria radicans Ag. 

scoparia Linn. = Stypocaulon scoparium Kiltz. 

scutulata Sm. = Elachistea scutulata Dicby. 

tomentosa liiids. = Ectocarpus tomentosus Lyngb. 

verticillata I(i<7/iy". = Cladostephus verticiilatus iigr. 

marina Ag. = Leathesia diflbrmis Aresch. 

196 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

rV. — Phaeophyokae — continued. 

foeniculacea Grev. = C. discors Ag. 

balticrtm Eiitz. - Punctaria baltica Batt. 

andalatam Rke. = Panctaria ondulata /. Ag. 

viridis Grev. = Desmarestia viridis Lamour. 

poh-podioides Lamour. = D. membranacea Batt. 

atomaria Grev. = Taonia atomaria J. Ag. 

implexa J. Ag. = D. dichotoma Lamour. 

brachiatus Harv. = Phloeospora bracbiata Born. 

orinitas Carm. - Acbinetospora pusilla Born. 

firmus ./. Ag. = Pylaiella littoralis Ejcllm. 

Griffithsianus Lc Jol. = Phloeospora bracbiata Bom. 

littoralis Wyatt = Pylaiella littoralis Kjellm. 

Mertensii Harv. = Tilopteris Mertensii Kiitz. 

pusillos Grijff. = Acbinetospora pusilla Bom. 

sphaerophorus Carm. = Isthmoplea sphaeropbora Kjellm. 

Areschougii Cm. = Myriactis Areschougii Batt. 

villosom Berk. = Arthrocladia villosa Duby. 

acaleatas Linn. = Desmarestia aculeata Lamour. 

balticns Ag. = F. vesicalosns Linn. 

bifurcatus With. = Bifnrcaria tnberculata Slackh. 

canaliculatus Linn. = Pelvetia canaliculata Dene ct Thur. 

dlgitatas Linn. = Laminaria di^itata Lamour. 

disticbas Linn. = F. anceps Harv. and Ward. 

Fascia 3/S/J. = Pbyllitis Fascia Eutz. 

Filum Linn. - Chorda Filum Stackh. 

loreos Ltnn. = Himantbalia lorea Lyngb. 

Mackaii Turn. = Ascopbyllum Mackaii Holm, d Batt. 

nodosos Linn. = AscopbyUoiD nodosum Le Jol. 

Pbyllitis Stackh. = Laminaria saccharina Lamour. 

polyscbides Light/. = Soccorhiza polyscbides Ball. 

saccbarinus Linn. = Laminaria saccbarina Lamour. 

siliqnosus Linn. = Halidrys siliqnosa Lyngb. 

Adams — A List of S>/non>/ms of Iriah Alf/ae. 197 

IV. — Phaeophyoeae— continued. 

teres Good. & Woodw. = Alaria csculenta Grev. 

tuberculatus Huds. = Bifurcaria tuberculata Siackh. 

secunda Batt. = Ectocarpus secundus Kiitz. 

bulbosa Huds. = Saocorhiza polyschides Batt. 

polypodioides Ag. = Dictyopteris membranacea Batt. 

Griffitbsiana Harv. = Mesogloia Griffitbsiana Grev. 

vermiculai-is Sm. = Mesogloia vermiciilata Le Jol. 

virescens Grev. = Castagnea virescens Thur. 

bulbosa Lamou/r. = Saccorhiza polyscbides Batt. 

Cloustoni Le Jol. = L. byperborea Fosl. 

Fascia Harv. = Phyllitis Fascia Kiitz. 

flexicaulis Le Jol. = L. digitata Laviour. 

Pbyllitis Lamour. = L. saccharina Lavioiir. 

Berkeleyi Harv. = Petrospongium Berkeley! A' at/. 

tuberformis S. F. Gray. = L. difl'ormis Aresch. 

vermicularis Ag. = M. vermiciilata Le Jol. 

virescens Carm. = Castagnea virescens Th'wr. 

Leclancberii Harv. = Cbilionema Nathaliae Sauv. 

punctiforme Harv. = M. strangnlans Grev. 

deusta Grev. = Ealfsia verrucosa J. Ag. 

parvula Grev. = Cutleria multifida Grev. 

subarticulata Aresch. = Stictyosipbou subarticulatus Bke. 

filiforme Bke. = Litosipbon filiformis Batt. 

bibernicum T. Johns. = Litosipbon biberuicus Batt. 

tuberculatus Kiitz, = Bifurcaria tuberculata Stackh. 

deusta Berk. = E. verrucosa /. A;/. 

198 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

IV.— Phaeophyceae — continued. 

bulbosa DeLa Pyl. = S. polyschides Batt. 

filicina Ag. = Halopteris filicina Kiitz. 

plumosa Lyngh. = Chaetopteris plumosa Kiltz. 

scoparia^(7. = Stypocaiilou scoparium Kiits- 

sertularia Bounem. - Halopteris filicina Kiitz. 

velutina Grev. = Ectocarpus velutinus Riitz. 

Cabrerae Ag. = Carpomitra costata Batt. 

rhizodes Ag. = Stilophora rhizodes /. Ag. 

villosus Ag. = Arthrocladia villosa Duhj. 

Lyngbyei /. Ag. - Spermatocbnus paradoxus Kiitz. 

Areschougii Batt. = Myriactis Areschougii Batt. 

lutecium De Toni = Ectocarpus luteolus Sauv, 

minimum Sauv. = Ectocarpus minimus Xltg. 

replans Farl. = Ectocarpus repena Bke. 

simplex Holm. <C Batt. = Ectocarpus simplex Cm. 

solitarium Dc Toni = Ectocarpus solitarius Sauv. 

velutinum Thur. - Ectocarpus velutinus Kiitz. 

Griffitbsiana Harv. = Mesogloia Griffithsiana Grev. 

vermicularis Harv. = Mesogloia vermiculata Le Jot. 

virescens Harv. = Castagnea 'S'irescens Thur. 

dichotoma Ends. = Dictyota dichotoma Lamour. 

fistulosa Htuls. = Asperococcus fistulosus Hook. 

Pavonia Linn. = Padina Pavonia Gaillon. 

parvula Grev. = Cutleria multifida Grev. 

v.— Rhodophyceae. 

chylocladiae Batt. = Chantransia cbylocladiae {Batt.). 

corymbiferum Batt. = Chantransia corymbifera Thur. 

Dariesii NoUj. = Chantransia Daviesii Thur. 

endozoicum Batt. = Chantransia endozoica Darbish. 

secundatum NiU). = Chantransia secuudata Thur. 

sparsum Batt. = Chantransia sparsa (farm.). 

virgatulum /. Ag. = Chantransia virgatula Thur. 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 199 

V. — Rhodophyceae — continued. 

ciliarig Carm. = Erytbvotrichia ciliaris llatf. 

elogans Chauv. = Goniotriclium elegans La Jot. 

jubafca Good. & Woodw. = C. lanceolata Batt. 

Borreri B.arv. = Pleonosporium Borreri iV&/, 

bracbiatum Harv. = C. tetragonum Ag. 

byssoideum Buffli. = Seirospora interrupta Schm. 

cruciatum Ag. = Antitbamnion cruciatum Nag. 

Daviesii Harv. = Chantransia Daviesii Thur. 

floridulum Ag. = Ehodocborton floridulum Ncig. 

gracillimum Ag. = Compsotbamnion gracillimum Schm. 

Grevillei Harv. = C. polyspermum Acj. 

lanosum Harv. = C. Hookeri jig. 

pedicellatum Ag, = Monospora pedicellata Sol. 

Pluma Ag. = Ptilothamnion Pluma Thur. 

Plumula Lyngb. = Antithamnion Plumula Timer. 

pumilum Harv. = Antitbamnion cruciatum Nag. 

purpureum Harv, = Ehodocborton purpureum Rosenv, 

repens Lyngb. = Spermotbamnion Turneri Aresch. 

Rothii Lyngb. = Ehodocborton Eothii Nag. 

secundatum Ag. = Chantransia secundata Thur. 

seirospermum Grijf. = Seirospora Griffithsiana Harv. 

sparsum Garm. = Chantransia sparsa (Carm.). 

spongiosum Harv. = C. granulatum Ag. 

tbuyoideum Harv. = Compsotbamnion thuyoides Schvi. 

Turneri Ag. = Spermotbamnion Turneri Aresch. 

versicolor Ag. = C. corymbosum Lyngb. 

virgatulum Harv. = Chantransia virgatula Thur. 

Opuntia Grev. = C, repens Batt. 

agardbianum Griff. = C. Deslongchampii Clmuv. 
nodosum Harv. = C. tenuissimum J. Ag. 

pellita Lyngb. = Cruoria pellita Fries. 

Wiggbii Ag. ~ Naccaria Wigghii Endl, 

Brodiaei Grev. - Phyllophora Brodiaei J. Ag. 

K.I, A. PKOC, VOL. XXVllI., SECT. U. [2 K\ 

200 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

V. — Ehodophyceae — continiied. 

mammillosus Grev. = Gigartina stellata Batt. 

membranifolius Grev. = Phyllopliora membranifolia /. Ag. 

norvegicus Lamowr. = Gymnogongrus norvegicus J. Ag. 

clavellosa Harv. = Lomentaria clavellosa Gaill. 

articulata Grev. = Lomentaria articulata Lyngb. 

clavellosa Hook. = Lomentaria clavellosa Gaill. 

ovalis Hook. = C. ovata Bait. 

parvula Hook. = Champia parvula Harv. 

ciliata Ellis = Ceramium ciliatum Diicluz. 

coccinea Htids. = Heterosiplionia plumosa Batt. 

Daviesii Dillw. = Chantransia Daviesii Thur. 

diapkana Light/. = Ceramium diapbanum Roth. 

elongata //7«fs. = Polysiphonia elongata Grev. 

fibrillosa DiUw. = Polysiphonia fibrillosa Grev. 

floridula Dilhc. = Rhodochorton floridulum Ntig. 

interrupta Dillw. = Seirospora interrupta Schm. 

lanuginosa Dillw. = Callithamnion lanuginosum Lyngb. 

multifida Dilltr. = Spliondylothamnion multlfidum NSg. 

nodulosa Light/. = Ceramium rubrum Ag, 

parasitica Huds. = Pterosiphonia parasitica Falkenb. 

patens Dillw. - Polysiphonia urceolata Grev. 

pluma Dillw. = Ptilothamnion pluma Thur. 

plumosa Ellis = Heterosiphonia plumosa Batt. 

polymorpba Fl. Dan. = Polysiphonia fastigiata Grev. 

purpurasc€ns Huds. = Callithamnion Brodiaei Harv. 

Rotbii Dillw. = Khodochorton Eothii NUg. 

rubra Huds. = Ceramium rubrum Ag. 

setacea Buds. = Griifithsia flosculosa Batt. 

stricta Dillw. = Polysiphonia urceolata Grev. 
tenella Dillw. - Spermotbamnion Turneri Aresch. 
tetrica Dillw, - Callithamnion tetricum Ag. 

mediterranea Aresch. = C. elongata Johnst. 

purpurascens Kiitz. = C. purpureum Batt. 

coccinea Huds. = Heterosiphonia plumosa Batt, 

Adams — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 201 

V. — Ehodophyceae — contimied. 

Hutchinsiae Harv. = D. arbuscula Ag. 

sinuosa Lamour. = D. rubens {Huds.). 

amplissiinum Kjcllm. = Porphyra miniata Ag. 

coccinea Crii. = D. verticillata Le JoL 

divaricata Hare. = Helminthora divaricata J. Ag. 

filiformis Lyngb. = D. incrassata Lanwur. 

furcellata Lmn. = Fui-eellaria fastigiata Lamour. 

alatus &mel. = Delesseria alata Lamour. 

albidus Esper. = Gracilaria compressa Grev. 

amphibius Hiids. = Bostrycliia scorpioides Mont. 

articulatus Lightf. = Lomentaria articulata Lyngh. 

ciliatus Huds. = Calliblepharis ciliata Kiltz. 

coccineus Huds. = Plocamium coccineum Lyngb. 

confervoides Linn. = Gracilaria confervoides Grev. 

corneus Hiids. = Gelidium corneum Lamour. 

crispus Linn. = Cbondrns crispus Lyngb. 

dasypbyllus Woodw. = Chondria dasyphylla Ag. 

dentatus Linn. = Odonthalia dentata Lyngb. 

edulis Stackh. = Dilsea eduUs Stackh. 

fastigiatus Huds. = Furcellaria fastigiata Lamour. 

Hypoglossum Woodw. = Delesseria Hypoglossum Lamour. 

kaliformis Good. & Woodw. = Cbylocladia kaliformis Hook. 

laceratus Gmel. = Nitophylluin ramosum Bait. 

laciniatus Huds. = Callopbyllis laciniata Kiltz. 

lumbricalis Gmel. = Furcellaria fastigiata Lamour. 

mammillosus Good. & Woodw. = Gigartina stellata Batt. 

palmatus Linn. = Ehodymenia palmata Grev. 

pinastroides Ginel. = Halopithys incurvus Batt. 

pinnatifidus Gmel. = Laurencia pinnatifida Lamour. 

plicatus HiuJs. = Ahnfeltia plicata Fries. 

plumosus Linn. = Ptilota plumosa Ag. 

purpurascens Huds. = Cystoclonium purpureum Batt. 

repens Lightf. = Catenella repens Batt. 

rubeus Huds. = Delesseria rubeus [Huds.]. 

[2 i'*] 

202 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

V. — Ehodophyoeae — continued. 

sanguineus Linn. = Delesseria sanguinea Lainour. 

sedoides Good. £ Woodiv. = Chylocladia ovata Batt. 

subfuscus WoodiL\ = Rbodomela subfusca Ag. 

variabilis Good. <£ Woodw. = Ehodomela subfusoa Ag. 

confervoides Lammtr. = GracUaria confervoides Qrev. 

erecta Hook. = Cordylecladia ereota J. Ag. 

GriflSthsiae Grev. = Gymnogongrus Griffithsiae Mart. 

mammillosa J. Ag. = G. stellata Batt. 

plicata Lamour. = Ahnfeltia plicata Fries. 

purpurascens Lamour. = Cystoolonium purpureum Batt. 

furcellata Mont. = Sciuaia furcellata Bivona. 

erecta Grev. = Cordylecladia erecta /. Ag. 

corallina Ag. = G. corallinoides Batt. 

equisetifolia Ag. = Halurus cquisetifolius EUtz. 

multifida Ag. = Spbondylotbamnion multifidum NiU/. 

setacea Ag. = G. flosculosa Bait. 

simplicifiium Ag. = Halurus equisetifolius Kiitz. 

plicatus Kiitz. = Ahnfeltia plicata Fries. 

furcellata Ag. = Scinaia furcellata Bivona. 

ligulata Ag. = Halaracbnion ligulatum Kiitz. 

phyUactidium Kiitz. = Melobesia confervicola Fosl. 


rubra Harv. = H. prototypus Xardo. 

sanguineum Lijin. = Delesseria sanguinea Lamour. 

purpurascens Harv. = Cystoclonium purpureum Ball. 

edulis Harv. = Dilsea edulis Stackh. 

rubena Ell. el Sol. = Corallina rubena Linn. 

AuAMS — A List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 203 

V. — Ehodophyoeae — continued. 

Dubyi Harv. = Scbizymenia Dubyi J. Acj. 

dasyphylla Grev. = Chondria dasyphylla Ag. 

tenuissima Crrev. = Chondria tenuissima Ag. 

Allmanui Harv. = Melobesia confervicola Fosl. 

calcareum Fosl. = L. fasciculatum Fosl. 

agariciforine Aresch. = Litbothamnion licbenoides Heydr. 

circumscriptum Stromf. = Clatbromorphum circumscriptum Fosl. 

Crouaui = Lithopbyllum Crouani Fosl. 

dentatum Eiltz. = Lithophyllum dentatum Fosl. 

fasciculatum Harv. = Lithophyllum fasciculatum Fosl. 

Hauckii Fosl. = Goniolithon mammillosum Fosl. 

inci'ustans Fosl. = Lithophyllum incrustans Fosl. 

laevigatum Fosl. = Phymatolithon lae^'igatum Fosl. 

polymorphum Aresch. = Phymatolithon polymorphum Fosl. 

kaliformis Gaill. = Chylocladia kahformis Hook. 

reflesa Cliauv. = Chylocladia reflexa Harv. 

agariciformis Harv. = Litbothamnion lichenoides Fosl. 

confervoides = M. confervicola Fosl. 

confinis Cm. = Dermatolithon hapalidioides Fosl. 

corticiformis Kilts. = Lithotbamnion corticiforme Fosl. 

fasciculata Harv. = Lithophyllum fasciculatum Fosl. 

Laminariae Cm. = Dermatolithon macrocarpum Fosl. 

lichenoides Harv. = Lithotbamnion lichenoides Heydr. 

macrocarpa Rosan. = Dermatolithon macrocarpum Fosl. 

membranacea Lamour. = Lithotbamnion membranaceum Fosl. 

pustulata Lammir. = Dermatolithon pustulatum Fosl. 

coccinea Ag. = Dudresnaya verticillata Lc Jol. 

Hudsoni Ag. = Helminthocladia Hudson! J. Ag. 

multifida Ag. = Nemalion multifidum J. Ag. 

purpurea Harv. = Helminthocladia purpurea J. Ag. 

purpureum Cliauv. = Helminthocladia purpurea J. Ag. 

204 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

V. — BHODOFEnrcEAE — continued. 

laceratum Grev. - N. ramosam Batt. 
ocellatum Grev. = N. punctatum Grev. 
ulvoideum Hook. = N. Hilliae Grev. 


Dubyi Cm. = Cruoriella Dubyi Schm. 

nibens Batt. = Delesseria rubens {Htids.}. 

rubens Good. & Woodw. = P. epiphylla Batt. 

Brodiaei M'Calla = Phyllopbora Brodiaei J. Ag. 

membranifolius Good, d Woodw. = Phyllopbora membranifolia J.Ag. 


aflBnis Moore. = P. nigrescens Grev. 

atropurpurea Moore. = P. nigrescens Grev. 

atrorabescens IHllw. = P. nigra Batt. 

byssoides Grev. = Brongniartella byssoides Bory. 

cristata Ilarv. = Pterosipbonia complanata Schm, 

formosa Suhr. = P. orceolata Grev. 

L}-ngbyei Harv. = P. elongata Harv. 

parasitica Huds. = Pterosipbonia parasitica Schm. 

patens Grn'. = P. urceolata Grev. 

pulvinata Roth. - P. macrocarpa Harv. 

stricta Grev. = P. arceolata Grev, 

thayoides Harv. = Pterosipbonia thuyoides Schm. 


ciliaris Cm. = Erylhrotricbia Boryana Berth. 
vulgaris Ag. = P. umbilicalis Kiitz. 


elegans Bonnem. = Plnmaria elegans Schm. 
sericea Wonr. = Plumaha elegans Schm. 


Drummondii Harv. = Hildenbrandtia prototypus Nardo. 

pinastroides Ag. = Halopitbys incurvus Batt. 

scorpioides Ag. = Bostrycbia scorpioides Mont. 

Bbodomenia = Kbodymenia. 

Adams — A List of Si/nnmpm of Irish Algae. 205 

V. — Rhodophyoeae — contimied. 

bifida Grev. = Rhodophyllis bifida Kiitz. 
ciliata Grev. = Calliblopharis ciliata Kiitz. 
jubata Grev. = Calliblepharis lanceolata Bait. 
laciniata Grev. = Callophyllia laciniata Kiitz. 
reniformis Hook. = Kallymenia reniformis /. Ag. 
sobolifera Grev. = R. palmata Grev. 

complanata Harv. = Ptevosiphonia complanata Schm. 
fruticulosa Harv. = Polysiplionia fruticulosa Spreng. 
tbuyoides Harv. = Pterosiphonia thuyoides Schm. 


edulis Stackh. = Dilsea edulis Stackh. 

floridulum Dillw. = Rhodochorton floridulum Nag. 

Rotbii Lyngb. = Rbodochorton Rotbii Nag. 


Daviesii Harv. = Chantransia Daviesii [Dillw.). 
floridulum Harv. = Rbodocborton floridulum Nag. 
lanuginosa Harv. = Callithamnion lanuginosum Lyngb. 
Rothii Harv. = Rhodocborton Rotbii Nag. 
secundata Harv. = Cbautransia secundata (Ag.). 
sparsa Harv. = Cbantransia sparsa {Carm.). 


elmintboides With. = Nemalion elminthoides Batt. 
fiiiformis Huds. = Dumontia incrassata Lamour. 
palmata Lyngb. = Rhodymenia palmata Grev. 
purpurascens Huds. = Dumontia incrassata Laviour. 
rubens Hiuls. = Helmintbora divaricata /. Ag. 
umbilicaUs Light/. = Porphyra umbilicalis Kiitz. 


amplissima Kjellm. = Porpbyra amplissima (Kjellm.). 
miniata Fosl. = Porpbyra miniata Ag. 


multifida Huds. = iSpbondylothamnion multifidum Ncifj. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The species enclosed in square brackets are not, strictly speaking, 
additional, as they appeared in the " Synopsis " under a different name. 

A. — Freshwater Species. 

I.— Flagellatae. 

lacustris J. CI. M. 

erosa Ehr. U. 

frequentissima Lemm. M C. 

viridis Ehr. U. 

ovum Lemm. U. 

acaroides Pertij. M C. 

candata Jivanoff. M. 

producta Iwanoff. C. 

II. — Diatomaceae. 

Legumen Ehr. U. 

gibba 0. Mull. U. 

III.— Cyanophyceae. 

minimus I^mm. L U.] 

ecbinnlata P. Ricluer. M L C U. 

natans J?rt6/i. LU.] 

Friesii Gom. ML.] 



caespitula Harv. M. 

persicinua &iUw. U. 

lY.— Desmidiaceae. 


corriense Biss. M. 

cymatonotophorum West. C. 

[decedens Bacib. M C L U.] 

didymoprotupsum TV. d- G. S. 
West. C. 

etchachanense Roy & Biss. M. 

furcatospermum W. <£ G. S. West. 

nasutum Nordst. M. 

obcuneatum West M. 

[repandum Xordst. L.] 

retusum Rabh. C. 

sesnotatum Gutw. C U. 

subturgidum Schmidk. C. 

Tumeri Eoy. U. 

arachnoidea West. C. 

bifidum Brdb. L. 


minutissimum Arch. Ireland. 

substriatum Nordst. M C. 


armigerum Brdb. L. 

spinosum Brdb. L. 

Y. — Chlorophyceae. 

convolutus O. S. West, L U.] 

amphitricha Chod. C] 

beteracantha {Nordst.) C. 

pacbyderma Lagerh. M C] 

Adams — .1 ^/.s7 nf Siinonijms of Irish Mgac 


tergestiuum Killz. L. 

coccoma Mcncgh. L. 


alternata Dillw. M U. 

Raciborskii Gutiv. U. 

quaternatum Ehr. L. 


B. — Marine Species. 

I.— Flagellatae. 


pellucitlum Lev. M L U. 

II. — Silicoflagellatae. 


fibula Ehr. M L U. 

speculum Haeckel. M U. 

III. — Coccosphaerales. 


atlantica Ostenf. L. 

lY. — Peridinieae. 


furca Clap, et Lachm. M LU. 

horridum Cleve. M L U. 

longipes Cleve. M L U. 

maeroceras Ehr. M. 

rotundata Clap, et Lachm. L U. 

leuticula Bergh. M LU, 

acuminatum Ehr. M L. 

polygramma Stein. M L. 

conicum Qran. MLU. 

decipiens Jorg. L. 

depressum Bail. ML U. 

globulus (Siem. LU. 

B.I. A. PROO., VOL. XX\^II., SECT. B. 


oceanicum Jorrj. M L. 
ovatum Schiltt. MLU. 
pallidum Ostenf. M L U. 
pentagonum Gran. MLU. 
Steini Jorg. L. 

Y. — Diatomaceae. 


complexa Greg. L. 

commutata Grun. L. 

Gregory! Priteh. L. 

glacialis Castr. M L U. 

malleus/^. V. H. LU. 

granulata Eoper. L. 

Bergonii Perag. L U. 

boreale Bail. M L. 

constrictum Gra)t. MLU. 

contortum Schiltt. U. 

convolutum Castr. U. 

crinitum Schiltt. L U. 

curvisetum Cleve. M L U. 

danicum Cleve. M L U. 

debile Cleve. L U. 

decipiens Cleve. MLU. 

densum Cleve. M L. 

diadema Gran, U. 

[2 IT 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


didymnm Cltve. M L U. 

laciniosnin 5cA!<<t. MLU. 

pemTianum Brightw. M. 

Schutti Cleve. L U. 

scolopendra Cferf-. M U. 

hysnix Hensen. L. 

Grani Goiigh. U. 

polrchorda Gran. L L'. 

nanam Balfs. L. 

Brightwellii West, il L U. 

zodiacos Ehr. U. 

&acdi& Perag. MLU. 

borealis 6^an. MLU. 

danicns Cleve. U. 

imdalatam Ehr, L. 

membranacea CZer«. II LU. 

[filiformis W. Sm. L.] 

[pandoxa Gmel. M L U.] 

seriate Clece. M L U. 

alaU Brightw. M L U. 

delicatula Cleve. U. 

aemispina Uenten. XI L U. 

Shrubsolei Cleve. M L U. 

Stolterfoihii Pcrag. 11 L U. 

marina W. Sm. L. 

ooetatom Cleve. M L U. 


mucosom Eutz. C L. 
I Streptotheca 
' tamesis Cleve. LU. 


condensata Cleve. 31. 
, gelatinosa Hensen. L. 

I gravida Cleve. M L U. 

j [Thalassiothrix 

Frauenfeldii Gnin. 31 L U. 


{ Amphiprora 

costata O'Meara. M. 
I Isthmia 

obliquata Ag. 11 L U. 

Williamsonii W. Sm. C. 

Cyprinus Ehr. L U. 

YI.— Cyanophyceae. 

[comoides Gom. M.] 
lyngbyacens Kutz. L. 

YII.— Chlorophyceae. 
I Hexast«rias 

problematica Cfew. L D. 
I Trocbiscia 

bracbiolata Lemm. L. 

Gerei Lemm. M L U. 
, pancispinosa Lemm. L U. 


! Conferva 

perreptans Carm. M. 
sabimmersa £erl;. L. 

penicillatom. U. 

Adams — A List of S//noni/ms of Irish Alyae. 209 

YIII.— Phaeophyceae. 


baltica Batt. C U. 



pseudosolitarium. Jolinson. 

IX. — Rhodophyceae. 


compressa G-rev. L. 

amplissima [Kjellm.). L U. 

laciniata Ay. M L U. 

purpureum Rosenv. M U. 


The different groups are reviewed in the order in which they appear in 
the " Synopsis," the Freshwater Species being taken first. 

Freshwater Peridinibae. 
The following species should be deleted : — Peridinium alatum Garbini. 

Freshwater Diatomaceae. 

(«) The following species should be deleted : — Achnanthes subsessilis 
K'utz., Amphora membranacea W. Sm., Campylodiscus Echeneis Elir., Denti- 
cula crassula Nag., Eucyonema caespitosuni Kiitz.., Eunotia robusta Ealfs., 
Navicula peregrina Kutz., Nitzschia constricta Pritcli., N. filiformis W. Sm.. 
N. navicularis Grun., N. paradoxa Grun., N". Sigma W. Sm., Pleurosigma 
attenuatum W. Sm., P. Spencerii W. Svi., P. strigile W. Sm., Surirella Smithii 
Half's., Synedra lunaris Uhr., S. spleudens Xiiiz. 

(b) Cymbella Cistula Kirchu. should be C. Cistula Kirchn., C. lanceolata 
Kirclm. should be C. lanceolata Kirchn., Epithemia globifera Heib. should be 
E. globigera Heib., Navicula serians Breb. should be N. serians Kittz., 
IST. spaerophora Kiitz. should be N. sphaerophora Kutz., Synedra Acus Kutz. 
should be S. Acus Gi-un., Cyclotella accuminata W. Sm. should be C. 
acuminata W. Sm. 

Freshwater Cyanophyceae. 

(«) The following species should be deleted : — Anabaena variabilis Kiitz., 
Calothrix Dillwyni Cooke, Chroococcus minor Nag., Clathrocystis aeruginosa 
Henfrey, Gloeocapsa crepidinum Thur., Or. Paroliniaua Brib., Hapalosiphon 
Braunii Nag., Hydrocoleus Lyngbyaceus Kiitz., Oscillatoria aerugescens Hass., 
Phormidium inundatum Kiitz., P. spadiceum Kiitz., Eivularia calcarea Sm., 
E. echinata Cooke, E. echinulata Born, ct Flah., E. natans Wclw., E. Pisum Ag.^ 
Scytonema ambiguum Born, ct Flah., S. calotrichoides Kiitz., Symplocastrum 
Friesii Kirchn., Synechococcus elongatus Nag., S. parvulus Nag., Tolypothrix 
aegagrupila, Kiitz. 


310 Proceedings of the Boijal Irish Academy. 

(b) The f ollowiug should be grouped as doubtful species : — Anabaena 
polysperma Kiitz., Oscillatoria percursa ^t/fe., 0. subtilissima ^«te, 0. violacea 
Hnss., Phormidium Boryanum Kiitz., P. leptodermum Kittz., Ei\ularia gianuli- 
fera Cana., Sphaerozj'ga fiexuosa Ag., S. Mooreaua i?«{/k, Symploca Flotowiaua 

(c) Microcystis aeruginosa G. S. West should be M. aeruginosa Kiitz., 
Scytonema mirabile Born, should be S. mirabile Thur. 


(a) The following species should be deleted : — Artlirodcsmus longicornis 
Hoy, A. Ealfsii West, Closterium obtusum £rib., U. subtile Breb. (occurs 
twice, and both should be deleted), C. toxon West (occura twice, and one of 
the records should be deleted), Cosmarum angustatuni Nord., C. ansatum 
Kiitz., C. bipapillatum West, C. confusum Cooke, C. crenatum Balfs., C. curtum 
Brib., C. cylindricum Bal/s., C. Elfvingii Bacib., C. geuimiferum Br^b., 
C. Klebsii Ghitw., C. Malinveruianum Schnidle, C. Nuttallii West, C. platy- 
isthmum Arch., C. Scenedesmus BcIjk, C. sinuosum Lund., C. sublobatum 
Arch., C. subpuiictulatum i\'t>/-(/.s/., C. Subreinscliii Schmidk, C. succisuui West, 
Cylindrocystis quadratum Nordst., Docidium dilatatuni Lund., D. nobile 
Lund., Enastrum circulare Haas., E. pyraniidatum West, E. scitum West, 
Gonatozygou Ealfsii De Bary, Mesotaenium Braunii De Bary, M. micrococcum 
Kirchn., Mierasterias brachyptera Z«/k/., JI. fimbriata IMfs., M. furcata Ag., 
51. luucroiiata Rabh., M. radiosa Ag., Ouycliouenia filiforme Hoy ct Biss., 
Oocardium stratum Nag., Penium lamellosum Brib., P. rufopellitum Boy, 
Pleurotaenium clavatum Dc Bary, P. minutum Delpontc, P. nodulosum Be 
Bary, P. rectum Dclp., Sphaerozosma secedens Dc Bary, Spirotaenia endospira 
Arch., Staurastrum eustephanum lia/j's., S. pseudofurcigerum Reinsch., S. 
trachynotum West, S. tricome Memgh., Xanthidium bisenarium Ehr. 

{b) The following should be grouped as doubtful species:— Cosmarium 
giavatum Arch., C. lasiosporum Arcli., C. lobatospoiaim Arch., C. Wrightianum 
Arch., Docidium hirsutum Bail. 

(c) Cosmarium humile Gay should be C. humile Nordst., C. istmochondrum 
Nordst. dhould be C. isthmochondrum Nordst., Xanthidium armatum Babenh. 
should be X. armatum Brib. 

Othek Conjugatae. 
The following species should be deleted ; — Mougeotia laevis Arch., Zygnema 
didymum Babh. 

Freshwatek Chlokophtceae. 
(a) The following species should l>e deleted : — Crucigeuia pulchra W. & 
G. S. West, Gloeoc»x:cus luucosus Br., Gloeocystis amplu B'lhli.. (\. Iniiuicola 

Adams — .1 List of Synonyms of Irish Algae. 211 

[Rabh.), G. regularis W. & G. S. West, Ineffigiata neglecta W. & G. S. West, 
Miciospora vulgaris Rahli., Norclstedtia globosa Borzi, Oocystis setigera Arch., 
Palmella botiyoides Kiitx., rediastrimi angulosum Ehr., V. pertusum Kiits., 
Pleurococcus rufesceus Brih., Protococcus infusionum Kirchn., P. viridis Ay., 
Ehaphidium convolutuni Bctbh., E. polymorphum Fresen., Scenedesmus acutus 
Meyen, S. alteruans Eciiisck, Sphaerella nivalis Sommcrf., Spondylomorum 
quaternatum Ehr., Tetrastruin heteracanthum Cliod., Tribonema abbieviatum 
(Babh.), T. pachydermum {Willc), T. Eaciborskii {Gutiv.), T. stagnorum Kiitz., 
Ulothrix bieolor Balfs., U. radicans Kutz. 

(h) The following should be regarded as doubtful species : — Conferva 
polita Harv., Microspora punctalis Rahh. 

(c) Microspora abbreviata Bahh. should be M. abbreviata Lagerh. 

Marine Diatojiaceae. 

(CI.) The following species should be deleted : — Amphiprora paludosa 
W. Sm., A. ovalis Kiitz., Campylosira eymbelliformis Gi^un., Coscinodiscus 
subtilis Grim., Dimeregramma fulvum Balfs., Fragilaria virescens Balfs., 
Hyalodiscus subtilis Bail., Mastogloia Grevillei W. Sm., M. Smithii Thw., 
Navicula abrupta Greg., 'N. amphisbaena Bori/, N. constricta Gi'un., N. 
cryptocephala Kutz., IST. elliptica W. Sm., K forcipata G^'ev., N. lanceolata 
Kiitz., ISr. rostrata Ehr., Nitzschia affinis Kiitz., N. Tryblionella Hantzsch, 
Orthotropis lepidoptera Cleve, 0. maxima Greg., Plagiogramma Gregorianum 
Gi-ev., Surirella craticula Ehr., S. ovalis Breb., Synedra frauenfeldii &)-un., 
S. Ulna Ehr. 

(6) Xavicula distans H. van Heurek should be N. distans Balfs., N. ramo- 
sissimum A<j. should be N. ramosissima Ay., Pleurosigma strigilis W. Sm. 
should be P. strigile W. Sm., Surirella striatula Tuv;pin should be S. striatula 

Makixe Cyanopiiyceae. 

The following species should be deleted : — Calothrix aeruginea Thur., 
Microcoleus Chthonoplastes TImr. 

Maeine Chlokophyceae. 
The following species should be deleted : — Chaetomorpha Liuum Kiitz., 
Ulothrix flacca Thur., U. speciosa Kiitz. 

Marine Ehodophyceae. 
Ceramiuui Derbesii Solier should be regarded as a doubtful species. 

Ptilota plumosa Ay. occurs all round the Irish coasts ; Odonthalia dentata 
Lynyh. is confined to Ulster, though it has been found washeil up as far south 
as Co. Dublin. 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Dickie's statement referring to the occurrence of Eed Algae at a depth of 
80 fathoms must evidently refer to drifted specimens. There are no records 
of tlie ma>dmum depth at which Algae are found actually growing on the 
coast of Ireland, but it is extremely improbable that any occur below a 
depth of 25 fathoms. 


A. — Freshavater Species. 



































Other ConjugaUi-, . 









14 li 


24 'J 








































































Adams — A List of S//non//ms of Irish Algae. 213 

Additional Bibliography. 

Adams, J. — Distribution of Vaucheria in Ireland. Ir. Nat. xii., 190.3. 
Catenella repens at Ballygally Head. Ir. Nat. xiii., 1904. 
Note on some Seaweeds occurring on the Antrim Coast. Ir. Nat. xiii., 

Algae [of Dublin and Wicklow]. Handbook to the City of Dulilin 
and the Surrounding Distiict. British Association Meeting, 1908. 
Allman, G-. J. — Observations on Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae and a species 

of Peridinea. Quart. Journ. Micr. Science, iii., 1855. 
Anonymous.— The Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland. 1846. 

Botanical Notes from the Journal of an Irish Lady. Phytologist, 2nd 
Ser., i., 1855-6. 
Archer, W. — Notice of some cases of abnormal growth in the Desmidiaceae. 
Nat. Hist. Eev., vi., 1859, and Quart. Journ. Micr. Science, viii., 1860. 
Description of two new species of Cosmarium {Corda), of Penium 
(IlrSh.), and of Arthrodesmus [Elir.]. Quart. Journ. Micr. Science, 
iv., New Series, 1864. 
Note of the Occurrence in Ireland of the minute Alga Cylindrocapsa 
involuta. Grevillea, iii., 1874-5. 
Baily, W. H. — Eambles on the Irish Coast. 1886. 
Cotton, A. D. — Leathesia cripsa. Harv. Journ. of Bot., 1908. 

Marine Algae of the West of Ireland. Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous 
Information, No. 7, xiii., 1909. 
Cusack, M. p. — A History of the Kingdom of Kerry. 1871. 
GOUGH, L. H. — Plankton collected at Irish Light Stations in 1904. Eeport 
on the Sea and Inland Fisheries of Ireland for 1904, Part ii.. 
Appendix No. vi., 1906. 
Gray, S. 0. — British Seaweeds ; an introduction to the study of the Marine 

Algae of Gt. Britain, Ireland, and the Channel Islands. 1867. 
Hanna, H. — Chaetomorpha crassa at Achill. Ir. Nat., viii. 1899. 
Harris, W. — The Antient and Present State of the County of Down. 1744. 
Harvey, W. H.— Synopsis of British Seaweeds. 1857. 

. Short Descriptions of some new British Algae, witli two Plates. Nat. 
Hist. Eev., iv. 1857. 
HmD, W. M.— Dingle and its Flora. Phytologist, 2nd Ser., ii., 1857-8. 
Johnson, T. — Seaweeds from the West Coast of Ireland. Ir. Nat. i., 1892. 
Some Shell-boring Algae. Natural Science v., 1894. 
The Flora of Ireland [in Ireland, Industrial and Agricultural. 1902] 

214 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Landsborough, D. — A Popular History of British Seaweeds. 1st ed. 1849, 

2nd ei 1851, 3rd ed. 1857. 
Moore, D. — Observations on some plants considei-ed by M. De CandoUe to 

be Alien and introduced into Britain. Also notices of some new 

species to the Irish Flora, with additional habitats of others 

hitherto supposed to be rare. Nat. Hist. Eev., \\., 1859. 
O'Meara, E. — Notes on the encysted condition of Diatoma \Tilgare. Xat. 

Hist. Rev., vi, 1859. 
McParlax, J. — Statistical Survey of the County of Sligo. 1802. 
Sawers, W. — On the Occurrence of Desmarestia Dresnayi on the Coast of 

Ireland. Phytologist, v., 1854. 
SNfiTH, C. — The Ancient and Present State of the County and City of Wat«r- 

ford. 1746. 
The -Vntient and Present State of the County and City of Cork. 1750. 
Warburtos, J., J. WniTKLAW, and E. Walsh. — History of the City of 

DubUn. 1818. 
West, W., and G. S. We-ST.— Monograph of the British Desmidiaceae, 

vol. iii., 1908. 
The British Freshwater Phytoplankton, with special reference to the 

Desmid-Plankton and the Distribution of British Desmids. Proc. 

Roy. Sea, Series B, 81, No. B 547, 1909. 


McCalla, W. — Algae Hibemicae, voL i., 1845 ; vol. iL, 1848. 

[ ^15 ] 




By ROWLAND SOUTHERN, B.Sc, m.r.i.a. 

Read May 23. Ordered for Publication May 25. Published June 20, 1010. 

The material on which this paper is based has been collected in Dulilin Bay 
and the adjoining coast, roughly corresponding to the county of Dublin. The 
opportunity has been taken to collect all the previous records of this group 
falling within the district ; and some material collected by the Scientific Staff 
of the Fisheries Branch of the Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Instruction is also included. The greater part of the material was collected 
on dredging trips under the auspices of the Duljlin Marine Biological Com- 
mittee,' during the years 1907 and 1908, with the aid of grants from the 
Fauna and Flora Committee of the Royal Irish Academy. On several 
occasions a small sailing trawler was used for dredging, usually between 
Dalkey Island and the Burford Bank. A great deal of dredging was also 
done from a rowing-boat in Malahide Inlet, Dalkey Sound, &c.; and much the 
greater part of the material was taken inside the three-mile limit. The 
greatest depth from which specimens were obtained was Lambay Deep, where 
several hauls were taken by the Fisheries' cruiser in 40-60 fathoms. There 
is considerable variety of habitat in the littoral region, from the muddy Hats 
near the mouth of the Lifi'ey to the rocky shores of Howth. Most of the 
shore-collecting was done at Sandymount and Howth. 

In this paper the division Annelida is uuderstood as including the 
Archiannelida, or primitive segmented worms— the Polychaeta, Oligochaeta 
Gephyrea, and Hirudinea. The study of these groups in this district has a 
short and moderu history. In the " Guide to the County of Dublin," pub- 
lished for the 1878 meeting of the British Association in DubUn, not a single 
worm is included in the faunistic lists. In his " Preliminary Report on the 
Fauna of Dublin Bay,"- Professor Haddon stated that he had collected over 
two dozen species of Annelids in the Bay, and that he was engaged in working 
them out; but unfortunately nothing more has been published concerning 

' Irish Naturalist, 1908, vol. xvii., p. 105 ; vol. xviii., p. IGG. 
^Proc. Roy. Irish Academy (ISSS), vol. iv., p. 520. 

K.I.A. PROC, VOL. X.WIII., SKCT. B. [2 G] 


Proceerlincjs of the Royal Irish Academy. 

In the last fifteen years a number of f5eattered records have been pnb- 
lished, and these are collected and included in this paper. A list of these 
records and their place of publication is given under each group. 

The total number of species of Annelids found in the district is 115, made 
up of 2 sjiecies of Archiannelida, 94 species of Polychaeta, 14 species of 
Oligochaeta, 1 Leech, and 4 species of Gephyrea. Of these species G are new 
to the fauna of the British Isles. Tliese are : — Protodribts flavocapitatus 
(Uljanin); Ghiihea j^^'sHln (Dujardin) ; Autoli/tus mcgodon, de St.- Joseph; 
Aiito/i/tus Edwfirfhi, de St. -Joseph ; Spio mnrtinensis, Mesnil; Prionoqtio 
Stirnsttriqrii, Malmgren. Altogether .37 species are addeil to the Irisli fauna. 
These are marked with an asterisk in the following list of all tlie species 
found in the district. 



Diiii>[ihilii!« tncniutus, Jlarmer. 
rfotmhihis fliivooai>itntua {Uljanin).* 


Nerilla ant<>nnnta, O. Schmidt.* 

Exogoiic pcnimifcrn, Paqriiflcr/irr. 

Sphuorosyliis liystrix, Clapar'cdf. 

Pionosyllis hynlinn ( Griibe). 

Eiisyllis tiit)ifi'X, GoAff.* 

Odontosylli'i ctcnostoma, Claparidf.* 

O. Ribbn, Claparcde. 

Onibca rlavnta ( Ctaparedf).* 

G. pusill.i {Dujardin).* 

Ryllia nrmillari.s {Mi'iUer).* 

S. gracilis, Grube.* 

Autolytus piotus {Ehlfm). 

A. proliffr {MUller).* 

A. E«lwanlsi, de S/.-Joteph.* 

A. incROflon, dt St. -Toff ph.* 

A. longpfcricn.s, de St.-./oiieph.* 

A. chbicnsris, de St.-Joneph.* 

Myrianiila pinnipcra {Montagu). 

Castalia punctatJi {Mfillfr). 

C. fusca {Johntton). 

Mapalia poramiafa Mar. el liohr.* 

Aphroilitf aculcata, L. 

Lcpidonotiis sqiianntiiH {L.). 

L. clava, Montagu. 

Gattyana ciiTosa {Pa/las). 
Lnsisra floccosa {Sarigni/). 
L. Klizalicthac, McTnloih.* 
TTarmotlioe imbricata {L.). 
II. scfosi.ssima {Sarigni/).* 
IT. antilopi.'s, Mcintosh.* 
Kvamo impar {Johnnton). 
TTalosyilna Rclatinosa {M. Sarf). 
rolynoo Kfolopcndrina, Savigny. 
Sthcnc'lais boa {Johndon). 
S. limicola, Elilert. 
Phloc niinutn {Fabricius). 
Eubdia viridis (0. F. Miilln). 
E. bilincala {Johnston).* 
Eumirla sanguinca ( Oersted). 
Pliyllodore macidata {L.). 
P. Rrocnlanflica, Oernted. 
Tomoptcris bclgolandicn, Grreff. 
Nereis ciiltrifcra, Gruhe. 
N. Dumcrilii, Aud. et Edw. 
N. zonata, Malmgren.* 
N. pelagica, L. 
Ncreilepa.s fucata, Sarigny. 
Xe])hthy8 caeca {0. F. Mfiller). 
y. Hombcrgii, Lamarck. 
N. hy.ttricis, Jfcintosh. 
N.ciliata(0. /". Milller).* 
Opbrj-otrocba pnorilis, Clap, et Mecz. 

!^iiijiiii;i;n — The Murine Worms (Annelida) of Duhliii llnij. 

Glyccrii ulbu, Italhke. 
(jloniiidu miiculatii, Oersted. 
Si'oloplos MuUoi'i {Itallikc). 
Naidoncrcis qu;iilricuspid;i, 

Ncrine i/irratuliis {D. Chiaje). 
Scok'coleiiis vulgaris {J()Iinsto7i).* 
Sjno martinensis, MestiiL* 
Aonidcs oxycepliala (Sars).* 
Polydora ciliata {Johnston). 
P. flava, Glapar^de.* 
Pygospio elegans, Claparede.* 
Prionospio Steenstrupii, Malmgren.'''- 
Cirratulus cirratus {Miiller). 
C. tentaculatus {Montagtc). 
Dodecaceria conoharum, Oersted.'^' 
Lauice coucbilega {Pallas). 
Nicolea venustula {Montagu).* 
Thelepus setosus {Quatr.).''^' 
T. cincinnatus {Fair.). 
Capitella ca'pitata. {Fair.). 
Ampharete Griibei, Malmgren.* 
Pectinaria belgica {Pallas).* 
P. auricoma {Midler). 
Ophelia limaoina {Rathke).* 
Arenicola marina, L. 
A. ecaudata, Johnston. 
Scalibregma inflatuni, Rathhe. 
Stylaroides plumosus {Milller). 
S. giaiicus {Malmgren.* 
Flabelligera affiuis, M. Sars. 
Sabella pavoniua, Savigng. 
Dasyobonu bombyx {Dalgcll). 

Fabriciu sabulbi, Fhrbg.'--' 
ChonG infuudibuliformis {Kroijer).* 
Haplobraucbus afstuarinuB, Bonrne. 
Jasmiuoira t'logans, de Ht.-Joscph. 
Pomatocerus triiiueter {L.). 
Hydroidcs uorvugiea {Gunnerus).* 
Spirorbis borcalis, Daudin. 
S. spirillum, L. 
SabcUaria alveolata (Z.). 
S. spiuulosa, Leuclcart. 

Clitollio arcnai'ius {Ifiilkr). 
Tubifex Benodcni ( Udekem). 
T. costatus {Claparcde). 
T. Thompsoiii, Southern. 
Marionina scmifusca {Claparide). 
Lumbricillus litoreus {Hesse). 
L. verrucosus (C/«^arerf«). 
L. fossorum {Tauhcr). 
L. Pagenstuclieri {Ratz.). 
L. niger, Southern. 
L. Evansi, Soidhern. 
Encbytraeus albidus, Henla. 
E. sabulosus, Southern. 
E. lobatus Southern. 


Pontobdella muricata, L. 

Pctalostoma niinutiim {Keferstein). 
Phascolosoma vulgare {Rlainville). 
Pliascolion strombi {Mont.). 
Priapulus caudatus, Lamarck. 

It is interesting to compare this list with that of the similar list recently 
published for Plymouth,' a district where tlie Annelids have been very well 
worked. The same five groups of Annelids have a total number of 153 
species, including 144 Polychaetes, as against a total of 115 species, including 
93 I'olychaetes from Dublin Bay. The deficit in the Dublin Bay list is 
largely accounted for liy the almost complete absence of the southern or 
Lusitauian group, whicli is very prominent at Plymouth. For instance, in 

' Journal Mar. Biol. Assoc, N.S., vol. vii., 1904, p. 219. 


218 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academij. 

the family Eimicidae, the British species of which have mostly a southern 
distribution, there are 14 species recorded from Plymouth, and only one 
species from Dublin Bay. The Annelid fauna of Dublin Bay diflers markedly 
from that of the west coast of Ireland, which in its turn closely resembles 
that of PljTnouth. 

The chief geographical feature of the Annelid fauna of Dublin Bay is its 
generalized character. Most of the species have a wide distribution, and are 
to be found in many parts of the British Isles and the adjacent coasts of 
Europe. One of its most interesting components is a group of species which 
have a distinctly northern or Ai-ctic distribution. Of these the species 
Prionospio Slccnstrupii, Malnigi'en, ma}' be taken as an example. Its only 
Britisli habitat so far known is a little north of Balbriggan, where a single 
specimen was taken. It is a very inconspicuous little animal, and probably 
occurs on the west coast of Scotland. Elsewhere it is found in Norway, 
Iceland, Greenland, and Eastern Nortli America. Its distribution is t}^iical 
of a group of sjiecies wliich is found in the northern part of the Irish Sea, 
and which seldom extends so far south as Dublin. There is also a small 
group of species having a distinctly southern distribution. Of these Lepi- 
donotns clavfi, Mont., may l>e taken as a type. It is found on tlie west coast 
of Scotland, the west and north-cast coasts of Ireland, tiie English Channel, 
Medit«n-anean, and Canaries. It seems probable, from the distribution of 
this group round tlio west and north of Ireland, and frequently on the west 
of Scotland, that these southern species reached the Irish Sea round the north 
of Ireland, and not round the south. 

This generalized character of the Dublin Bay fauna may be easily accoimted 
for on geological considerations. The east coast of Ireland in comparatively 
I'ccent times did not exist, as Ireland was joined on to England. As the land 
gradually sank, and the Irish Sea was formed, tiie marine fauna immigrated 
into tlie new area, and in consequence we find the fauna composed chiefly of 
sjiecies which are common in tlie adjacent seas. Its arrival has probably 
l)een so recent that the processes of variation, selection, and extinction have 
not had suliicient time to dilVerentiate the fauna from that of the neighbouring 

Ill order to put these theories on a souiul basis, a much more complete 
knowledge of the distiibution of the littoral and shallow-water faiuia of the 
r.ritiah Isles is necessaiy, and especially that of the north and south coasts of 
Ireland, al>out whicli we know practically nothing. Another factor in the 
sriliitiiiii fif iliis ]irolileni would 1k> a knowledge of tlie prevailing currents in 
tlie Irish S«i, by means of wliich tlic pelagic larvae of tlie Annelids would be 
earned horn place to place. Many species have a very restricted local range ; 

SoiniiKHN — The Murine Worms {Annelida) of DubUn Baj. 219 

ami the eoutlitious which iletermme this are <.\\\\iv. unkiiowu. At present 
there appears to be some doubt as to whether the main current in the Irish 
Sea runs north or south. The position of tlie last land-connexion with Great 
Britain must ha^'e also been an important factor, as the faunas to the north 
aud south of it would arrive by different routes. 

No attempt has been made to give the full s}nronymy of the various 
species. Instead, a single reference is gi^•en to some standard monograph 
where the species is fully described and figured. 

Where a person's name foUows a locality, it refers to the investigator 
who made the record. 

After records of species collected by the Scientific Stall' of the Irish 
Fisheries Branch, the station number and other particidars are given in 
brackets. For fuller information refereirce must be made to the "List of 
Stations " published by the Fisheries Branch. 

Dinophilus taeniatus, Harmer. 

1889-90. Harmer, Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, N.S., vol. i., p. 1 ] 9. 

Sandycove. 28, iii, '09. In rock-pools amongst sea-weeds. 

This species is easily recognized, especially in its young stages. It has 
five body-segments, each with two rings of cilia, and the ovaries are bilolied. 
The epidermis is full of clear glands, and the colour is bright red. As usual, 
the species could only be found iu the spring months. It has only been 
recorded from the British Isles. 

Gctvcral DistrihvMon. —British Isles (Plymouth, Valencia, Galway Bay). 

Protodi'ilus flavocapitatus (Uljanin). 

1908. Pierantoni. Fauna u. flora des Golfes von Neapel, vol. xxxi., 
Protodrilus, p. 167. 

This species, which is the first of its genus to be recorded from Ireland, 
was found in rock-pools at Malahide iu February, 1908. The specimens were 
all immature, and had been preserved and mounted in balsam some months 
before I tried to determine the species ; so I sent them to Professor Pier- 
antoni, who has recently published an elaborate monograph on the group (tom. 
cit.). He informed me that they belonged to the species Protodrilus Jiavo- 
«yjJM«s (Uljanin), a species only previouisly found at Sebastopol and Naples. 
They agree with this species in having rings of cilia segmentally arranged, in 
having two ventral eyes in the adult stage, and in having two caudal lobes. 
They were 4-6 mm. long. At the tip of the prostomium there was a conspi- 
cuous bunch of cilia. Cilia are scattered all over the body, as well as in 

^20 Proceedings of the Roijdl Irish Acadoiuj. 

segmentally arranged liugs. The svoims arc ilesh-coloui-ed. The lilood is 
colourless, and the blind stomach is bright red. The dorsal vessel rises 
from a sinus or plexus round the anterior end of the intestine, as iu the 

General Distribution. — Sebastopol ; Gulf of Naples. 


1 849. Bali,, II. — Report, British Association. Records the capture of Brijurca 
ncolojhiulra (Toino/itcris hhjolarulicn, Greeft") in Dublin Bay by 
Dr. Corrigan. This is the lirst record of a Polychactc in the Dublin 

1856. Thompson, W. — The Natural History of Ireland, vol. iv. The fol- 
lowing I'olychaeta are recorded from this district: — CirratidiLS 
nudiuKi, Joliustou (=C. cirradis, Miillor). Sjnrorhis (jra7mlatus,lj. 
(sp. ?). Scrpida vcrmiciUa ris, Jlout. (sp. ? recorded in Capt. Brown's 
Irish Testacea). Serjmla anUortits (sp. ? Brown's MSS. lUus., PI. 2, 
Dublin Coast). " Hairy bait." Dalkey (A^crcih^ms ficcata, Saviguy). 

1883. BouitNE, G. — Quart. Journ. Micr. Soc, xxiii., p. 169. Records 

IJ(ij)iobrnnfhiis ar.'ilnariniui, n. sp., from the mud at the mouth of 
the River Lilley. 

1884. Mackintosh, H. W. — Report on Irish Zoophytes, &c., P roc. Roy. Irish 

Academy, \ul. iv., p. 57. liecords following species from off Bray. 

Head : — Aphrodite actdcata. PoUjnoc squamata (= Lcpidonotiis squa- 

mnltis). Ncphlhys margaritacca (sp. ?). Tcrcbclla nied^im (sp. ?)• 

Si-rpuln triqiu'tra (PonuUoccros Iriquctcr). Sjnrorbis communis. 
1894. DUEKDEN, J. E. — Notes on the Marine Invertebrates of Hush. Irish 

Naturalist, vol. iii., p. 232. Records Phyllodocc viridis, L. (=Eidalia 

1896., W. C— Notes on the Irish Annelids in the Museum of 

Science and Art, Dublin. No. 1. .Sci. Prw. Roy. Dublin Soc, vol. 

viii. (N.S.), Pt. v.. No. 50, p. 399. Records the followuig species : — 

Aphrodite nciilcaia, L. Lrjndonotus sqnamaiua, L. Nychia drrosa. 

Pall (= Gnttynnti cirrosa). Lar/iscn propinq)'", Malm. (= L. Jloccosa). 

Harmothoe indyrimta, L. Ev<imc impar, Johnston. Polynoc scolo- 

pcndrina, Sav. Sthcnelais bon, Johnston. 
1907. Wilson, Grkgo. — Polychaeta of Lambay. Inah Naturalist, vol. xvi., 

p. 67. Records the following species : — Nrrris cuUri/crn, Gr. 

Harmothoe imbricata, L. Lpidonotus squamatus, L. Sthenelais 

boa, Johnston. 

SotrriTKK'N — The. Marine Worms (Aniic/ii/a) oj Dublin liutj. 221 

1908. McIntosh, W. G. — Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory. No. 
xxix. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), vol. i., p. ."^SG. Iteeords a ]) 
stage of Arcnicola ecauclnta from Saltliill. 

1908. Southern, R. — Section " Polychaeta " in the "Handbook to the City of 
Dublin," prepared for the meeting of the British Association in 
Dublin, 1908, p. 196. Following species recorded: — Lcpidonotus 
sqiiamatus, L. NycMa cirrosa, Pallas (= Gattyana cirrosa). Harrao- 
tlioii imhricata (L.). Evarne imimr (Johnston). Lagisca floccosa, 
Pallas. Polynoc scohpcndrina (Sav.). Sthenelais hoa (Johnston). 
Phyllodoec viridis (L.) = Eidcdia viridis(L.). JVcrri/iyas fnmtn (Sav.). 
Tomoptcris hchjolandica, Greeff. Scoloplos rmniger (Miill.) = *S'. Milllcri 
(Eathke). Ncrine coniocepliala, Johnst. = N. cirratulus (D. Chiaje). 
Thdepus cincinnatus (Fahr.). Lanice concMlcga (Pallas). CapitcUa 
capitata (Fabr.). Pectinarin auricoma (Miiller). Dasyclione Ijomhyx 
(DalyeU). Haplohranchus acstuarinus, Bonrne. 

1900. AsHWOKTH, J. H. — " Arenicolidae and Scalibregmidae," "Fisheries, 
Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908, ii. [1909], records Arcnicola marina (L.). 

1910. McIntosh, W. C.— Note on Irish Annelids in the National Museum, 
Dublin. No. ii. Irish Naturalist, vol. xix., p. 95. Eecords the following 
species from Dublin district : — Ncphthys caeca (0. F. Miiller). iV. 
hystricis, McI. Eulalia viridis, 0. F. Miiller. Eumidct sawjuinca, 
Oei'sted. OdontosyUis yihla, Clapar6de. Scoloplos armiger, 0. F. 
Miiller (= ,S'. Bndkri). 

1908-9. Southern, Pu — Dublin Microscopical Club. Following species, found 
in the Dublin district, exhibited : — Dnsychonc homhyx (Dal.), Irish 
Naturalist, xvii., p. 40. Pcctinaricc auricoma (Mull.), il>id., xvii., p. 63 ; 
Exofjonc (jcnimifcra, Pag., ibid., xviii., p. 45. Zanicc conchi/eyn (Pall), 
ibid., xviii., p. 252. 
1909. COLGAN, N. — Dublin Marine Biological Committee Eeport for 1908. 
Irish Naturalist, xviii, p. 167. Eecords Pcctimiria avricoiiui (Miill.). 

Incertae Sedis. 
Nerilla antennata, 0. Schmidt. 

1 863. Claparede. Beobachtungen, &c., p. 48. 

Saudycove shore, 28, iii, '09. 

The systematic position of this curious little Polychaete has not yet been 
satisfactorily determined. It is sometimes placed with tlie Syllidae, and 
sometimes a special family, the Nerillidae, is created for it. 

General Distribution. — Plymouth ; Faroii ; Heligoland : Kiel ; France. 

222 Proceedings of the Rm/al Irish Acadenifi. 

Exogone gemmifera, Pageustecher. 

1908. Mcintosh. A Monograph of the British Annelids, vol. ii, Part i, 
page 151. 

Dalkey Sound, 6, vi, 1885. 2 with 12 pairs of young attached to ventral 

10 miles east of Bailey Light (S. 55:^—16, \iu, '07. Trawl, 41-52 

Malahidc Inlet. 11, xi, 'OS. Dredge, 2 fms. 

This species was obtained in large numbers at Malahide. Several females 
were found having embrj-os in various stages of development attached to the 
body, near the parapodia. It was e.xhibitetl to the Dublin Microscopical 
Club, December 9th, 1908.' This species has usually been taken between 
tide-marks ; but it evidently lives also in deeper water, as it was found in 
Lambay Deep in 41-52 fathoms. 

Gcntral DUiribution. — Great Britain (St. Andrews, Lochmaddy, Torquay) ; 
France; Algiers; Madeira. 

Sphaerosyllis hystrix, Clapar^e. 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 156. 

Shennick's Island, Skeniea, 22, \'ii, '07. 

Malahide Inlet, 27, vii, '08 ; also 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

This 6})ecies occurs plentifully in 2 fathoms at Malahide. A young 
individual, with only 10 seta-bearing segments, was found in July. In 
November I found a male bud with 17 segments, but without swimming 
bristles. Only a single pair of large ventrally placed eyes were present, and 
proboscis and anal cirri were absent. In the same haul of the dredge another 
budding fonu was found, with sperm sacs b(^nning at the fifth setigerous 

Gmeriil i>is^rt^/um.— British Isles ; France ; North Sea ; Mediterranean; 

Gmbea clavata (Clap.). 

1886. de Saint-Ioseph. Annalea des Sc. Nat. Zool. (7). torn, i, p. 200. 
Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fmis. 

This species was abundant at Malahide. Behind the head, and on a level 
with the tentacular cirri, are a pair of conspicuous ciliated grooves, which do 

' Irub Natanlist, 1909, to), zriii., p. Ai. 

Souiiii KN — The M(trine Wortm {AnncliiJn) of Dnhliu Bni/. 2"2M 

not seem to have been obseiveil by previous investigators. The skin has 
dorsally a large niunber of small shining glands. 

General Distrihution. — South of England (IVirijuay); France; Atlantic; 
Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

Grubea pusilla (Dujavdin). 

1886. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 203. 

Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

This species was taken with the previous one. It has not been recorded 
hitherto from the British Isles. It is characterized by the truncated dorsal 
cirri, which are swollen in the middle. 

Gaural Distribution. — FieiucQ I Mediterranean; Madeira. 

Eusyllis tubifex, Gosse. 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 173. 

Dredged off' the Bailey Light, 7, ix, '07. 

Malahide Inlet, 17, vi, '08 ; also 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

This species emits a brilliant green phosphorescence when irritated. 

Mcintosh separates this species from E. Bhmstrandi, Mgn. ; but I am 
unable to detect any differences, either in tlie published descriptions and 
figures or in specimens of the two species named by him. Moreover, 
although E. fiihife-v has been found on the English side of the Cliannel, 
all the records on the north coast of France have been refeiTed to E. 

General Distributio7i. — Great Britain ; Madeira ; Canada. 

Odontosyllis gibba, Claparede. 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 183. 

Kingstown Harbour (Mcintosh, tom. cit.). 

Dalkey Sound, April, 1907. Dredge, G-8 fms. 

Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

General Distrihution. — British Isles ; France ; Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

Odontosyllis ctenostoma, Claparede. 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 182. 
Salthill, 21, viii, 1883. 
Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, '08. Dredge. 2 fms. 
Bullock Harbour, Dalkey, 2, ii, '09. 

Ocncrnl Distrihution. — This appears to be a southern form. It has only 
been recorded from the English Cliannel, Mediterranean, and Madeira. 


224 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academif. 

Pionosyllis hyalina (Grube). 
1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 166. 
Howth, south shore. 6, x, 09. 

One young specimen of this species, with seventeen setigeroiTS segments, 
was obtained. 

General Distribution. — Plymouth ; Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

Syllis armillaris (Miiller). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 188. 

Two miles south-east of Bailey Light 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09. In crevices of the schist. 
Gnu ml Distribution. — British Isles ; France; Madeira; Faroe; Norway; 
Sweden ; Greenland ; Behrings Sea. 

Syllis gracilis, Grube. 

190S. Mcintosh. Tom. cit. p. 203. 

Lambay. 1906; Seapoint shore, 26, v, '07; Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09. 
Several buds of the " loida " type were found at Howth. 
Grntml Distribution. — Great Britain ; France ; Madeira ; Mediterranean ; 
Black Sea ; Red Sea ; Virginia ; Ceylon ; West Indies. 

Autol3rtns pictus (Ehlers). 

190S. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 211. 

Malahide Inlet, 27, \-ii, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

The asexual nurse-stock was dredged at Malahide, and exhibited to the 
Dublin Microscopical Club.' 

Gtncral Distribution. — Great Britain ; France ; Mediterranean ; White 
Sea; Madeira. 

(?) AutolytuB prolifer (0. F. Miiller). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 21.'.. 

Malahide Inlet, 17, y\, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

One specimen, a female bud, was found, which agreed exactly in 
colouring with that figured by Mcintosh (;tom. cit., pi. xlLx, fig. 7). Its 
colouring is very like that of the nurse-stock of A. pictus; and I am inclined 
to think that it belongs to the latter species. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; North Sea ; Greenland ; Norway ; 
Atlantic ; Mediterranean ; Madeira ; South Africa. 

' " Iiuh XatunJirt," 1908, toI. vii, p. 2«2. 

SotniiKKN — The Marine Worms [Aniudidih) <if Ihihliu Ba/j. 225 

Autolytus megodon, do Saint- Joseph. 

1886. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 240. 

A single specimen was taken in the dredge, at Malahide Inlet, in 2 fnis. 
of water in August, 1907. It agrees closely with the brief description 
given by de Saint- Joseph. 

Starting just behind the head, in the median line, are two conspicuous 
brown bands which curve outwards and run along the body just above the 
parapodia. The proboscis is terminated by a crown of nine large teeth 
(de Saint- Joseph says ten). The proveuticulus is three times as long as 
broad, and has fifty-five rows of glands. The dorsal cirri are short. Behind 
the setae there is a broad lobe. The setae are rather short and thick, and 
the end of the shaft is conspicuously swollen and hispid. The dorsal finely 
pointed seta is just as de Saint-Joseph figures it. This species has 
apparently not been recorded since it was originally described. 

Geiieral Distribution. — Dinard, north of France. 

Autolytus Edwardsi, de Saint-Joseph. 

1886. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 237. 
Malahide Inlet. 11, xi, '08; also o, vii, '09. Dredge, 2 fms. 
This species is characterized by the presence of twenty-four equal 
teeth on the proboscis. 

General Distribution. — North of France. 

Autolytus ehbiensis, de Saint-Joseph. 

1886. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 228. 
Dredged off the Bailey Light, 7, ix, '07. 

This species is distinguished by the presence of thirty small equal teeth 
at the entrance of the proboscis. 

General Distribution. — Torquay ; France. 

Autolytus longeferiens, de Saint-Joseph. 

1886. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 217. 

Dalkey Sound. April, 1907. Dredge, 6 fms. 

This species is characterized by the structure of the proboscis, which is 
extremely long, and is thrown into numerous folds. It has a crown 
of teeth, ten of which are large, and are separated from each oilier 
by two or three smaller ones. The dorsal cirri are alternately long and 
short. De Saint-Joseph states that in his specimens the anterior end is 

marked by three longitudinal red lines. These are absent in the Dublin 

[2 3-2] 

220 Proceedings of tin; Roijal Irish Acadeiu//. 

Bay specimens. There are, however, iu each segment two transverse 
brown bands, which the microscope shows to be formed by small brown 
papillae on the epidermis. 

This species is very close to the A. brachi/cepJuda described by 
Marnezeller,' which has, however, only a short proboscis. 

General Distribution. — Torquay ; Coast of France. 

Myrianida pinnigera (Montagu). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 229. 
Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

A single specimen of this well-marked species was foimd on an old oyster- 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; France ; Madeira. 


Castalia punctata (0. Y. Miiller). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 121. 

Two miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

Ofl' north of Howth, 7, ix, '07. Dredge, 15 fms. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Norway ; Iceland ; North Sea. 

Castalia fusca (Johnston). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 127. 
Lambay, April, 1906. 

Howth, north shore, in rock-pools, 14, vi, '08. 
Malaliide Inlet, 27, vii, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

Gctt'ial Distribution. — British Isles ; France ; Mediterranean. In contrast 
wth the last species, this appears Uj be a southern form. 

Magalia perarmata. Marion antl Bobretzsky. 

190?<. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 136. 

Malahide Inlet, 30, v, '08. Dredge, 2 fm.s. 

General DistribxUion. — Plymouth ; Torquay ; Marseilles ; North of France ; 
Madeira. .Judging from the scarcity of records, this sj^ecies ap](cai-s to be 
rare. This is the fii^t Irish record, though I have found it at several places 
on the west coast. 

' l-'Tl. Ziii Kviiiiii...-- .... .\„,ujn vij.n .villi, lie, 11. .■3iu.ilcri.Aknd. Wiw Bd. Ixbt. I .\Uh., 

r. 51. 

SoUTiuoRN — The Marine Worms [Annelida) of Dublin Baij. 227 

Aphrodite aculeata, L. 

1900. Mcintosh. A Monograph of the British Annelids, vol. i, Part ii, 
p. 247. 

Ofi'Howth (Mcintosh). 

On the Burford Bank, 13, vii, '07. Drctlge, 13 fms. 

Ofi' Dalkey Island. 

Lambay Deep (S. 224. 22, vi, '04. Trawl, 44 fms.). 

General distribution. — British Isles ; Atlantic ; Mediterranean ; Iceland ; 
Eed Sea ; North America. 

Lepidonotus squamatus (L.). 
1900. Mackintosh. Tom. cit., p. 274. 

This species is very common, extending from the littoral zone to 60 
fathoms in Lambay Deep. 

General Distrihition. — British Isles ; Greenland ; Iceland ; Atlantic. 

Lepidonotus clava, Montagu. 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 280. 

Lambay, April, 1906. 

This species has a southern and western distribution. It is common on 
the west coast of Ireland and south coast of England, and goes as far north 
as the west coast of Scotland. It was somewhat surprising therefore to find 
it in this district. Only a single specimen was found. 

General Distribution. — West coasts of Ireland and Scotland ; English 
Channel ; Mediterranean ; Canaries. 

Gattyana cirrosa (PaUas). 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 285. 

Dalkey Sound, 1892 (Mcintosh). 

Two miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 

General Distribution. — A northern species living on the shores of the 
British Isles, Northern Europe, Spitzbergen, Iceland, Greenland, and Eastern 
North America. 

Lagisca floccosa (Savigny). 
1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 298. 
Malahide, 1886 (McI.). 

3 miles south of Nose of Lambay (S. 533, 9, viii,'07. Trawl, lOi-20 fms.). 
4i miles east of Kingstown (S. 554, 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 14-19 fms. In 

228 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Bncdnium shells, together with Nereilepas fucata and Eujiagurus 

Malahide Inlet, 24, \ui, '07. Dredge, 2 fms. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Northern Europe ; Greenland ; 
Eastern Canada ; Madeira. 

Lag^isca Elizabethae, Mcintosh. 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 303. 

Lambay, April, 1906 ; Seapoint, May, 1907. 

Malahide Inlet, 30, v, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

General IHstribiUion. — Mcintosh described this species from a single 
specimen found at St. Andrews ; and it has not since been recorded. It 
appears to be fairly common on the Irish coasts, especially on the west. 

Harmothoe imbricata (L). 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 314. 

One of the commonest littoral Polychaetes in Ireland. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Europe ; Mediterranean ; Eastern 
North America ; Siberia ; Japan ; Greenland ; Iceland ; Spitzbergen ; 

Harmothoe setosissima (Savigny). 

1909. Mcintosh. Tom. uit., p. 345. 

10 miles east of Bailey Light (S. 553, 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 41-52 fms. 

Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 

This species has not previously been recorded from Irish waters. 

General Distribution. — Great Britain ; Scandinavia ; Eastern Atlantic ; 

Harmothoe antilopis, Mcintosh. 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 334. 

13 miles E.8.E. of Lambay (S. 236, 29, vi, '04. Trawl, 39-52 fms.). 

This species has not previously been recorded from Irish waters. 

General DistribtUion. — Scotland ; Atlantic ; Mediterranean. 

Evarne impar (Johnston). 
1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 353. 
Salthill and Dalkey (McL). 
Dalkey Sound, April, 1907. Dredge, 7-9 fms. 
2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Kingstown— Dalkey, 20, vii, "07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
North Bull ; thrown up during a gale. 

General DislrihiUion. — British Isles ; Iceland ; European and American 
shores of Atlantio. 

SoUTHKUN — The Marine Worms [Annelifln) of DMin Baij. 229 

Halosydna gelatinosa (M. Sars). 
1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 384. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
General Distribution. — Britisli Isles; European shoves ; Madeira. 

Polynoe scolopendrina, Savigny. 
1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 389. 
Dallvey (McI.). 

Dalkoy Sound, April, 1907. Dredge, 6 fms. 
Malahide Inlet, 17, vi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
4^ miles east of Kingstown (S. 554, 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 14-19 fms.). 
Howth ; south shore between tide-marks. Commensual with TerebeUid 
worm Thclepus sctosus (Quat.). 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Scandinavia ; France; Mediterranean. 

Sthenelais boa (Johnston). 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 408. 

Bray Head, 23 fms., 1892, and Malahide, 1886 (McL). Lambay (Wilson). 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 

Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Eastern Atlantic ; Iceland ; Madeira ; 

Sthenelais limicola, Ehlers. 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 417. 

Off the Bailey Light. 7, Lx, '07. Dredge, 7 fms. 

General Distribution. — British Isles; Norway; Mediterranean; North 

Phloe minuta (Fabricius). 

1900. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 437. 

Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, 'OS. Dredge, 2 fms. 

Howth; south shore, 6, x, '09 ; north shore, 10, x, '09. 

General Distribtdion. — British Isles ; eastern and western shores of tlie 

Eulalia bilineata (Johnston). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 50. 

Dalkey Sound, April, 1907; also 14, xii, '07. Dredge, G-8 fms. 

Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

General Distribution. — Scotland ; Guernsey ; Finmark ; Canaries. 

230 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academp. 

Eulalia viridis (0. F. Miiller). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 55. 

Riish (Duerdon). 

Salthill (McI.). 

Shennick's Island, Skerries, 22, \-ii, '07. 

Malahide Inlet, 17, \i, 'OS. Dredge, 2 fms. 

Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09. 

Malahide, Febniary, 1910. 

Var. omata, de St-Joseph. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

Vnr. aurea, Gravier. 

Dalkey Sound, 14, xii, '07. Dredge, 8 fms. 

The species E. ornata, de Bt.-Joseph, and E. aurca, Gra\-ier, are regarded 
hy Mcintosh, with gootl reason, as only colour varieties of E. rh'idis. 
FoiTus closely resembling in colour pattern the figures given by Mclntosli 
have been found in Dublin Bay. 

General Distribution. — Common round the British Isles. Greenland ; 
Iceland; Faroe; Atlantic; Mediterranean; South Afric<a; Beh rings Sea. 

Eumida sanguinea (0er8t<?d). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 66. 
Salthill (McI.). 

3 miles south of Lambay Deep (S. 127, 19, v, '03. Townet on Trawl, 31-32 

Malahide Inlet, 17. \i, '08, also 11, xi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 
Gtnfifil Dittrilmtion. — British Isles; Iceland; Norway; Baltic; Nortli 
Sea; France; Metliterranean. 

Phyllodoce groenlandica. Oersted. 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit, p. 86. 

13 miles E.S.E. of Lambay (8. 236, 29, vi, "04. Townet on Trawl, 39-52 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, x-ii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

General Distribution. — A northern form. British Isles ; North Sea : 
Greenland; Spitzbergen ; Nova Zembla ; Scanflina\'ia ; Silieria ; Behrings 
Sea ; North A merica. 

SournERN — The Marina Worms {Amicliild.) af Dithlni lldij. 231 

Phyllodoce maculata (Jj.). 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 89. 

Salthill, 20, viii, '81 ; also 21, viii, '88. 

2 miles S.E. of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 2 fms. 

Off north of Howth, 7, ix, '07. Dredge, 1 5 fms. 

Malahide Inlet, 17, vi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

Sandymount Strand, in sand. 

General Bistrihtdion. — British Isles ; North Sea; Iceland; Norway. 

Tomopteris helgolandica, Greelf. 

1 900. Apstein. Die Alciopideu uiid Tomopteriden der Plankton- 
Expedition, Kiel, p. 38. 

First recorded by E. Ball, in Dublin Bay {vide Biljliography). In the 
last few years this species has l^een frequently taken in various parts of the 
district by the Scientific Staff of the Irish Fisheries Branch. For further 
particulars reference must be made to their ' List of Stations.' (S. 96, 
15 specimens. S. 126, 1 sp. S. 196, 1 sp. S. 204, 2 sp. S. 235, 10 sp. 
S. 252, 1 sp. S. 287, 9 sp. S. 3.37, 3 sp. S. K. 460, 28 sp.) 

The seasonal distribution of this species in Irish waters has recently 
been investigated, and an account will shortly be published in the " Scientific 
Investigations " of the Fisheries Branch. 

General Distribution. — Atlantic ; Mediterranean. 


Nereis cultrifera, Grube. 

1868. Ehlers. Die Borstenwiirmer, p. 461. 
Malahide and Bray (McL). 
Lambay (Wilson). 

Howth. South shore, 6, x, '09. North shore, 10, x, '09. 
General Distribution. — British Isles ; European shores ; Mediterranean ; 

Nereis Dumerilii, And. et Edwanls. 

1868. Ehlers. Tom. cit., p. 535. 

Common in all parts of the district, ranging from between lido-marks to 
20 fathoms. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Europe ; Mediterranean ; Madeira ; 

Eastern North America ; Japan. 

E.I.A. I'ROC, VOL. XXVIII., SECT. 15. [2 /] 

'3.32 Proceedincfs of the Royal L-ish Acndemij. 

Nereis pelagica, L. 
1868. Ehlers. Tom. cit., p. 511. 

Common in all parts of the district, ranging from between tide-marks to 
20 fathoms. 

Gcntral Distribution. — British Isles ; shores of Xorth Atlantic ; Japan ; 
Spitzbergen ; Nova Zembla. 

Nereis zonata, Malmgreu. 

1867. Malmgren, Annulata Polychaeta, p. 46. 
Portmarnock Strand, 27, i, '07- 

10 miles east of BaUey Light (S. 553, 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 41-52 fms.). 

This species has not been previously recorded from the shores of the 
British Isles. It was, however, taken by the German Deep Sea Expedition 
.some miles oH" llie north-east coast of Scotland.' 

Gmrm! Didi-Umtion. — Boulogne; Xorth Sea ; Spitzbergen ; Siberia; Nova 
Zembla ; Greenland ; Eastern North America, 

Nereilepas fucata, Savigny. 

1868. Ehlers. Tom. cit., p. 546. 

This species is common in a few fathoms (in Lambay Deep, at 38 fathoms) 
in all {Mirts of the di.strict, and is occasionally found between tide-marks. 
Almost every Buccinium shell that is inhabited by a hermit-crab also contains 
this worm, coiled in the upper whorls of the sliell. According to Thompson 
(1856, p. 433), the Dalkoy lishenucn found tliis worm, whicli they call 
" Hair}- Bait," a most attractive l)ait for fishing. 

Gnui-dl DijJ rilitUioit. — British lales; North Sea; France; North America. 

Nephthys caeca (U. F. Miiller). 
1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 8. 
Sal thill and Malahide (Mcintosh). 

Genfral Distribution. — Common in British Isles ; Europe ; Iceland ; Green- 
land ; east and west coasts of North AmericfL 

Var. ciliata. 

1908. Mackintosh. Tom. cit, p. 13. 

Malahide, 7, iii, '10. A single specimen, between tide-marks. This 
specimen closely resembles the variety found by Mcintosh in May and 
June at St. Andrews and Montrose. 

■ 190S. Ehlers. Die Bodenainigen Anneliden der deutschen Tiefsec-Expedition, p. 68. 

SoirriiKKN - The 3Iurinc Wonnti [Annelida) ol Dublin l>ni). 'ZW-h 

Nephthys Hombergii, Laiuaiuk. 

1908. McIuLosh. Tom. cit., p. 17. 

Salthill (Mcliilosh). 

Sandymount Strand, common at all seasons. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. iJrcdge, lo-lS fms. 

This is the commonest species of Nephthys in the district. It is exten- 
sively used by liue-fishermen as bait, and is known by them as the " herring- 
bone worm." 

Goicral Distribution. — British Isles ; Europe ; Nova Zembla ; Baltic Sea ; 
Mediterranean; Madeira. 

Nephthys ciliata (0. F. Miiller). 

190S. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 23. 
Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
Off the Bailey Light, 7, ix, '07. Dredge, 7 fms. 
This species has not been previously recorded from Ireland. 
General Distribution. — Scotland; widely distributed over the shores of the 
North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. 

Nephthys hystricis, Mcintosh. 

1908. Mcintosh. Tom. cit., p. 27. 
Malahide, 1885 (Mcintosh). 

General Distribution. — Atlantic, usually at considerable depths ; Mediter- 

Ophryotrocha puerilis, Clap, et Mecz. 

1888. de Saint-Joseph. Ann. des Sc. Nat. Zool. (7), torn, v., p. 240. 

Seapoint shore, 26, v, '07. 

Sandycove shore, 28, iii, '09. 

General Distributioji. — British Isles ; English Channel ; Mediterranean. 


Glycera alba, Eathke. 

1867. Malmgren. Tom. cit., p. 71. 
Dalkey (McL). 
Malahide shore, 7, iii, '10. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; North Sea ; Atlantic ; Mediter- 
ranean ; Eastern North America. 

[2 12] 

234 Prucccdiugs of liic Roijal Irish Acaileimj. 

Gouiada maculata, Oersted. 

1SG8. Elders. Tom. cit., p. 70-4. 

2 uides south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

A single specimen of this worm was taken in the dredge. 

Gmwral Bistribntion. — British Isles ; Scandinavia ; Spain ; Portugal ; North 
Sea; Eastern North America. 

Scoloplos Miilleri (Italhke). 

1898. de Saint-Joseph. Ann. ScL Nat. Zool. (8), T. v., p. 356. 

Malahide (McI.). 

Sand}Tnount Strand. 

This woim is veiy abundant in the sand at Sandymouut. During the 
breeding season its eggs, enclosed in a gelatinous mass which is anchored to 
the sand by a thread, are qiute a conspicuous feature. 

General Didrihution. — British Isles; Europe; Siberia; Eastern North 
America. This species has been frequently confused with the Arctic 
Scoloplos armigci- (0. F. Miiller). 

Naidonereis quadricuspida, Fabr. 

1843. Oei-stcd. Gronlaud's Annulate Doreibi-auchiata, p. 200. 

Sandycove shore, 28, iii, '09. 

This species i.s apparently a member of the northern group. In the 
specimens I obtained the head was considerably broader than is shown in 
Mcintosh's figiirea,' and the branchiae Ijegin on the fifth parapodium, not 
on the sixth, as he states. The anal segment bears four cirri, equal in length 
to the width of the posterior part of the body. In all these points the 
Sandycove specimens agree with those described by Webster and Benedict,' 
from Eastport, Maine. 

Gftural Diitributioii. — Ixxshmaddy, North Uist ; Iceland ; Greenland ; 
Eastern North America. 

Family Spionidae. 
Nerine cirratulus (Del. Chiaje). 
1896. Mesnil. BuU. Sci. France et Belg., xxix, p. 152. 
Poolbeg breakwater ; common under stones and in sand. 
Malahide, 23, ii, '08. 

G'tit ml Distribution. — Great Britain ; North Sea ; France; Meditenauean ; 
Easteni North Auieriai, 

< Monog. Briiiali Aniicliils, vul. ii, Part i, Plate Ixv, fig. 6. 
' C. S Commiaaion of Fisheries, 1885, xiii. (1887), p. 738. 

Si)Ui'iiiiKN — 'i'lic Marine iVuniia {Annelida) nf Duldin Baif. 2''J5 

Scolecolepis vulgaris (Johustoii). 
1896. Mesuil. Tom. cit., p. lo8. 
Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09 ; north shore, 10, x, '09. 
Common in the sandy patches round Howth Head. 
General Distribution. — Great Britain ; North Sea; France ; Mediterranean; 
Eastern North America. 

Spio martinensis, Mesuil. 

1896. Mesuil. Tom. cit., p. 122. 

Several fragments of a Spio found between tide-marks on Saudymount 
Strand differ from any recorded British species, and may be provisionally 
referred to S. martinensis, which Mesuil found on the coasts of France. 
Mesuil's species differs from the widespread S. filicornis, Fabricius, in 
having a rounded prostomium, no occipital tentacle, and in several other 
points which are more apparent than real. In the structure of the head the 
Saudymount specimens agree with aS'. martinensis. There are four distinct 
eyes, the anterior pair being reuiform, and further apart than the posterior 
pair, which are cii'cular. Between each lateral pair there is a patch of 
pigment formed of small and black grains, whicli under low magnification has 
the appearance of a third pair of eyes. Another character which distinguishes 
these specimens from S. martinensis is the structure of the ventral hooks, 
the upper fang of which is minutely bifid at the tip. The setae are frequently 
coated with red deposit, and when this deposit is only present in a small 
quantity, the setae have the punctuated appearance which shows in Mesnil's 
figures (torn, cit., PI. vii., figs. 11, 12, &c.), and which Mcintosh' regards as 
an important distinction from S. fiHcornis. 

Aonides oxycephala (Sars). 
1896. Mesuil. Tom. cit., p. 242. 
Balscaddon Bay, Howth. October, 1909. 
This species has not previously been recorded from Ireland. 
General Distribution. — Plymouth ; Norway ; France. 

Pygospio elegans, Claparede. 

1863. Claparede. Beobachtungen, &c., p. 37. 

Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09. In slender sandy tubes, massed in fissures 
of the schist. 

Sandymount Strand, November, 1909. In sandy tubes in the sand. 
General Distribution. — Great Britain ; France ; Eastern North America. 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), vol. iii, p. 163. 

236 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Prionospio Steenstrupi, Malmgreu. 

1867. Malmgren, Auuulata Polychaeta, p. 93. 

5 mUes N.N.E. of Balbiiggan (S. 252. 20, ii, '05. Townet on trawl, 11-13 

A single small and immature specimen of PHonospio was taken in the 
townet off Balbriggan. I refer it to the above species on account of the 
structure of the branchiae, which have two rows of branches. The branchiae 
are small, and the branches few in number. Eyes are absent. The bifid 
hooks appear in the 12th setigerous segment, and the upper fang is minutely 
bifid. The peculiar curved "bayonet" seta is present in the ventral branch 
of the parapodium. 

This species belongs to the small group of species with a northerly distri- 
bution, which is found in the northern part of the Irisli Sea. 

The genus Prionospio has not previously been recorded from tlie British 

General Distribution. — Norway ; Iceland ; Greenland ; Eastern North 

Polydora ciliata (Johnston). 

1896. Mesnil. Tom. cil., p. 210. 

Malahide, 1SS7 (Mel.). 

llowth, south shorc, 6, X, '09 ; north shore, 10, x, '09, in crevices of the 


General DistribiUion. — British Isles ; shores of Atlantic ; Mediterranean ; 
Baltic ; Pacific. 

Polydora flava, Claparede. 

1896. Mesnil. Tom. cit., p. 182. 

Howth, south side, 6, x, '09. 

Not previously recorded from Ireland. 

General Distribution. — Great Britain ; France ; Mediterranean. 


Cirratulus cirratus (Miiller). 

1843. Eathke. Bciti-age zmx Famia Nor\vegen8, p. 180. 

Dalkey Sound (Thompson, 1856, p. 428). 

Salthill. 1881 (McI.). 

Poolbeg breakwater, 11, iii, '07. 

10 miles east of Nose of Lambay (S. 553. 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 41-52 fins.). 

SouniKiiti — T//c iMarinc Worms (AnncUiIa) of Dublin Ba;/. 237 

North Bull, 21, x, '07. In old pile, washed ashore. 

Saudycove, 28, iii, '09. 

Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09 ; north shore, 10, x, '09. 

This species is very common under stones ami in muddy sand, at various 
points along the coast. 

General Distribution. — British Isles; east, north, and west shores of 

Cirratulus tentaculatus (Montagu). 

1894. de Saint-Joseph, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., t. xvii, p. 49. 

Sheunick's Island, Skerries, 22, vii, '07. 

This species is much less common in this district than the previous one. 

General JDistribution. — British Isles ; North Sea; France; Mediterranean. 

Dodecaceria coucharum, Oersted. 

1896. de Saint-Joseph, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., t. v., p. 346. 

Howth, south side, 6, x, '09. In crevices of the schist, and in cavities in 
coralline seaweeds. 

General Distnbutioji. — England ; Norway ; North Sea ; Madeira ; Eastern 
Nortli America. 


Lanice concMlega (Pallas). 

1894. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 211. 

Howth, north shore, 10, x, '09. 

Malahide, 7, iii, '10. 

The tubes of this worm are common all round tlie coast. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Europe ; Mediterranean ; Madeira. 

Nicolea venustula (Montagu). 

= N. zostericola (Oersted). 

186.5. Malmgren. Nord. Hafs. — Annulater, p. 381. 
Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
10 miles east of Bailey Light (S. 5.53. 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 41-52 fms.). 
Malahide Inlet, 11, xi, 'OS. Dredge, 2 fms. 

General Distribuiimi. — Great Britain ; North Sea ; North Atlantic ; Medi- 

238 Procecdinfis of the Roijal Irish Academji. 

Thelepus cincinnatus (Fabr.). 

1865. Malmgreii. Tom. cit., p. 387. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, \-ii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Kingstown— Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
General Distrilnition. — Great Britain ; Siberia ; shores of Atlantic ; Medi- 

Thelepus setosus (Quatr.). 

1894. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 230. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, \Ti, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
Howth, north side, 7, ix, '07. Dredge, 1.5 fms. 

Howth, south shore, 6, x, '09. In crevices of the schist. One specimen 
had Polifnor scohpcmh-ina in its tube. 

General Distribnlion. — PljTiiouth ; France. 


Pectinaria auricoma (MUllcr), 

1865. Malmgren. Tom. cit, p. 357. 

on' Skerries, 9, vii, '07. Dredge, 5 fms., on muddy ground. 

This sitecimen was exhibited at the Dublin Microscopical Club.' 

Oil' Dalkey Island, 22, iv, '08. Dredge, 1.") fm.s. One large specimen. 

General Dislfihution. — British Isles; Norway; North Sea; Mediterranean. 

Pectinaria belgica (Palla.s). 

1865. Malmgren. Tom. cit., p. 356. 

4J miles nnrth-oast of Nose of Lambay (S. 445. 21, vii,' 06. Townet. 26 fms. 

General DiMrihufion. — Great Britain ; Noi^way ; North Sea ; Belgium. 


The material Ijelonging to this family has recently been sent to Hen- 
Ivar Ai-widsson, the eminent authority on this gioup. His report, which 
promises to l>e of great interest, will shortly be published in the " Scientific 
Investigations " of the Irish Fisheries Branch. The collection contains two 
species from Dublin Bay. 

' Iruh Naturalirt, 1008, col. xvii, p. fi3. 

SouriiKKN — The Marine W(n-ms {Annelidu) nf Duhlin Umi. -.IW 

Amphai'ete Grubei, Miilmt^'rcii. 

1897. Fauvcl. JSulletiii Sci. France cL liely., Um\. xxx, p. V6. 

13 miles E.S.E. of Lambay (S. 236, 29, vi, '04. Townet on Trawl, 39-52 
fms. 2 sp.). 

General Dkfrih I (tion. — Irish Sea (Hornell) ; Spitzbergen ; Iceland ; Green- 
laud ; Scaudina\aa ; Siberia ; Nova Zembla ; North France. 


Capitella capitata (Fabricius). 

1887. Eisig. Die Capitelliden des Golfes von Neapel, p. 849. 
Salthill (Mel.). 

Howth, North shore, 10, x, '09. 
Sandymount Strand, common. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; shores of Atlantic ; Mediterranean ; 
Black Sea. 

Arenicola marina, L. 

1900. Gamble and Ashworth. Qnart. Jonrn. Micr. Sc, xliii, p. 419. 

Common in sandy flats all round the district. It is used very largely as 
bait by line-fishermen. 

A post-larval stage, 7^ mm. long, with 19 setigerous segments, and no 
gills, was dredged in 2 fms. at Malahide Inlet, on the 24th of August, 1907. 
A later stage, with eleven pairs of gills, was found in sand on Sandymount 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; east, north, south, and west coasts of 
Atlantic ; Mediterranean ; Pacifie. 

Arenicola ecaudata, Johnston. 

1900. Gamble and Ashworth. Tom. cit., p. 419. 
Salthill (McI.). 

Mcintosh' records a post-larval stage of this species from Salthill, Co. 
Dublin. No adult specimen has apparently yet been found in the district. 
General Distribution. — British Isles ; Norway ; English Channel. 

' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1008 (S), vol. i., p. 3S2. 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVni., SECT. B. [2 A' ] 

240 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academy. 

Ophelia liinacina (Eathke.). 

1843. Oersted. Groulauds Aniuilata Dorsibi'auchiata, p. 204. (As 
0. hicornis, Sav.). 

Killiuey Bay, 31, vii, '08. Dredge, 5 fms. 

Poolbeg breakwater, 18, x, '08. One specimen under a stone between 

'I'liis species belongs to the northern group. 

General Distribution. — Great Britain ; Scandinavia ; Siberia ; Nurth 
Sea ; Nova Zenilila ; Spitzliergen ; Iceland ; Greenland ; eastern N(nth 

Scalibreg^a inflatum, Kalhko. 

1901-02. Ashworth. Quart. Joiu-n. Micr. Sc, xlv, p. 237. 

Malahide. 1886 (McI.). 

This specie.^ has not hitherto been fovmd on the ea'^t coast of Ireland, 
and tliia is api)arently its most southerly European station. 

General Di.'ifrihittion. — British Isles; North Atlantic; Arctic; South 
Africa ; New Zealand. 


Stylaroides plnmosus (Miiller). 

1894. de Saint-Jo.seph. Tom. cit., p. 101. 

2 mUes south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Oencral Distiibutiffn. — British Isles ; Scandina\na ; Nova Zomlila ; 
Spitzliergen ; Greenland ; France ; North America. 

Stylaroides glancus (Malmgren). 

1867. Malmgren. Tom. cit., p. 82. 

5 miles N.N.E. of Balbriggan (S. 252, 20, ii, '05. Townet on trawl, 
11-13 fms.). 

4| miles north-east of Nose of Lambay (S. 445, 27, vW, '06. Townet on 
trawl, 26 fms.). 

Ocneral Distributiun. — Nor\vay ; .Scotland. 

SoirniKUN — The Marine Worms {Anndida) of Duhlia Bay. 241 

Flabelligera affinis, M. Sars. 

1900. Newbigin. Ann. ]\Iag. Nat. Hist (7), vol. v, p. 190. 

Dalkey Sound (McL). 

Malahide Inlet, 30, v, 'OS. Dredge, 2 fms. C'i)ninion in tlie sponge 
Halicondria panicca. 

General Distrihutioa. — British Isles ; Spitzbergen ; Greenland ; Iceland ; 
Scandinavia ; Mediterranean ; France ; North America. 


Sabella pavonina (Sa\iguy). 

1894. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. eit., p. 267. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, vii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Kingstown— Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 12 fms. 
10 miles east of BaQey Light (S. 553, 16, Adii, '07. Trawl, 41-52 fms.). 
Malahide Inlet, 24, viii, '07. Dredge, 2 fms. 

General Distribi'Mon. — British Isles ; Greenland ; Norway ; EugUsh 
Channel ; North America. 

Dasychone bombyx (Daly ell). 

1894. de Saint-Joseph. Tom, cit., p. 309. 
Dalkey Sound, April, 1907. Dredge, 6-8 fms. 
2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, \di, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Kmgstowu— Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
Malahide Inlet, 17, vi, '08. Dredge, 2 fms. 

This species is very common in Dublin Bay. It was exliibited at the 
Dublin Microscopical Club, December 11th, 1907.' 

General Distribution. — Great Britain ; Scandinavia; France; North Sea. 

Chone infundibuliformis (Kroyer). 

18G5. Malmgren. Tom. cit., p. 404. 
Kingstown — Dalkey, 20, vii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
General Distribution. — Great Britain ; Norway ; Faroe ; Spitzbergen ; 
Nova Zembla ; Greenland ; Iceland ; North America. 

' Irish Naturalist, 190S, vol. xvii, p. W. 


242 Proceedings oj the Rof/al Irish Academij. 

Jasmineira elegans, de Saiut-Joseph. 

1894. de Saint- Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 316. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, 13, \ii, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

A single specimen of this Sabellid was found m Dublin Bay. It has not 
previously been recorded from Ireland, though it appeai-s to be faiily common 
on the west coast. A single specimen was also dredged in the Clyde area by 
M. I. Kewbigin.' 

Geiiercd Distribution. — Clyde ; north coast of France. 

Fabricia sabella, Ehrbg. 

1894. de Saint-Joseph. Tom. cit., p. 319. 
Lambay shore, 1906. 

Howth, north shoit;. Common amongst weeds in roek-i)Ools. 
General Dislrihulion. — Great Britam ; Meiliterranean ; and east, north, 
and west shores of North Atlantic. 

Haplobranchos aestuarinus, Bourne. 

1883. Bourne. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sc, xxiii., p. 169. 
Bourne states that Mr. Tliomas Bolton found this species in mud from 
the mouth of the Liffcy. 

GciunU IHelrHnUion, — Isle of Sheppey. 

Pomatoceros triqueter (L). 

1894. de Saint-Josoph. Tom. cit, p. 353. 

Very common in all parts of the area. It is found between tide-marks, 
and down to 60 fathoms in Lamlwy Deep. Almost every stone and shell is 
encnistetl with it. 

General Di^ribution. — ^British Isles ; Scandina\aa ; France ; Iceland ; 

Hydroides norvegica (Gmmerue). 

1907-8. de Saint-Joseph. Ann. des 8c. NatureUes (8), T. v., p. 440. 
2 miles south-cast of Bailey Light, 13, ^^i, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 
Kingstown— Dalkey, 20, \-ii, '07. Dredge, 8-12 fms. 
General iJuitrihulion. — (In-at Bntain ; Norway ; North Sea ; Mediter- 

' 1900. Millport Marine Biological Station, Commimicatioiu i, p. 3. 

SoirniEKN — The Marine Worms {Annelida) of Dublin Bay. 243 

Spirorbis borealis, Dainlin. 

189-i. de Saint- Joseph. Tom. cit., 345. 

Howth, south sliore, 6, x, '09. On Fuchs. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Iceland ; Arctic Uceau ; Atlantic ; 

Spirorbis spirillum, L. 

1882. Levinsen. Systcmatisk-geografisk Oversigt, etc., ii, p. 208. 

Dalkey Sound, April, 1907. Dredge, 6 fins. On Pohpoa. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Scandinavia ; North Sea ; Faroe ; 
Nova Zembla ; Iceland ; Greenland ; North America. 

Sabellaria alveolata (L.). 

1867. Malmgi-en. Tom. cit., p. 102. 

Lambay, 1906. 

Portmarnock Strand. 

Howth, south shore, 6, x, '07. 

This species, which usually lives between tide-marks, forms tubes of 
sand-gi-ains, which are massed together like honey-comb. On the strand 
between Portmarnock and Malahide they can be seen in great masses, 
covering the rocks, and forming quite a conspicuous feature in the land- 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; English Channel ; MecUterranean. 

Sabellaria spinulosa, Leuckart. 

1867. Mabngren. Tom. cit., p. 102. 

2 miles south-east of Bailey Light, l.S, ra, '07. Dredge, 13-18 fms. 

Shennick's Island, Skerries. At low-water. 

This species usually fi-equents the deeper waters near the coast. It is 
however, occasionally found between tide-marks, as at Skerries. It was 
di'edged in large quantities in the Bay. The interlacing tubes form masses 
on stones and old shells ; but their arrangement is not so regular as those of 
S. alveolata. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; North Sea ; English Channel. 


The Oligochaeta occurring between tide-marks in Co. DubUn have recently 
been recorded at some length in the following papers : — 

Southern, K. Notes on the Genus Enchytraeus. Irish Naturalist, 1906, 
vol. XV, p. 179. 

244 Proceedings of the Ro/iul Irish Acude/n//. 

Oligoehaeta of Lambay. Irish Naturalist, 1907, ^'ol. x\i., p. GS. 
Contributions towards a Monograph of the British and Irish 
Oligoehaeta. Proc. Koy. Irish Acad., 1909, vol. xxvii., p. 119. 

I shall therefore content myself with enumerating a list of the known 


Clitollio arenarius (Miiller). 
Tubifex Benedcni (Udekem). 
T. costatus (Clapar^de). 
T. Thompsoni, Southern. 


Marionina semifusca (L'lapurcde). 
Lumbricillus litoreus (Hesse). 
L. verrucosu.s (Clapariidc). 
L. fossoruni (Tauber). 
L. Pagcustecheri (llatz.). 
L. iiiger, Southern. 
L. Evansi, Southern. 
Euchyti-aeus albidus, Heulc. 
E. sabidosus, Soutlicm. 
E. lobatus, Southern. 

The lust-uamcd species has only l>een found in moss and sea-weed on a 
clifl' at Howlh, over which fresh water trickled. It is undoubtedly covered 
with sea-water at certain tides ; but it is diflicidt to say whether tiiis species 
is really a littoral foiin, as it has not been found elsewhere ; and it wa.s 
accomi>anied by other worms, some of which aie marine and othei-s fresh- 


Only one species of marine leech has Ijeen found in tliis district. It was 
recorded in the " Handbook to the Dublin District," 1908, p. 199. 

Pontobdella moricata, L. 

1894. Blanchard. Boll. Mus. Torino, vol. L\, No. 192, p. 20. 

In the National Museum there are two specimens of this leech, taken in 

.SoiiTHEK'N — The Marine Worms (Annelida) nf Dnhlin Bay. 245 

the trawl off Howth in 1891, by W. F. <lo Vismes Kane and the late Dr. Ball. 
This leech is parasitic on various species of ray and shark. 

General Distribution. — British Isles ; Atlantic ; Mediterranean. 


1856. Thompson, W. — The Natural History of Ireland, vol. \\, p. 444. 

Eecords Priapuhcs cmidatns, Lam., from Dublin Bay. 
ISGl. KiNAiiAN, J. E. — Eeport of the British Afssoeiation, p. .31. Eecords 

from Dublin Bay : — Syrinx Ha-rveii (Forbes) = Phaseolosmna 

nmlgare. S. gramdosus - Phascolosoma mdgare. (?) Sipunculus 

Bcrnhardus = Pliascolion stromhi. Pric(,p.dus caudatus. 
1908. Nichols, A. E. — Handbook to the City of Dublin. Section Gephy- 

rea, p. 200. Eecords Pliascolion stromhi from Dublin Bay. 
1908. Southern, E. — A new Irish Gephyrean. Irish Naturalist, vol. xvii, 

p. 171. Eecord and description of Petalostoma minutum, Kef. 
1910. ColCtAN, N. — Dublin Microscopical Club. Irish Naturalist, vol. xix, 

p. 6. Mr. Colgan exhibited Pliascolion stromhi from Dublin Bay. 

Petalostoma minutum, Keferstein. 
1908. Southern, E. — Irish Natiu-alist, vol, xvii, p. 171. 
Dalkey Sound, April, 1907. Dredge, 6 fms. 
Sandycove, under stones between tide-marks, 7, vi, '08. 
Howth, south shore, 7, x, '09. 
General Distribution. — Plymouth ; north coast of France. 

Phascolosoma vulgare (Blainville). 

1904. Thfel, Hj. Kungl. Svenska Vet.— Akad. Hand. Bd. 39, No. 1, 

p. 60. 

Dublin Bay (KLnahan). 

10 miles east of Bailey Light (S. 553. 16, viii, '07. Trawl, 41-52 fms.). 

General Distribution. — British Isles; Greenland; Europe; Atlantic; Medi- 
terranean ; Eed Sea. 

Phasoolion strombi (Montagu). 

1904. Theel, Hj. Tom. cit., p. 86. 

Dublin Bay (Kinahan ; Nichols ; Colgan). 

Dalkey Sound, 27, iv, '09. Dredge, 7 fms. 

Dalkey, November, 1909. In Dcntalium shell. 

10 miles east of Bailey Light (S. 553. 16, %'iii, '07, Ti-awl, 41-52 fms.). 

General Distribution. — British Isles; Ai'ctic Seas; east, north, and west 
coasts of North Atlantic ; Mediterranean, 

246 Proceedings of the Royal Irish A cademy. 

Priapulus candatus, Lamarck. 

1906. Theel. Hj. Kiuigl. Svenska Vet.— Akad. Hand. r.,1. 40, No. 4, 
p. 15. 

Dublin Bay (Dr. Coiilter; Kinahau). 

In stomach of a plaice taken oil' Ireland's Eye (S. 56. 15, iv, '02. Ijcam 
trawl, 13 fins.). 

General Didrihution. — British Isles ; Ai'ctic and Antarctic Seas ; east, 
north, and west coasts of the North Atlantic. 

This species is remarkable in lia\iug a bipolar distribution. 

[ 247 ] 




Carnegie Research Fellow, Zoological Department, University of Aberdeen. 

Plates I-XIX. 

[Reail Febiiuauy 28. Ordered for Publication Mahch 2. Published Ai'Ocst 19, 1910.] 



, Scirpenria emend., . . . 307 

(ff) Discussion of the 

genus, . . . 307 

(4) Classification of the 

species, . . . 309 
Scirpearia profunda emend., . 312 
Scirpearia hicksoni, . . 314 

Scirpearia verrucosa, . . 316 
Scirpearia anomala, . .317 
Scirpearia pectinata emend., . 319 
Scirpearia elongatn emend., . 32.5 
Scirpearia flagellum emend., . 328 
Scirpearia thomsoni . . 333 
Scirpearia alba . . . 334 
Scirpearia aurantiaca emend., . 336 
Scirpearia furcata emend., . 3"9 
Scirpearia andamanensis . . 3.52 
Scii-pearia ramosa . . . 354 
Scirpearia ceylonensis . . SUn 
Scirpearia maculata . . 357 

Scirpearia quadrilineata. . 358 

Nicella emend., . . . 360 

(n) Discussion of the 

genus . . . SCO 

(i) Classification of the 
species with amended 
dignoses, . . 362 

Nicella dichotoma emend, . 363 
Nicella Habellata emend., . 365 

Nicella relicul.ata . . . 366 
Nicella nioniliforme, . . 368 
Bathymetrical distribution, . 369 
Geographical distribution, . 371 
Bibliography, . . . 376 

I. — Introduction. 

Systematic description of Alcyonarians is beset with many difficulties, 
sometime.? duo to (uir iniiorancp of intimate struclure — as in the case of the 

R.I. A. I'liOC, VCIJ,. X.WIII., SECT, li, [2 LJ 


Introduction, . . . . 




Material examined, 



Biological note, . . . . 



Historii al summary of the group. 



Macroscopic and microscopic char- 

acters .as a basis of classification. 



(1) Coenenchyma, 



(rt) Surface, thickness. 


and consistency. 


(b) Histology. 


(c) Colour. 


(2) Canal systems. 



(3) Polyps, . . . . 


(n) Structure. 


(J) Motility. 


(c) Retraction. 


(rf) Distribution. 


(4) Axis 



(5) Spicules, . . 




Possible affinities of theGorgonell- 






Division of the Gorgonellidae into 




Emended diagnoses of the family 

and genera 



Juncella emend. Classification of 

the species, . . . . 




Juncella juncea emend., 




Juncella gemmacea emend.. 




Juncella racemosa emend., . 




Juncella trilineata, 




Appendix to Juncella (Incertae 




2j8 Proceedings of the lloi/al Irish Academy. 

genus Telesto, which Prof. Bourne (1, p. 29) refers to the Steleckotokea, but 
which Prof. Hickson (XII A, p. 348) considers should be placed in the 
Alcyonacea — and sometimes to the large number of forms separated by 
minute and very variable characters, as in the case of Dendronephthya. 
These difficulties are sometimes increased by the inadequacy of the 
diagnostic descriptions given in previous records. This may be illustrated, 
pcssibly with some useful result, by a consideration of the Gorgonellid genera 
Juncella, EUi.sella, Scirpearia, Scirpearella, Ctenocella, antl Nicella. These 
may be briefly included in the term " the Juncellid-group " of the 

My attention was first drawn to this group in 1905, while assisting 
Prof. J. Arthur Thomson in classifying some Indian Ocean Alcyonaria. 
The Indian Museum deep-sea collection contained a large number of these 
forms, as also did the collection made by Prof. Herdman in the Ceylon 
seas. Owing to the ixnsatisfactory nature of the classification of the group, 
and also owing to the extreme fertility of variation which occurs not only 
in dillerent colonies, but even in dillerent parts of the same colony. 
Prof. Thomson, in reporting on these collections, decided to give descriptions 
of most of the specimens, but refrained from naming any but undoubted 
sijecies. The following \\tA« from tlie latter report sums up the situation : — 
" It may seem of little service to suggest problematical species based on a 
atuily of fragments ; but, as we have given some description of each, our 
proceilurc is probably preferable to that of some other students of 
Alcyonacea, who have given names nude of any description. Our impression 
is that the elongated forms of Sciri^earella, Juncella, and the like, so 
monotonous in general appearanc*. so perplex ingly difl'erent when one gets 
beneath the surface, are subject to great variability." 

Kidley, in his " KefMjrt on the Alcyoniid and Gorgoniid Alcyonaria of the 
Mcrgui Archipelago" (Joum. Linn. Soc, vol. xxi., 1888), says, with regard to 
Juncella : — 

" This is a most difficult genus. Looking at the variations in the external 
form and in spicules of the specimens here referred to this genus, and 
comparing them with facts previously known about it, one is struck by the 
extremely slight nature of the points separating some of the species. Had 
not Juncella juneea and Juncella frftgilis been simple, while the present speci- 
mens of Juncella gemm/icea UTehrtLQched, it would liave been difficult to distin- 
guish the three in spiculation everj' fresh specimen appears to present 
some slight difference; while the total dJH'erences of spiculation in these 
species are slight, and thus admit of little specific distinction. Then again 
Juncella gcmmacea, though commonly branched, may be simple. Colour, 

Simpson — A Revision of the (hiriionrllidKr. 249 

too, appears to allbid little help in the determination of species. 'J'lie 
form, size, and distribution of the zooid-verrucae, and the proportions of 
the corallum as a whole, seem to be the best points to rely upon. Jnncclla 
dongnta, however, seems to be distinct in spiculation." 

In reporting on the Littoral Aleyonaria of the Indian Ocean (Thomson 
and Simpson, 1909), we drew up a comparative table of all the specimens in 
this group which could not with certainty be referred to unquestionable 

These specimens, along with those of other collections on which 
Prof. Thomson has reported, have been kindly handed to me as a basis for 
this memoir. 

Since 1905, however, it has been my privilege to do some biological work 
on board the Royal Indian Marine Survey ship " Investigator " ; and during 
that time I had an opportunity of collecting and observing a very large 
number of specimens belonging to this grou)3 in the waters arovmd the 
Mergui Archipelago — a happy hunting-ground for Juncellids. By this 
means an extended study of variability was rendered practicable in a way 
which would otherwise have been impossible ; and this has been of immense 
value in generic and specific determination. 

The writer has also been fortunate in visiting a number of museums in 
which old specimens are deposited, and there examining these forms ; 
while others, more inaccessible, have been kindly lent for examination. 

The following list gives the more important collections in which 
specimens of this group occur, all of which have been systematically 
examined in the preparation of this report. 

II. — Material examined for this Memoie. 

1. The Hunteiian Collection of Gorgonellids in the Museum of the lioyal 
College of Surgeons, London. This is a very old collection, and contains 
many interesting specimens which were of great use in determining the 
nature of the spiculation in some of the older species whose descriptions 
dealt entirely with macroscopical characters. 

2. The Gorgonellid specimens in the collection of the Natural History 
Section of the British Museum, which include (1) most of the specimens on 
which the voluminous work of Gray was based, (2) the specimens of the 
" Alert " collections, and (3) the type-specimens of the " Challenger " 

3. The collection made by Professor Herdman in the Ceylon seas (1902), 
described in the Ceylon Pearl Oyster Eeport (Roy. Soc), and now dopusited 
in the British JMuseum. 

[2/. 2] 

250 PiocccJiiigs of the Rotful Irish Actulemy. 

4. The specimens collected aixjuud the Cape of Grood Hope and in the 
possession of the Cape Museum. These were reported upon in the " Marine 
Investigations in S. Africa." 

5. The collection made by Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner in the Maldive Seas 
in 1900, and described in the " Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and 
Laccadive Archipelagoes." 

6. The deep-sea collection, deposited in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
made during the different cruises of the Eoyal Indian Marine Survey ship 
" Investigator " in the Indian Ocean, and reported on in a Memoir published 
by the trustees of the Indian Museum. 

7. The Littoral Collection made by the " Investigator," deposited and 
published as above. Very few of these specimens, however, received specific 
determination in that report, but they are fully dealt with in this memoir. 

8. The " Wood-Mason Collection," made by Mr. J. Wood-Mason in the 
Indian Ocean. Some of these are described along with the Indian Museum 
Littoral Collection ; but most of them were left over for incorporation in 
this memoir, and are here identified and described for the first time. 

9. The collection made by " S. A. S. le Prince de Monaco," on the yacht 
'■ Hirondelle," during 1900-1902. 

Tlie type-specimens of this collection are deposited in the Oceanographical 
Museum at Monaco. 

10. The collection made by Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner in the Indian Ocean 
around the Maldive Islands, and reported on in tlie Transactions of the 
Linuean Society (1910). 

11. A partly undescribed collection made around the Cape of Good Hope 
and in the possession of the C^pe Museum. 

12. S- - -•= collected at Naples by Professor Thomson, and handed to 
me for i aion. These are dealt with in this memoir, and are 
deposited in Aberdeen University. 

13. The "Mergui Collection," made by the writer in the waters around 
the Mergui Archipelego, Burma, in 1897. Tliese are here described for the 
first time ; and the type-specimens are deposited in the Natural History 
Museum of Aberdeen University. 

I am pleased to ha%-e this opportunity of expressing my thanks to all 
tliose who have so generously placed specimens at my disposal ; for only 
through their kindness has it been possible to render this study in any way 
complete. I am specially indebted to Professor F. Jeffrey Bell, of the British 
Museum, for the facilities be provided me in examining the magnificent 
collection in that institution ; to Dr. Bume, of the Eoyal College of Surgeons, 

f^iMi'soN — .1 Rci'isioii of llic GorgoiicUiiiae. 201 

London, I'ur an excellent sketch of a colony in that muMuini (lig. 4o); to 
Professor Sydney J. Hickson, Manchester, for kindly sending me portions of 
the specimens and also the preparations of spicnles on which the descriptions 
given in his memoirs are based; bnt most of all to Professor J. Arthnr 
Thomson, who has entrusted the greater part of the new material to me for 
identification, including the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, the 
Monaco collection, and the Cape collection referred to above. I cannot 
sutticiently express my thanks to him for placing his splendid series of 
Alcyonarian literature at my disposal, for the personal interest he has taken 
in the work, and for much kindly criticism and advice. 

1 must also thank the Trustees of the Carnegie Trust for a grant towards 
defraying the cost of illustration, and also the two artists, Mr. George 
Davidson and Mr. William Smith, for the trouble they have taken in 
preparing the drawings. 

III. Biological Note. 

The Juncellid-group of Gorgonellids are typically shallow-water forms, 
and occur both in tropical and temperate seas, chiefly, however, in tropical 
waters, but have not so far been found in Arctic or Antarctic seas. They 
are usually found within the hundred-fathom line, and exist in very shallow 
water. On the coral reefs of the Mergui Archipelago, numerous colonies may 
be seen swaying to and fro in the air when uncovered by the water at low 
tide. This power to survive the heat of the sim in the tropics for as much 
as two hours daily is proof of great vitality in the group. 

The colonies may be simple or branched, and when simple may attain to 
great lengths; specimens of over six feet long are not infrequent. This 
great length is all the more remarkable when it is remembered that there is 
no jointing of any sort, as is seen in Isis, Melitodes, and the like. Tlicy 
are extremely flexible, sway to and fro in the ocean, and when living may be 
bent into the form of a figure 8 without the least chance of fracture. This 
is of great morphological significance, and is paralleled in the animal 
kingdom only by (1) Pennatulids (e.g. Umbellula), (2) Antipatharians, and 
(3) Nemerteans. 

Nemerteans, however, live a free existence ; Umbellula is also free, and 
lives embedded in mud at great depths. The analogy, therefore, restricts 
itself to Juncellids and Antipatharians. In the former the axis contains 
lime ; in the latter it is composed entirely of a horny substance. 

The proportion of coenenchyma to axis is very different, however, in the 
two cases. In the former the coenenchyma preponderates over the axis, but 
in the latter the reverse holds true. 

252 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

The extraordinary power of regeneration as seen in this group is of great 
ph)-siological interest. Xormally they are attached to rocks or corals ; but 
even shells — e.g., Margaritifera margaritifera — may form a basis of support. 
Eidley records the case of a colony in the " Alert " Collection which had been 
broken from its attachment, and in which the coenenchyma had quite over- 
grown the fractured part, which had continued its existence as a free 
colony, floating in the ocean. A similar case has been recorded by the 
writer for Ids hippuris (Journ. Linn. Soc. ZooL, vol. xxxn^L, pp. 421-433, 
pi. 43). 

These large Juncellid colonies also form bases of attachment for numerous 
kinds of animals. Ophiuroids and crinoids are constantly found attached to 
them, but equally common and more permanent are acorn-shells and bivalves. 
The former settle down in the larval stage, bore their way through the 
coenenchyma, and remain attached for life to the axis. The Alcyonarian 
colony responds to the stimidus, and continues to develop coenenchyma at 
the fractured part, so that eventually the acom-shell is quite overgrown by 
pol_\-p-bearing coenenchyma, leaving only a small oval aperture, by means of 
which the acom-shell derives its food — a characteristic form of commensalism. 

Of more economic interest, however, is the case of Pteria mocroptera, 
which is eagerly sought for on account of its pearl-bearing proclivities. 

While examining the marine fauna of the Mergui Archipelago, one of the 
most striking phenomena encountered was the fact that on nearly eveiy 
colony of Juticdh f/cmmacea obtaine<I there were abundant specimens of this 
oyster. Some idea of the strength of these colonies may be gathered from 
the fact that on one individual colony there were over a hundred oysters. 
The greater number of these were almost full-grown, and each of them 
weighed on an average more than the colony itaelf. The byssus was usually 
overgrown by coenenchyma; but the great rate of growth of the shell itself 
precluded the possibility of the Alcyonarian keeping pace with it. 

Rfprcdudion. — A large proportion of the colonies examined contained 
enormous spherical reproductive bodies. Serial sections of some of these 
were made; and Professor Hickson also kindly sent me some sections prepared 
by him. These bodies consisted of two kinds : — 

1 1) Ova with a large nucleus and a distinct nucleolus almost identical 
with the figures given by von Koch. 

(2) Spennathecae or sperm sacs in which it was possible to trace 
spermatogenesis almost up to the stage of fully formed spermatozoa. 

No trace of segmentation of ova was discernible ; and it is more than 
probable that this does not take place within the parent body. 

It is also worthy of note that the ova and spennathecae occurred in 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 253 

dilTeieiit specimens, so that it is almost ceilain that in this group the colonies 
are dioecious. 

IV. — Historical Summary of the Group. 


Tlie family Gorgonellidae is here regarded, on the whole, in the sense of 
Wright and Studer (L, p. Ixiv), who, accepting Kolliker's diagnosis, define 
it in the following terras : — 

" In the species of this family the eoenenchyma is thin, smooth on the 
surface, with small spicules in the form of warty double-clubs and stellate 
forms. The polyps have more or less well-developed verrueae and are usually 
biradially disposed. The axis is lamellar and calcareous, but retains its 
shape after the extraction of the calcareous matter." 

The colonies in the Gorgonellidae form simple or branched masses whose 
calcareous axis gives to the whole a rigid appearance. The branches and 
twigs are frequently flattened ; and the polyps are either distributed in two 
rows on the edges thereof, or are so disposed in lateral bauds that a free 
space is left in the middle, in which are to be found one or more longitudinal 
furrows. The longitudinal canals are partly of small diameter, partly large. 
Two usually occur on the surfaces of the stem which are destitute of polyps. 
On the surface of the eoenenchyma in dried specimens their position is 
marked by longitudinal grooves. 

It includes the following genera: — 

NiCELLA, . , . . Gray. 

SciRPEARiA, .... Cuvier, emend. Studer. 

SciRPEARELLA, . . . Wright and Studer. 

JuNCELLA,' .... Valenciennes, emend. Studer. 

Ellisella, .... Gray, emend. Studer. 

Verrucella, . . . Milne-Edwards. 

Ctenocella, . . . Valenciennes. 

Phenilia, .... Gray. 

Heliania, .... Gray. 

The two genera Phenilia and Heliania are only imperfectly known ; and 
the diagnoses, as given by Gray, leave much to be desired. Studer considers 
Phenilia as synonymous with Gorgonella ; and it is more than likely that 
Heliania cannot now be considei'ed as a distinct genus. The spicules of 

' Tlie oiigiiml spelling of this genus was " Junceella," but it is now generally written " Juncella," 
80 that, except in references, the more common spelling has been adopted in this report. 

254 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

these two genera have never been investigated ; and I have been unable to 
obtain an authentic specimen of either of these, so that, for the present, they 
must remain as pi-oblematical genera. 

It is extremely doubtful whether Yerrucella and Gorgonella can be 
regarded as distinct ; but, in the present memoir, it is not proposed to deal 
with the various species which have, from time to time, been referred to 
them. At the same time it must be noted that a very fruitful study might 
be made witli regard to these forms. 

Excluding, then, Phenilia, Hcliania, Gorgonella, and Yerrucella, it might 
be of advantage, before proceeding to examine and differentiate the ^'arious 
"enera and sjjecies, to trace briefly the dillerent ba-sos of classification which 
have from time to time been adopted in regard to the six genera under 

The oldest of the genera under consideration is Scirpearia, which was 
established by Cuvier (Regne Animal, p. -"^If)) in IS.'^O. There is still doubt, 
however, as t<j the exact identity of Cuvier's species. 

Wright and Studer (1., p. 154) give a detailed account of the historj' of 
the name Scirpearia from the time of Cuvier to the time of publication of 
the " Challenger " Hepurt. 

In 185.") Valenciennes (Comptes Eendus, xli., p. 14) established the 
family Goi-gonellaceae, with the following diagnosis : " Axis efterve.scing 
with hydrochloric acid," to include two new genera, namely, Juncella and 
Ctenocella. He defined them thus : — 

Juncella — Stems straight, covered with polj'piferous cells scattered upon 

the sclerobase. 
Ctksocklla — Sclerobase forming straight rods, pectinated only on one 

side of the principal stem. 

In the former genus he recognized the following new species : — J. jimuxa, 
J. siircuhu, J. rimcn, J. flongata, J, calyciilata, and J. hyslrix. 
In the latter C. pcctinata. 

Two years later Gray (P.Z.S., 1857, p. 159) propo-sed to re-arrange these 
genera thus ; " This genus Suberogoria) and the genera Juncella, Ctenocella, 
and Gorgonella of Valenciennes should l)e arranged with Corallium under the 
family Corallidae characterized by having a calcareous axis." In the same 
year, however (P.Z.S., 1857, p. 287), he abolished the genus Ctenocella, divided 
up the genus Juncella, established the genus Ellisella, and gave the following 
dif^^oses and sub-di\-i8ion8 to include one new and several previously 
described species : — 

Simpson — A Revisinn of Hip. GorgnneUidae. 2o5 

Ellisella. — Coral siinplo or furcately branched ; Ijraiichcs subcyliudriual, 
with a more or less distinct lateral groove, especially at the base. Axis 
continuous, opaque, solid, calcareous, hard at the base and softer above. Bark 
when dry, granular, thin, with numerous series of sunken or slightly 
prominent polypiferous cells on each edge of the stem and branches. 

(1) E.jmicca, coral simple, sub-compressed beneath; Juncella Val. 

(2) E. elongata, coral furcately branched, branches sub-cylindrical. 

(3) E. coccinea, furcately branched, branches sub-cylindrical, very long, 

(4) E. i^ectinata, coral branched fan-like, branches with a series of virgate 
branches on the upper side only. (Cteuocella.) 

He also revived the genus Scirpearia in the following terms :— Coral slender 
(simple or sub-simple), rod-like. Axis slender, cylindrical, hair-like, solid, 
white, calcareous, attached by a broad Ijase. Bark (when dry) thin, suKJOth, 
granular, with a series of sub-cylindrical polypiferous cells placed alternately 
on each side of the stem. 

S. mirahilis. — Two years later (P. Z. S., 1859, pp. 479-486) he established 
the family Elliselladae, and gave the following diagnosis : — " The axis solid, 
calcareous, not jointed. Bark granular, cells on the sides of the stem and 
branches separated by a lateral groove." («) Cell more or less elongate. 

(1) Ellisella. 

Coral tree-like, sub-cylindrical ; branches free ; cells numerous, snuill, 
crowded. E. j'uncea, E. elongata, E. coccinea, E. pectinafa. 


Coral simple or forked ; cells sub-cylindrical in two alternate series. 

S. mirabilis, coral simple. 

S. dichofoma, coral branched, forked. 

From this resume it will be seen that, up to this time, identification was 
based on external characters alone ; but in 1864 a great advance was made 
when Kolliker investigated the spicules, and defined Juncella as having 
" clubs, double-clubs, and double-stars. The spicules of the polyps are 
small spindles." He recognized the following three species : — 

(<() With clubs : J^mcella j'uncea, J. gemmacea. 
(h) Without clubs : J. elongata. 

Gray, however, seems to have been unacquainted with Kiilliker's contri- 
bution, for in 1870 (Cat. Lith., 1>. M.), he, without taking into account the 
nature of the spicnlatioii, o\'erturned his previous classilicatioii ; and in tho 

K.I.A. PKOC, vol.. XWlll., SKCX. B, l_2 AI j 

256 Proceeding!^ of the Royal Irish Academy. 

family Elliselladae placed Juncella, EUisella, along with many others which 
do not concern us here ; at the same time he re-established the genus 
Ctenocella, and formed a new one, viz., Yiminella, in the same family. 

The genus Scii-pearia he relegated to a hetei'ogeneous group, which he 
called the Caligorgiadae, in which he established the genus Xicella, to 
include his Scii-pearia dichotoma. The following synopsis brings out the 
general plan in this classification : — 


Juncella. — Coral simple, sub-compressed near the base ; branches sub- 
cylindrical, with a more or less distinct lateral groove, especially at the base. 
A.xis continuous, opaque, solid, calcareous, hard at the base, white and softer 
above. Bark, when dry, granular, thin, with numerous series of sunken or 
slightly prominent polypiferous cells on each side of the stem and branches : 
J. JHticta. 

Ellisella. — Coral tree-like, furcately branched ; branches spreading and 
then ascending ; lateral groove very narrow, but well marked ; the rest like 
Juncella : E. clongaUt ; E. cocciiua ; E. f/cmnuicm ; E. culycidnta. 

CrgsocKLLA. — Coral branched, fan-like, expanded in a plane ; branches 
with a series of virgate branchlets on the upper side ; lateral line well 
marked, but narrow : Cptrthuita. 

ViMiNELiA. — Coral simple, elongate, llagelliform. Bark thin ; lateral 
space broa<l, with a sunken line. Polyps-cells, cylindrical, prominent, in 
three or four series on each edge of the stem. Axis grey, calcareous : — 

V. juncta = J. vimctu 

V. fl/tgrllmn = J. cxtam and ./. flaffellum. 

V. hi/siri-z = J. hystfur. 

V. Inevis =» J. laevU. 


SciRPKAitiA. — Coral slender (simple or sub-simple), rod-like. Axis 
slender, cylindrical, hair-like, solid, white, calcareous, attached by a broad 
liase. Bark (when Ary] thin, smooth, granular, with a series of sub-cylindrical, 
jwlypiferous cells placed alternately on each side of the stem. Lateral groove 
indistinct. S. mirnhUis, S./iniiaiUna, S. harhndciuns, S. mondlifo)in,is. 

NicKLLA. — (Joral fan-like, on one plane, branched ; branches forked, rather 
diverging. Bark smooth, brown. Polyps-cells cylindrical, truncated, diverg- 
ing from the stem at nearly right angles, mouth open. Axis calcareous, 
white, solid. N. maurUiatui, 

iSiMPSON — A llcciniun of the (JDiijoiidlidae. 2i>7 

In 187S, Studer still furUier advanced Kolliker's contrilmtinn, and noted 
that when one investigated the spicules of the various species in the family, 
one found two definite groups : — 

(1) Those with an outer layer of clubs and an inner layer of douhlc-cluhs ; 


(2) Those with only douhlc-cluhs and spindles. 

The latter group he again sub-divided on the basis of the nature of the 
verrucae. His classification would appear thus : — 

(1) Spicules, clubs, and double-clubs, Juncella. 

(2) Spicules, double-clubs, and spindles — 

A. Calyces not prominent, Ellisella. 

B. Calyces markedly projecting, Seirpearia. 

Juncella. — Colony simple or forked ; verrucae club-shaped, prominent or 
otherwise. In the coenenchyma, an outer layer of clubs and an inner layer 
of double-clubs. J. juncea, J. gemmacea, J. Jlcvilis nov. 

Ellisella. — Colony simple or forked. Verrucae hardly projecting, in 
two rows on the sides of the stem and branches. In the coenenchyma only 
double-clubs and spindles. U. maculata nov., E. calamus nov. 

SciKPEAKiA (including Niceila, Eaynerella, and Viminella). — Colony simple 
or branched. Axis cylindrical, calcareous, and horny. Coenenchyma thin, 
with prominent polyps, which are disposed in two rows on the sides of the 
stem and branches. Spicules, double-clubs, and spindles. S. miralilis, 
S. Jlagellum (= J. cxtans and V. flafjcllam). 

Note. — Studer includes in Scii'pearia Nkclla mauritiana, and says that 
the only type of spicule in this species is " spindles thickly covered with 
warts." Ridley, however, doubts whether the specimen examined by Studer 
was really iV. maiu-itiana. This is extremely probable in view of tlie fact 
that iV. dicJwtovm (which is a synonym of iV. maaritiaiu'.) contains both 
double-clubs and spindles. (See subsequent discussion of this species.) 

Wright and Studer (L.) united all these genera under the family Gorgo- 
nellidae, which they placed in the Holaxonia, near the Gorgonidae and 
Plexauridae. At the same time, they, while recognizing Juncella, Xicella, 
Ctenocella, Seirpearia, and Ellisella, established a new genus under the name 
of Scirpearella, which they defined thus : — " Colony simple or very feebly 
branched. Axis calcareous, brittle, smooth, or grooved. Polyps arranged in 
rows or spirals, retractile, witli more or less prominent verrucae. The 
coenenchyma is moderately thick and finely granular. The spicules are 
spiny spindles and double-clubs." 


258 Proce-'diiigs of the Royal Irish Acadein//. 

The followiug species are described : — (S. inoiiilli/ormc nov., S. profunda 
nov., S. gracilis nov., S. rubra uov. 

Hickson (xv, p. 819), in discussing this group, says that the four genera 
Juncella, EUisella, Scii'pearia, and Scirpearella are undoubtedly related. He 
takes exception, however, to the distinction between Juncella and EUisella 
based on spicular characters, and proposes to unite them under the name 
Juncella. At the same time he refers the genera to two groups — 

(1) those with club-shaped spicules, and 

(2) those without club-shaped spicules. 

On this system he gives the following arrangement of the species: — 
With clubs :— 

J. juncca Pallas. 

J. f/cinmacM (Milne-Edwards). 

J. flcxilis (Studer). 

J. fragilis (Ridley). 

J. hctrhadcnsis (Wright and Studer). 
Without clubs : — 

J. elongate (Valenciennes). 

J. calamus (Studer). 

J. maculata (Studer). 

J, spiralis Hickson. 

He also makes the following note : — " J. hcpnlim (Klz.) may not be 
distinct; and J.funienUna (M. and D.) and J. lacms Verrill are not sullicieutly 
well known to be classified in this system." 

The genera Scirpearia and Scirpearella he, however, retains as being 
capable of identification as follows : — 

Scirpearia — prominent verrucae in two rows. 

Scii-pearella — prominent verrucae arranged in a spiral manner. 

Before considering to what e.xtent any or all of these systems of classifi- 
cation may be regarded as an aid to the detennination of natural affinities, it 
will be well to renew all the characters, macroscopic and microscopic, upon 
which stress has been laid, and also any others which might serve to elucidate 
the relationships existing in this group. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Oorgonellidae. 259 

V. — MyVCROsconc and Mi(;i!08copic Ciiahactkks as a Basis of 


{n) Surface. — The surface of the coenenchyma is generally smooth to the 
naked eye, but presents a glistening, arenaceous appearance when viewed 
with a Ions. This is due to the small spicules, which project slightly, cither 
singly or in small clusters. 

Thickness. — The tliickness varies in different species; e.g., in Jintcdla 
juncca,^ Jtmcella gemmacea, and Scirpearia furcata it is usually thick ; but in 
Jimcella racemosa, Scirpearia alba, and Scirpearia flagclhim it is generally 

On the other hand, however, extremes may be found in dillereut speci- 
mens of the same species. No better example of this can be cited than 
Jimicclla juncca (see later). For this reason the thickness of the coenen- 
chyma cannot be regarded as a specific criterion. It does, however, affect 
the general appearance of the colony, inasmuch as the verrucae are capable 
of greater retraction in those specimens in which the coenenchyma is above 
the average thickness. (See figs. 9 and 10 («, h, and c) of Juncella juncea> 
fig. 100 of Scir2Karia andaiiiancnsis, and figs. 83 and 88 of Scirpearia furcata.) 
As a contrast to these, figs. 49 and 56 of Scirpeccria flcujcUum may be taken 
as typical. One very important feature in regard to the thickness of the 
coenenchyma is the fact that this is almost a constant in any one specimen ; 
the difference in the thickness of the colony is really due to the axis. 

It, therefore, follows that, although the thickness of the coenenchyma 
varies very little in any individual specimen, it may vary considerably in 
different specimens of the same species, and is therefore of little if any 
taxonomic value. 

Consistency. — The coenenchyma is densely packed with minute spicules, 
and is consequently very granular and brittle, especially when dry. It 
presents a gritty, uneven surface when cut with a l^nife. 

(h) Histology. — The coenenchyma is divided into an outer non-canal- 
bearing part in which the polyps are embedded, and an inner part in which 
small canals ramify in all directions (figs. 10 and 19). These are separated 
by a series of longitudinal canals, which are arranged peripherally. The 
proportionate thickness of these two parts varies greatly in different 
specimens, and is of no taxonomic value. 

' The generic and specific names given in this part of the memoir are those which are adopted in 
the final classification (cj.v.). 

260 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

(c) Colmr. — The colour of the colonies is due almost entirely to the 
pigment in the calcareous spicules, so that there is veiy little change after 
long preservation in spirit. The fleshy part of the coenenchyma is generally 
pinkish; but the loss of this, due to immersion in alcohol, is hardly 
perceptible in the final tint. It is worthy of note, however, that in white 
colonies the coenenchyma is almost transparent ; and immersion in alcohol 
results only in rendering the colony more opaque. When dried, the colonies 
acquire a very dull opaque colour ; but the warm tones, which are so 
characteristic of the group, may be restored on immersion in alcohol. 

The colour of a colony is of no taxououiic importance, as this may vary in 
different specimens of the same species. Two very good examples of this 
tiTeScir2Kariajl'n(/(lli(in&ndScirptaria/ii.rcata. A few notes on these two 
species may be of interest ; but it is worthy of note that, without some 
definite and recognized colour-scheme, precise description of colour is 
impossible. The following colours are, however, given by the different 
authors. The exact specimens will be better recognized if given under the 
names by which they were originally described. 

Scirpearia furcata (emend.). 

S. $p. ? ThoiosoQ and Henderson : " The general colour of the colony is 
reddish orange; but the verrucae are distinctly red." 

& furcata Hickson : " Orange i-ed coenenchyma, with dark red dome- 
shaped verrucae." 

S. furcata var. Hickson : " The colour is not so much a pure red, but 
tinged with orange." 

S. indica Hickson : " The colour varies in different specimens. In one 
the coenenchyma is white ; but the tips of the verrucae are 
red. In another the verrucfie are white throughout ; but there 
are streaks of pink along the coenenchyma, running irregidarly 
and uniting at the base to give a general pale-red colour." 

S. sp. >3. Thomson and Henderson : " The general colour is pale salmon- 
pink ; but the verrucae are white, and streaks of the same 
colour permeate the coenenchyma." 

J. dongatn Hickson : " The colour is pale pink, and the verrucae are 

Mcrgiii specimen : The colour is orange, but the anthocodiae are white. 

Tijpe specimen {sens, emend.): " The colony is of a pale yellow colour, with 
red verrucae. Near the base long streaks of red extend 
longitudinally from the verrucae and interlock, giving a 
peculiar tessellated pattern." 

Simpson — A Revision of I Jw Oorgonellidm. 201 

111 the Cape and Mergui Collections are a number of colonies : (1) creamy 
white, (2) pale orange, (3) bright orange, (4) ilull orange red, (5) lirick-red, 
(G) pale orange yellow, with reddish tips to the verriicae. 

Scirpcaria flufjcllum. 

Monaco specimens: Dull white, creamy-white, pale yellow, orange 

Naples specimen : The general colour of the colony is reddish orange, but 
the tips of the verrucas are distinctly more reddish. 

On the whole, the colour schemes of Juncellids arc defined by the 
coenenehyma proper and the verrueae, but in a few cases the colour of the 
verrucae extends in streaks along the coenenehyma, and gives very pretty 
tessellated patterns. Good examples of this are seen in some forms of 
Scirpearia furcata (seiis. emend.) (see fig. 77). 

(2) Canal System. 

This is a feature to which little or no attention has so far been paid, but 
which is of great taxouomic importance, and which also exerts a great 
influence ou certain superficial appearances which have been used for 
specific diagnosis. 

Deseription. — In all Juncellids it is essentially of the same type, and 
consists of (1) an inner longitudinal series separating the inner canal-bearing 
part of the coenenehyma from the axis, (2) an outer longitudinal series 
separating the two divisions of the coenenehyma (see above), and (3) a 
transverse series ramifying in all directions through the inner part of the 
coenenehyma and uniting the two longitudinal series. 

This is common to all Juncellids (see figs. 10 and 13 of Juncella juncea, 
fig. 19 of Juncella gemnmcea, fig. 25 of J. tnlineata, fig. 114 of JunccUa 
quadrilincata, and fig. 43 of Scbpcaria pcctinata). 

As has been already remarked, the thickness of the coenenehyma is 
almost a constant, and consequent upon this the thickness of the canal- 
bearing parts separating these two series of canals is also a constant (see figs. 
10, a, b, and c). 

With regard to the longitudinal series, it is essential to note that the 
number varies in the ditt'ereut parts of the colony, or, in other words, diminishes 
from the base upwards. 

We have made an extended study upon a large number of specimens, and 
the following observations may prove useful : — 

1. The outer series of canals communicates directly with the polyps, and, 
by means of the transverse canals, communicates with the inner series. 

262 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

2. The cause for the diminution in number is not far to seek. The 
number of polyps is smaller in the younger parts, and consequently the 
number of canals communicating with these is smaller. 

.3. The number of canals in the outer series bears no proportion to the 
number in the inner series in the different parts, although the number 
diminishes in both cases from the base upwards. It diminishes more rapidly 
in the inner series. 

Let us consider the different series, and see to what extent these may be 
considered of taxonomic value. 

1. Tran.9rerse series. — This series, as has been pointed out, ser\-es to connect 
the outer longitudinal series with the inner longitudinal series, and, as might 
be expected, is of no specific importance. 

2. Outer longitudinal series. — The canals of this series communicate 
directly with the polyps, are all of equal size, have no inOuence on external 
or internal form, are constant in all specimens, and cannot therefore be 
taken into account in specific determination. 

3. Inner longitudinal series. — We have here to deal with a series which 
has the following characteristics : — 

(a) The canals are not all of equal value. 

[h) They exert an influence on the external form of the colony. 

(f ) They produce an effect on the surface of the axis. 

The .superficial results produced by this series of canals have been 
used by different authors as a liasis of classification ; but no systematic 
examination has ever been attempted, nor has any causal explanation ever 
been given, so that it may serve some useful purpose to study the actual 
influence exertetl and the constancy of the results. 

Studer (xxxviii) in 1901 makes the following note: — "A transverse 
sec;tion of a colony of Scirjtearia flagellum (PL IX, fig. 11) shows that the 
polyps arise on two sides of the axis ; there are two large longitudinal canals 
in the plane perpendicular to that of the polyps." 

Thomson and Henderson (XXXIX , p. 315, in describing Jvncella trilineata 
say : — " Polyps arise in three different bands, leaving three narrow bare 
strips, each of which has in its centre a slight rib or keel. Under each bare 
strip lies a lar^ge longitudinal canal. The axis shows longitudinal grooves." 

These are practically the only two references to the phenomena under 

Let us consider each in detail : — 

(a) The cnnnls are not all of equal value. — A transverse section of any 
Juncellid colony reveals the fact that there is a certain number of the 

Simpson — A Revision of the GorgoneUidae. 263 

canals mnch larger than tlic others, and, no matter at what level the 
section be taken, this number is constant for the specimen (see figs. 
80, 13, 19, 24, and 111). There is only one exception to this rule, namely, 
Scirpearia pcctinrda (fig. 43«) ; but in this case the conditions which 
occasion it are themselves exceptional, and will be described later. In 
the polyp-bearing branches the rule, however, holds good (fig. 436 and c). 
In the great majority of cases the typical number is two — e.g. J. juncca, 
J. gcmraacca ; but in two colonies examined, viz., Jvncdla triUncata (Thomson 
and Henderson), and Sciipearia quadrilineatu n. sp., there is a departure. 
In the former there are tliree and in the latter four (see figs. 25 and 111). 
These large main longitudinal canals are always symmetrically arranged, 

(1) diametrically opposite (two) (fig. 10), or 

(2) at the ends of radii enclosing equal angles (three) (fig. 25), or 

(3) at the ends of two diameters at right angles to one another (four) 

(fig. 111). 

(h) They exert an influence on the extenud form of the eolony: — (1) A very 
characteristic feature of Juncellids is the fact that in nearly every colony 
examined there is a certain number of longitudinal tracts devoid of polj'ps. 
This may be very marked, as in the case of Scirpearia flxigellum, 
Scirpearia ceylonensis, and Juncclla ramosa, or less marked in, e.g., Scirpearia 
vcrmcosa. In all these the number is always tivo. 

In Juncclla trilvncata, however, the number is three, and in Sdiyearia 
quculrilineata the number is four. 

(2) These longitudinal bare tracts are symmetrically disposed, and 
correspond in position to the internal large main canals. The presence 
therefore of a certain number of bare tracts, and the consequent grouping of 
the verrucae into a corresponding number of longitudinal series, are thus the 
outward manifestation of the internal structure as expressed in the inner 
series of longitudinal canals. These bare tracts are sometimes marked by a 
longitudinal ridge or depression ; but this is due to the large canal being 
either distended or in a collapsed state. 

Since this phenomenon is a constant for any individual specimen, 
it seems to us that it may with safety be considered of taxonomic 

(c) Tliey produce an effect on the surface of the axis. — "The surface is 
marked by longitudinal striae " ; " Eidges and furrows occur on the surface 
of the axis " ; such statements enter into the description of a great number of 
specimens given by various authors. A close examination of a transveree 

K.l.A. PliOC, vol.. XXYUI., SECT. 11. [^ ^] 

26i Proceedings of the Boijal Irish Academy. 

section reveals the fact that the furrows correspond in position to the canals 
of the inner longitudinal series. 

Consequently, since the number of these canals diminishes from the 
base upwards, the number of ridges and farrows also diminishes, so that 
the actual number of furrows seen at any one level is not characteristic 
of the colony as a whole (see fig. 11«, h, and c). It is unfortunate, 
however, that several authors have used the number of furrows as a character 
on which to separate dillerent forms ; for it is at once evident that such 
diagnosis must be negatived. 

In some cases — perhaps in all — although it is not very marked, two of the 
furrows are deeper tlian the others, and these correspond to the two large 

Thus, then, we see that the inner longitudinal series of canals has 
several well-defined characteristics, two, at any rate, of which may with 
safety be regarded as specific, namely : 

(1) A certain number, constant for the specimen, are decidedly larger 
tlian the others. 

(2) Tliese large main canals determine the distribution of the verrucae, 
and manifest themselves externally by longitudinal bare tracts. 

For these reasons we have decided to use this cliaracter as a basis for 
specific diagnosis. 

(3) Polyps. 

(fl) Slnuixire. — The polyps vary greatly in sliape, not only in diflerent 
specimens, but also in different parts of the same specimen. The structure 
is essentially simple; fig. 1 of Scirpcaria pcctinata may be taken as typical. 
(See also fig. 7-i of <Si. fnrcata.) It consists of (1) the verruca, and (2) tlie 
anthocodia. There is no distinct point of demarcation between the two, but 
the one merges imperceptibly into the other. It may, however, be useful to 
distinguish between the lower cup-like portion, which may be termed the 
vemica, and the upper tentacle-bearing portion, tlie antliocodia. 

The verruca arises from the general coenenchyma, but is supported by 
spicules of a different type, as will Ije explained further on ; these have no 
definite arrangement. Near the summit there are usually eight triangular 
lobes or teeth which are also densely spiculose. From these arise the short, 
stumpy pinnate tentacles ; these are usually very broad, conical in shape, 
and bear short, simple pinnules about six to ten in number. 

The anthocodiae are usually white, no matter what may be the colour of 
the colony, and the tentacles bear a number of small, flat, scale-hke spicules 
on the aboral surface. These are very easily overlooked in a preparation ; 

Simpson — A llevision of the Gorcjonellidae. 265 

anil in fact they are so similar in all species as to be of no spccilic iinpurlance, 
so that their inchision in each individual description is hardly necessary. 

(b) Motility. — To define the sliape of the verrucae would be to describe the 
various phases through which it passes from complete expansion to extreme 
retraction. It may be well, however, to consider some of the phases pre- 
sented iu the same and different specimens, and note to what extent 
motility occurs. Fig. 32 of the Cape specimen of Scirpearia Jlcu/dlum and 
fig. 64 of the type specimen of Scirpearia alba show the verrucae as low 
cones. Fig. 9a of Juncclla Juncca, and fig. 90«, b, and c of Scirpearvi f%irmta 
show them as level with the coenenchyma, or even depressed beneath it. 

On the other hand, however, the great majority of the figs. — e.g., 36, 44, 
85, and 98 — depict them as directed upwards, and adpressed to the 

When we examine these carefully, we find that the upper surface of the 
polyp is considerably wrinkled, while the lower is decidedly stretched. (See 
fig. 49 of the Naples specimen, and fig. 36 of the Cape specimen of 
8. Jlagcllum.) 

Another phase, however, presents itself. Fig. 2, from a specimen in the 
Monaco Collection, has been added to show a very peculiar disposition not 
uncommon in Scirpearia fiagellum. This species is remarkable for the 
length of its verrucae, the thinness of the coenenchyma, and the consequent 
slight retraction of the former into the latter. In this figure the verrucae 
on one side of the stem are all directed upwards, while on the other they 
are all directed downwards. In other specimens some are directed upwards, 
some horizontally, and some downwards, while a very peculiar arrangement 
is seen in the Naples specimen described in this report. The colony has 
been broken in two and preserved in this state. In the upper part of the 
colony the polyps are nearly all directed upwards, while in the lower part 
they are nearly all directed downwards. 

Now it is highly improbable that this state of aifaii'S could have existed 

while the colony was living in the sea ; so that it is not pushing a speculation 

too far to conclude that the position in which the colony was immersed in 

alcohol, for killing and preservation, has determined to some extent the 

direction in which the polyps liave retracted. In fact, the probability is that 

the polyps naturally grow horizontally, but ha\e a power of rotation 

tlu'ough 180° both horizontally and vertically, or, in other words, the oral 

aperture can take up any position on the surface of a hemisphere whose 

radius is the length of the verruca. The mode in which these colonies 

obtain their food, and the .different positions which they must assimie when 

swayed by currents, are stronglj' in favour of such an argument. 

[2 .V 2] 

266 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(e) Edradion. — That the polyps are capable of great retraction is a fact 
which is of the utmost importance in specific determination. The manner 
in which this is accomplishetl is very simple. The tentacles are first 
infolded, the eight lobes of ihe verruca close over them, and then the whole 
is withdrawn into the coenenchyma. The longitudinal section (fig. 53) of 
Scirpearia jlagcilum shows the attachment of the strong retractor muscles 
which accomplish this; and fig. 10 of Juncdla juiuxa shows the polyps 
completely embedded in the coenenchyma. 

It would be difficult to imagine that such extreme differences as that 
given in figs. 49 and 51 of S.flftgtUum could occur in one species, were it 
not for the fact that as great differences actually occur in one indi\idual 
colony, e.g. figs. 77, 78,79, and 80 of Scirpearia fiircfita. 

This has been discussed in detail under the different species, so that it is 
neoesBary here to refer only to the actual existence of such a phenomenon. 

(d) Dittributum. — The distribution of the polyps has been used as a basis 
for generic diagnosis, so that it is essential to study this character in detail 
and see to what extent the various distinctions can be said to obtain. Wright 
and Studer (L), p. Ixv, in defining their new genus Scirpearella, make the 
following statement : — " The polyps are arranged in rows or spirals, retractile 
with more or less prominent verrucae," thus separating it from Scirpearia, 
which they describe as ha\-ing " the polyps seated in two longitudinal rows 
on each side of the stem." 

Hickson, in discussing these, says : — " The genera Scirpearia and Scir- 
pearella, however, appear to me to be still good genera. The arrangement of 
prominent verrucae in tiro rows in the former genus and in a spiral manner 
in the latter, combined with other characters, renders them relatively easy of 

Let us for the present disregard the question of spicules, and consider the 
group as a whole with regard to this character. 

It must be borne in mind that since the publication of the work of these 
authors, the species JunctUa trilineata Thomson and Henderson has been 
esublished ; and the present memoir contains another new species, namely, 
Scirpmria qnndrxHn/ata. The result of this is that unless the distinction 
drawn between these two genera is modified, these two species would 
necessitate the establishing of two new genera to include them. 

The first problem before us then is :— What is the factor underlying the 
distrOnUion of the terrucae I The answer to this quesrion — namely, the number 
of main longitudinal canals — has already been discussed. 

The only exception to this rule is what may be termed " the low verruca- 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 267 

type of Juncdla jtincea." The position of these specimens is discussed later 
on, so that it is unnecessary to enter into it here. 

A short discussion on the distribution of the vcrrucae in a nunihcr of 
specimens which have come under our observation may prove useful in 
arriving at some general conclusion. It is unnecessaiy to take these in any 
definite order ; but a division into three groups may serve to emphasize some 
of the more salient characteristics. 

1. Scirpmria profunda. — The polyps are disposed in two longitudinal 
series ; this arrangement may be obscured in the older parts, and then the 
disposition may simulate a spiral. Near the base four rows may occur in each 
series ; but this number diminishes in the younger parts, so that near the ti]i 
there is only a single row alternating on opposite sides. 

Scirpearia pectinata. — In no case do the polyps occur on the main stem. 
On the primary branches they are restricted to the outer aspect, i.e., the side 
diametrically opposite the one from which the secondary branches arise. On 
the secondary branches they are disposed on the two inner surfaces. In the 
upper half of the secondary branches the polyps may encroach on the bare 
spaces and appear as if distributed all over the coenenchyma. 

Scirpiearia anomala. — The polyps are confined to two longitudinal lateral 
tracts separated by two bare spaces. Near the base of the colony and also 
in the younger parts near the tip there is a single row of polyps in each 
series ; but in the intermediate portion there are two irregular rows owing to 
crowding and the interposition of young polyps. 

Scirpcaria verrucosa. — The distribution of the polyps is as follows : — The 
lower part bears no polyps ; this is followed by two bare tracts which 
diminish in size to two distinct lines from which the polyps diverge at acute 

Bcirpcaria fiagelhim. — The lower part of the stem is devoid of polyps; 
this is surmounted by two opposite longitudinal bare tracts which persist to 
the tip of the colony. On the other two sides the polyps are disposed in a 
single row in each series. This gives the colony a markedly bilateral 
appearance. The verrucae stand sometimes in opposite pairs, but the more 
common arrangement is alternate. 

Scirpcaria thomsoai. — The polyps are disposed in two longitudinal series 
on opposite faces, each of which consists of from two to four irregularly 
alternating rows. 

Scirpcaria furcata. — The polyps are arranged in two longitudinal series 
separated by two narrow bare strips which become more indistinct, but still 
visible towards the tip. In each series the polyps appear in rows diverging 

268 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

from the bare tracts. Transversely, four or five is a common number in 
each series. 

2. Juncclla trilineata. — The polyps are arranged in transverse rows of 
three to four, but many smaller polyps occur which break this regularity. 
For a short distance from the ends of the branches the polyps occur in three 
single rows ; but passing downwards two, three, four, or more are to be seen, 
and, scattered amongst these, are immature forms, so that all that may be 
said with regard to the disposition of the verrucae is that they occur in three 
longitudinal groups. The exact number in a transverse row depends on the 
position in the colony and on the stage of development. The three 
longitudinal series are separated by three distinct bare tracts. 

3. Sdrpearia quadrilincata. — The polyps are grouped in four definite 
longitudinal series separated by four bare spaces which correspond in position 
to tlic four main canals. Eacli series consists of a single row; but near the 
niiiidle of the colony they are somewhat crowded, and give an appearance of 
two rows, due, in gieat part, to displacement and the interpolation of young 

From these descriptions the following conclusions will be at once 
evident : — 

(1) The polyps are always arranged in a certain number of longitudinal 
series which are definite for the species. 

(2) This number is dependent on and is the same as the number of 
longitudinal main canals. 

(3) The number of transverse rows in each series may vary according to 
the position in the colony, so that no definite number can be regarded as 

(4) Tiie number of rows generally increases in the older parts. 

(5) This is due to the iutcqxilation of young polyps. 

(6) Near the Iwise of a colony the different series may so approximate, 
owing to overcrowding, as to abnost obliterate the bare tracts. 

(7) This may result in a spiral appearance wluch is not inherent, but 
secondarily produced. 

(8) A similar false spiral appearance may be produced by a torsion of the 
whole colony. 

We have now reached a point when it is necessary to ascertain to what 
extent the distribution of the verrucae may be regarded as of taxonomic 

The question of a spiral arrangement is certainly inadmissible, as is also 
the number of transverse rows in any seriee ; so that to us it seems that the 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 2G9 

only character which may witli certainty be used as a basis of classification 
is the number of longitudinal scries as defined by the number of large main 

(4) Axis. 

The axis consists of a horny substance whose chemical composition has 
never been thoroughly investigated, and whicii is insoluble in the more 
common organic solvents. 

This is impregnated with carbonate of lime. 

The axis is deposited in the form of tiiin concentric laminae, so that a 
cross-section (fig. 3) shows annular markings. These are more densely 
calcareous towards the centre and appear whiter, so that the axis has often 
been described as having a calcareous core. This is not actually the ease, 
however, as the horny material exists even in the very innermost layers. In 
the younger parts of the colony there is very little lime deposited, so that it 
is softer and more flexible. 

It is noteworthy, however, that even in colonies attaining a height of 
6 feet or more the axis is flexible almost to the very base. Near the base, 
however, it is very hard, and is cut with a knife only with difficulty. The 
actual hardness varies in different specimens of the same length. 

There are small ridges and furrows on the surface (fig. 3) which give the 
cross-section a serrated outline. These, as has been already explained, 
correspond to the canals of the inner longitudinal series and diminish in 
number from the base upwards (fig. 11, «, h, and c). 

The colour varies in the different colonies ; but, as a rule, it is olive-green 
towards the base, passing to pale yellow near the tip. In some specimens 
however, it is almost white throughout, due in great part to a larger 
deposition of lime, and consequently, in these, the axis is less flexible and 
more brittle. 

The increase in the thickness of the older part of a colony is due, not to 
an increase in the thickness of the coenenchyma, but almost entirely to an 
increase in the thickness of the axis (see figs. 10, 13, 10, and 43). 

(5) Spicules. 

The spicules of this group are characterized by their extreme smallness ; 
in fact, in no other group of Alcyonaria do we find the predominant spicule 
so minute. Measurements of these with any precision are only possible 
with a high magnification. 

The largest measurements for the group, viz., those in Nicella dichotovia, 
are only 0-25 mm. x 0-OG mm. ; but in the genus Juncella the largest are 
those in Juncella inlincatK, which are over O'OTO mm. x 0'038 mm. ; while in 

270 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Scirpearia the largest are those of JS.anomala, viz., 0-15 mm. x0"034mm. ; 
while in S. iKdiimta the largest are only 0'061 mm. x 023 mm. 

It is not necessary here to enter into the details of all the difterent kinds 
of spicules and their variations which occur throughout the group, as this is 
more fully dealt with under the various species, and the figures given there 
will, moreover, give a much better idea of these than a lengthy description. 
At the same time it might be well to define in a general way the various 
types which liave been described. 

(«) Clubs. — Fig. 4 {a-fj) gives some idea of the variations of this type. 
The general shape approaches that of the well-known Indian-club ; and the 
most important characteristic is the fact that tlie warts or spines on the club- 
porlion are all directed away from the shaft, the central part of which is 
smootli. The spines do not arise peiiiendicularly (see also figs. 14, 23, 
and 20). 

{h) Douhlc-chihs. — Fig. o («-?') shows two variations of this type. Tliey 
have the shape of what arc usually known as dumb-bells. There is a distinct 
median constriction which may be more or less well defined, and may vary 
in length as well as in breadth (see figs. 27, 65, 75, and 113). The warts 
may lio large or small, smooth, papillose, or very warty, but all arise perpen- 
dicularly from the head (figs. 87 and 113), or they may be situated either 
close together or wide apart ; and, according to which method occurs, the 
head will be n?gular or irregular in outline (contrast figs. G3 and 65). The 
head itself may be hemispherical or slightly conical (contrast figs. 54 and 65). 
Fig. G {ii-d) shows characteristic variations of this type as seen in Juncella. 

(c) [Double-wheels or capsians. — Fig. 7 (« and b). This type consists of a 
cylindrical shaft on which there arc two whorls or warts. The ends of this 
shaft (the hubs) may be either almost smooth or markedly warty. 

(rf) Elowjnled douhlc-chibs.— This type may be derived from the typical 
double-clubs, and merges gradually to another form which is sometimes 
descrilied as double spindles, and this again may pass into the simple spiiuUc. 
Fig. 8 a, b, and c show how these merge imperceptibly into one another. 
In the cases we have describetl, however, these spicules are all of about the 
same size, so that the distinction is made chiefiy ou the basis of the amount 
of constriction visible and the proportionate length of the " head " to the 
constriction (see figs. 63 and 65). 

(«■) Simple spindles. — In certain species, e.g. Nicclla dichotoma (see fig. 114), 
there is a type of spicule which may be described as a simple spindle, and 
which in size contrasts so strongly with the double-clubs that there are no 
intermediate stages connecting the double-club with the spindle. (See also 
fig. 118 of A'ieella nionilifvftne.) 

Simpson — A Revision of lite Gorgonellidub. 271 

The different variations which occur in these types will be considered in 
detail in describing the different species ; but certain generalizations must be 
briefly referred to here. 

Tt is very important when describing spicules from any colony to state 
precisely from what part of the colony the preparation has been made. 
New species have been established on slight differences in the size and shape 
of spicules, and also on the preponderance of one type of spicule over 

With a view to testing the degree of certainty with which this procedure 
might be justified, we have made different preparations under different 
conditions from the same colony ; and we now give the results derived 
from over 500 preparations. 

(1) The different types of spicules retain theii- own distinct characteristics, 
no matter from what level of the colony they may be taken. 

(2) Spicules from ditfei-ent levels of the same colony or from colonies 
of different ages show marked deviations in absolute size, but not in 
projjoriionate size. 

(3) Spicules in the coenenchyma alone differ from those in the verrucae 
alone, e.g. in Scirpearia furcata, the double-club type, with hemispherical 
ends, is coiifiued to the coenenchyma, whereas the elongated double-club is 
restricted to the verrucae. This obtains in all specimens examined. 

It therefore foUows that when examining spicules for specific deter- 
mination the factor of primary importance is the character of the spicules. 
Next comes the average size of these spicules; while of no importance whatever 
is the proportionate numbers of each type, as this depends on the proportion 
of coenenchyma and verrucae taken for the preparation. 

If, then, a single preparation be made from a certain part of a colony, 
and no criterion be given as to the exact age of this portion, subsequent 
workers will experience great difficulty in making preparations from a 
similar part. To obviate this difficulty another method may be employed, 
namely, to take coenenchyma and verrucae from different levels for the 
single preparation, and so obtain a representative sample of the spicules of 
the specimen. This method has been found to be of great service in 
identification, and is the one employed in the preparation of this memoir. 

Now it has been seen that the disposition of the verrucae is not a 
constant even in a single specimen, and that its inclusion as a generic 
character is imtenable. If therefore the separation of the specimens of 
this Juncellid- group of the Gorgonellidae into genera is to be accomplished, 
it must be based on the character of the spiculation. 

K,I.\. I'ROC, VOL. XXVIII., SECT, B. [2 O] 

272 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

If a preparation of spicules be made in the manner described, there 
should be no difficulty in at once deciding whether or not the type described 
and figured, as a " club," is present or not. (See figs. 4, 14, 23, and 26.) 
On the other hand, figs. 114, 115, 116, and 118 give a good idea of the " long- 
spindle type " and its proportion to the small double-club. Any of the figures 
given of the various species of Scirpearia — e.g. figs. 27, 31, or 65 — will at 
once mark these off as quite distinct from the other two types. 

YI. — P0.SSIBLE Affinities of the Qorc.onellidae. 

In the "Challenger" Keport on the Alcyonaria (vol. xxxi.), Wright and 
Studer divide the Qorgonacea into two large sections : — 

I. Scleraxonia, and 
II. Holaxonia. 

In tlie Scleraxonia they recognize the Sclerogorgidae as a distinct family, 
with the following cliaractera : — " In the representatives of this family a 
distinct axis is formed of a tissue consisting of numerous closely intercalate<l 
elongated spicules, with dense lioniy .shields. The axis is surrounded by 
longitudinal canals, into which there open the reticulated coenenchymatous 
canals uniting the polyps." 

In the Holaxonia there occurs the family GorgoncUidae, in which " the 
axis is lamellar and calcareous, but retains its shape after the extraction of 
tlie calcareous matter." 

The nature of the *' calcareous matter " is, however, not specified, so that 
it is verj- diHicult to interpret exactly what may have been the opinion of 
these authors. 

In "A Treatise on Zoologj'," part 11., Bourne divided the Alcyonaria 
into five large orders as follows: — 

(1) Stolonifera. 

(2) Alcyonacea. 

(3) Pseudaxonia. 

(4) Axifera. 

(5) Stelechotokea. 

Tlie Stolonifera, Alcyonacea, and Stelechotokea are sufficiently distinct, 
and most certainly have no connexion with the Gorgonellidae, so that any 
further reference to them would be superfluous. 

The Pseudaxonia have been described as " Synalcyonacea forming upright, 
branched colonies. The zooid cavities short ; the zooids embedded in a 
coenenchyma containing ramifying solenia and numerous spicules. The 

Sfmpson— yl Revision of the Gorgonelliihie. 273 

coenenchyma differentiated into a cortical and medullary ijortion, the latter 
containing spicules different from tliose of the cortex, densely crowded 
together, and sometimes cemented together to form a siqjportiriff axis." 

One of the families of this order — namely, the Sclerogorgidae — is thus 
defined : — " The medullary mass forms a distinct axis, consisting of closely 
packed, elongate spicules, with dense horny sheaths. The axis does not 
contain solenia, but is surrounded by longitudinal canals — i.e., by large 
solenia — which are connected with the zooid cavities by ramifying solenia." 
Of the genus Suberogorgia, Gray, in his original description (Proc. Zool. Soc.> 
1857, p. 159), says: — "Axis pale-brown, formed of rather loosely concentric 
fibrous laminae, containing a large quantity of calcareous matter." 

From the Pseudaxonia the Axifera are thus difl'erentiated : — " Synal- 
cyonacea forming colonies consisting of a coenenchymatous rind, investing a 
horny or calcified axis. The axis may be horny or composed of a calcified 
horny substance. ... It never contains solenia, and is never formed of fused 
spicules. The coenenchyma completely invests the axis, and contains solenia, 
and calcareous spicules embedded in the mesogloea." 

Bourne does not include the Gorgonellidae in his scheme of classification ; 
and as the nature of the calcareous constituent in this family has never been 
investigated, or even commented upon, it is impossible to say whether they 
are Pseudaxonia or Axifera. 

The time at our disposal has not permitted of a detailed investigation 
of this very important problem ; but as a contribution to this stutly the 
following observations may be useful : — 

Suberogorgia. — An examination of the axis of a specimen of this genus 
reveals the following features : — 

(1) It consists of a horny matrix, in which large irregular spicules are 
embedded longitudinally. These spicules are easily seen with a strong lens, 
and appear to be deposited concentrically. 

(2) The axis after decalcification retains its original shape. 

(3) Prolonged boiling in caustic potash causes a slight disintegration ; and 
the individual spicules may thus be separated. 

(4) The spicules of the axis are quite different from those of the 

(5) A thin horny layer may be detached from the axis, in which the 
spicules may be seen embedded. 

Juiieella elongata var. capensis. — Hickson (xiii.) described an Alcyonarian 
from Cape Colony under this name, but at that time the spicules of this 
species were unknown. Subsequent study, and a consequent resuscitation of 

[2 2 

274 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

that old but imperfectly kuowu species, have necessitated the removal of the 
Cape specimen from this genus. 

In many respects this colony is unique; and the writer has described it 
separately as Dcndrofjorjia (n. g.) caprn-sis, Proc. Eoy. Phys. Soc, Ediu., 
vol. xviii. (1910), p. 62. The following notes on the axis are of great 
importance in this connexion : — 

(1) The axis consists of concentric laminae. 

(2) These laminae are composed of a horny matrix, in which long 
irregular spicules are embedded horizontally. 

(3) The horny substance preponderates in amount over the calcareous 
matter, so that even with a lens the spicules are not very evident. 

(4) The spicules differ greatly in size and shape from those of tlie 

(5) Prolonged boiling in strong caustic potash results in a partial 
separation of these spicules. 

(6) IMicn the coeneiuJii/mn is drtachcd from the axis, a thin, v-hite, trans- 
parent jUm is generally found adherent to it. If this he peeled off and placed 
under a microscope icith a one-sixth objective, spicules identical with those of the 
axis are seen embedded in it. 

From these facts it is at once evident that the axis in the case of this 
specimen is distinctly sclerogorgic. It consists of spicules difl'erent from 
those in tlie coenenchyma emljcddcd in a horny matrix, tlie individual com- 
ponents of which are laminae deposited concentrically; and, further, it is 
possible to separate the outer layer, which is usually detached with the 

Juneella jnncea may be taken as a type of gorgonellid axis, and the 
following are the chief points obsened : — 

(1) The axis consists of a homy substance impregnated with lime. 

(2) The homy material greatly preponderates over the calcareous. 

(3) The axis is very hard, and is cut with difficulty. 

(4) It is impossible to see indiWdual spicules either in a cross-section or 

a longitudinal section ; but 

(a) The axis is deposited in the form of concentric laminae. 

(b) A thin layer is usually found adherent to the detached coenenchyma, 

(c) This layer may be separated from the coenenchyma. 

(5) It contains small spicules not very unhke those of the coenenchyma, 

but different from them. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgoneliidae. 275 

AVitli vogaiil to the cociienchyma in Ihcsn three groups, the following 
notes are interesting : — 

(1) In all of theiu there is a circle of large canals separating the 
coenenchyuia from the axis. 

(2) Near the periphery of the coenenchyma there is also a circle of 
longitudinal canals which communicate directly witli the polyps. 

(3) These two series are united by numerous interlacing transverse 

The polj'ps are very similar in all three groups. There is no definite 
distinction into verruca and anthocodia. There is a pseudo-operculum 
formed of small spicules on the aboral surface of the tentacles in all tliree 
groups. The polyps are in all cases capable of complete retraction into the 

A further point of similarity may be pointed out in the case of 
Suberogorgia and Juucellids, namely, the possession of a definite number of 
longitudinal canals in the inner series larger than the others, which determine 
the distribution of the polyps. 

It would be premature to draw any hard and fast conclusions from 
these few observations ; Init it may be considered a question whether the 
three groups taken in the following order, (1) Suberogorgia, (2] Bcndrogonjia 
ccqxnsis, and (3) the Juncellids proper, may not represent a line of 
evolution. In the first of these the spicules of the axis are large, 
and there is only a small amount of horny matrix ; in the second the 
spicules are smaller, and there is a larger proportion of horny material ; 
while in the last the spicules (if such is the nature of the calcareous matter) 
are extremely small, and the proportion of horny substance to the calcareous 
is enormously increased. 

For the present, and until the exact nature of the limy deposition in the 
axis of the Gorgoneliidae is investigated, it is therefore inadvisable to rank 
them with the Axifera, and it is more than probable that their affinities are 
closer to the Pseudaxonia. 

Vir Division of the Gorqonellidae into Genera. 

Before proceeding to formulate a scheme of classification which may 
approximate to a natural classification, and which will be based on the foregoing 
considerations, it may be well here to recapitulate the most recent diagnosis 
of the genera under consideration, and see to what extent each of these may 
be considered valid. 

Juncdla. — The colony is simple or branched, the polyps are sometimes 
small, disposed in two lateral rows, sometimes with well developed and 

276 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

elongated verrucae. The coenenchyma is thick, with an external layer which 
contains simple and double clubs. 

Scirpearia. — The colony is simple, with a cylindrical calcified axis and thin 
coenenchyma. The polyps are seated in two longitudinal rows on each side 
of the stem. The spicules are double-clubs and spindles. 

Scirpcardla. — The colony is simple or very feebly branched. The axis is 
calcareous, brittle, smooth or grooved. The polyps are arranged in rows or 
spirals, retractile, with more or less prominent verrucae. The coenenchyma is 
moderately thick and finely granular. The spicules are spiny spindles and 

ElliscUa. — The colony is simple or dichotomously branched, with a tliick 
coenenchyma, and slightly developed verrucae, which are disposed in two rows 
ou the axis. The coenenclipua contains both double-clubs and spindles. 

CtcnoccHa. — The colony is branched in one plane, and so that all the 
simple twigs arise in an ascending order from the upper surface of the stem. 
The verrucae are short on two sides of the twigs. There are distinct median 
furrows. Tlie spicules are mostly double-clubs ; those of the polyp-calyces 
are, according to Kidley, somewhat different from those of the coenenchyma, 
being longer and provided with two, often three whorls of tubercles. The 
inner whorls so approach in the middle of the spicules, that the median naked 
zone, which is characteristic of the spicules of the coenenchyma, is here absent. 

ykcUa. — ITie colony is upright, Ijranched, with a thin coenenchyma, and 
protruding verrucae, wliich arise i)ei-pendicularly, and appear to be terminally 
truncated. The jwlyps arise from either side of the stem and branches, 
leaving a middle space free. The spicules form a cortical layer of small 
double-clubs, and an internal layer of long densely warty spindles. 

An examination of these diagnoses reveals the fact that we have here to 
deal with three distinct groups. The first of these is represented by the 
various species of the genus Juncella, and is characterized by the fact that 
its spicules include simple clubs. The second is restricted to the genus 
Nicella, and is distinctly separated by the character of its spicules, which 
include small double-clubs and long, densely warted spindles. 

The thiid comprises Ellisella, Scirpearia, Scii-pearella.and Ctenocella, which 
agiee in having neither clubs nor long spindles, but whose spicules all include 
double-clubs. These distinctions may be tabulated thus : — 

A- Spicules include clubs (Juncella). 
B. Spicules do not contain clubs — 

(1) Spicules include extremely elongated spindles (Nicella). 

(2) Spicules do not contain elongated spindles (Ctenocella, 

Ellisella, Scirpearia, Scirpearella). 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgoncllidae. 277 

In view of our previous discussion on Uio various characters which may 
be considered of taxonomic importance, we may now take each of these 
genera in rotation. 

(1) Ctcnocdla. — Only one species of this genus has so far been described, 
so that the generic diagnosis given above is a recapitulation of its specific 
characters. In spiculation it is essentially of the Scirpearia-type ; and the 
particular kind of spicules described above is quite characteristic of the 
group. It corresponds to the elongated double-club, which may approximate to 
the double-spindle, and eventually to the simple spindle which has been already 
described. It has been my privilege to examine a large number of colonies 
of this species (pectinata), and the only character in which it differs essentially 
from other genera is its peculiar mode of branching. The secondary and ter- 
tiary branches (see figs. 36-41), however, are long, simple, and flagelliform ; 
and if one of these detached branches be taken for identification, it will at 
once be referred to the genus Scirpearia. The disposition of the verrucae 
and the tyjxs of spicules correspond in every detail with the diagnosis 
of Scirpearia. Is it justifiable, then, to continue recognizing a genus on the 
basis of its branching alone, when a part of the same colony may be 
indisputably referred to another genus ? We prefer to answer this question 
in the negative, and consequently abolish the genus Ctenocella, and rank the 
only known species under the name Scirpearia pedinata. 

(2) Ellisdla. — It will be remembered that Kolliker in 1864 first drew 
attention to the spicules of this family, and, with the small amount of 
material at his disposal, separated the genus Juncella into two groups. 

(1) Those with clubs {J. juncca and /. gcmmacea), and (2) those without 
clubs {J. dongata). 

Studer (1878) in revising the family limited the generic diagnosis thus : — 

(1) Spicules : clubs, and double-clubs (Juncella). 

(2) Spicules : double-clubs, and spindles — 

A. Calyces not prominent (EUisella). 

B. Calyces markedly projecting (Scirpearia). 

In discussing the question of the nature of the verrucae we pointed out 
that this character could not be relied upon for even specific determination, 
so that Studer's groups A and B, or, in other words, the genera Ellisella and 
Scirpearia, cannot on this basis be regarded as distinct. 

In the descriptions of the various species of Ellisella which have since 
been established no further character of generic importance has been added, 
and an examination of the generic diagnosis of Ellisella and Scirpearia, given 
by Wright and Studer, shows them to be identical. Wc ha\e examined the 

278 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

type specimens of Ellisella, and compared them with authentic species of 
Seirpearia, and could find no reason for separating them. 

Hickson (xv, pp. 818-819), in his vahiable contribution to the study of this 
group, has suggested the abolition of the genus Ellisella and has united the 
species included under that name to those of the genus Juncella. He, 
however, divides the species so included into two groups — (1) those with clubs 
and (2) those without clubs, the former of which, as will be evident, 
corresponds to Juncella; and the latter, with tlie exception of /. spirnlis, 
which will be discussed later, to Ellisella as defined by their spiculation. 

The result of this is that the genus Juncella, which was distinguished by 
the presence of the clubs amongst its spicules, now includes forms whose 
spiculation is identical with that of Seirpearia and Scirpearella. 

The question now resolves itself into, " How are we to distinguish 
between (1) those species of Juncella whose spicules contain no clubs, 
(2) Seirpearia, ami (3) Scirpearella ? " In other words, we have still lo liiul 
generic character and separate Ellisella, Seirpearia, and Sciipcarella. 

As the result of an examination of nil the typo species of Ellisella, 
Scirpearella, and Scii-pcaria (with the exception of S. flngellum, of which, 
however, we have seen numerous authentic specimens in the Monaco 
collection), we are fully convinced that nothing in tiie spiculation of these 
types is of sufficient importance to be used as a generic character, so that it 
is incumbent upon us to examine in detail the other features which have 
been used as diagnostic. 

Braiifhinff. — Seirpearia is described as simple, Scirpearella as simple or 
very feebly branched, and Ellisella as simple or dichotomously branched. 
Now the question of branching, as lias lieen already shown, is of no importance 
in diagnosis. Specimens otherwise identical are described in this memoir, in 
which one may be of great length and simple, another elongated and 
bifurcating, while a third may 1x5 of no exceptional height and yet very 
markedly branched. A very good example of tliis may be seen in Seirpearia 
fnrcatu. Contrast (1) the specimen.-) from Mcrgui — (2) that orginally described 
by Thomson and Hendei-s<m as Seirpearia, sp., and (3) the specimen from 
Providence Island, all of which are included in this report. The very fact, 
however, that a species of Scii-pearia has been described in which branching 
occurs shows the futility of relying upon this feature. 

Nature of the Verntcac. — The question of prominent or non-prominent 

verrucae has ah-eady been discussed, and, as it has implicitly been abandoned 

. by most authors, need not occupy our time here ; but it is essential to pomt 

out that the omisssion of this as a generic character almost finally necessitates 

the abolition of the genus Ellisella, 

Simpson — A Revision of the GorgoneUidw. 279 

We would, Uiercforc, in view of these considerations, put forward the 
following emended classification, and proceed to define the various genera in 
terms of such characters as seem to warrant attention. 


JuNCELLiD Group. 

Division 1. Spicules include cluhs (Juncella). 
Division 2. Spicules do not include clubs — 

A. Spicules include long warty spindles and small double-clubs 


B. Spicules include double-clubs and elongated double-clubs 


VIII. — Emended Diagnoses of the Family and Geneea. 

Specimens belonging to this family may be either simple or branched. 
"Wlien simple, they frequently attain a length of three feet, though colonies 
of five or six feet long are not uncommon. "Wlien branched, the branching 
may be (1) very sparse, (2) more frequent and dendriform, or (3) flabellate. 
The branches are usually long and flagelliform. The coenenchyma is usually 
thin, arenaceous on the surface, and very granular throughout ; it is densely 
packed with small spicules, and is separated into an outer non-canal-bearing 
part and an inner canal-bearing part. 

The canal system consists of two longitudinal series, situated circum- 
ferentially ; the inner series separates the coenenchyma from the axis, and 
the outer separates the two parts of the coenenchyma mentioned above. 
Between these two series, solenia ramify in all directions and unite them. 
The canals of the outer series are all equal in size ; but in the inner series 
there is a certain number, definite for the specimens, larger than the others. 
These are known as the main longitudinal canals. The most frequent number 
is two, but three and /oi«* also occur. 

The polyps are disposed in a certain number of longitudinal series, which 
are defiued by and correspond to the number of main longitudinal canals ; 
these are separated by longitudinal bare tracts, which occupy the region of 
the main canals. The verrucae vary greatly in shape, not only in different 
specimens, but in dilferent parts of the same colony. They may project 
considerably or may be depressed below the surface of the coenenchyma. In 
each scries there may bo one or more longitudinal rows ; but the number is 

K.I.A. PKOC, VOL. .\XVUI., SECT. B. [2 .P] 

280 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

not constant at the various levels in any one colony. The anthocodiae are 
very simple ; the tentacles are short and conical, and bear a siagle row of 
short, simple pinnules on each side. There are scale-like spicules on the 
aboral surface of the tentacles. 

The axis is composed of a homy substance impregnated with carbonate of 
lime. It consists of concentric laminae, which are deposited on the periphery; 
and it retains its shape on decalcification. 

The spicules are extremely minute, and contain the following types : — 
(1) Indian club-shaped forms known as clxihs ; (2) dumb-bell foims known 
as double-clubs; and (3) spindle-shaped forms or sjnndlcs. Intermediate 
forms such as elongated double-clubs and double-spindles may also occur. 

Qenus Juncella emend. 

Colony simple or branched ; the coenenchyma is usually thick ; the polyps 
are distributed (1) irregularly over the whole coenenchyma or (2) in definite 
longitudinal series, defined by the position of a number of main canals, 
constant for the species. The verrucae (1) may be sunk within pit-like 
depressions, (2) may be low and dome-like, or (3) may be sub-conical and 
adpressed to the stem ; all these conditions may appear m one colony. The 
axis is formed of concentric layers of a horny substance impregnated with 
lime ; there is usually a more densely calcareous core. 

The coenenchjTna consists of two layers — (1) an outer, containing no 
canals, in which the polyps are retracted ; and (2) an inner, which is bounded 
both externally and internally by a circle of small canals, and which is 
penetrated by a network of small solenia uniting these two series. 

The outer series of canals communicates directly with the polyps. A 
certain number, two or three, of the canals of the inner series, sj-mmetrically 
arranged, are larger than the others, and are known as the main canals. 
Their position defines in most cases the distribution of the polyps. The 
spicules are extremely small ; they contain clubs, but otherwise are typical of 
the family. 

Genus Scirpearia emend. 

The colony may be (1) simple and flagelliform, (2) slightly branched, 
(3) much branche<l and dendriform, or (4) branched in one plane. The 
branches themselves are usually long and flagelliform. The coenenchyma 
varies greatly in thickness in the different species. The canal system is 
typical of the group; so far only species with two or four large main 
longitudinal canals are known. The verrucae are disposed in a number of 
longitudinal series, the number of which is the same as the number of main 
canals. As in Juncella the number of transverse rows in each series varies 

Simpson — A Revision of the GorgonelliJae. 281 

in the different parts of the colony. Tlie verrucae themselves vary in shape 
and size according to .the stage of retraction and also according to their 
position in the colony. They may l)e elongated and conical, wart-like, or even 
depressed below the surface of the coenenchyma. The axis is composed of 
concentric laminae impregnated with lime ; the surface is marked liy 
longitudinal ridges and furrows; but the number of these diminishes towards 
the tip of the colony. The spicules contain " double-clubs," but neither 
" clubs" nor extremely long " double-spindles " or " spindles." 

Genus Nicella emend. 
The colony may be simple, slightly branched, dichotomously branched 
or variously branched, with frequent anastomoses in one plane. The 
coenenchyma is thin and finely granular ; the surface presents an arenaceous 
appearance. The polyps are disposed in longitudinal series which alternate 
with, and correspond in number with, the main longitudinal canals. In the 
species so far known there are two main longitudinal canals. The number of 
rows in any series varies according to the position in the colony ; and in the 
older parts the polyps may encroach on the bare tracts so as to almost 
obliterate them. The verrucae vary in shape and size according to the stage 
of retraction ; when expanded they stand usually at right angles to the stem 
and are terminally truncated ; when f uUy retracted they are low and conical 
or dome-like ; intermediate stages always occur. The axis is composed of 
concentric laminae, and is densely calcareous ; it is typically Gorgonellid in 
character. The spicules consist of small double-clubs and slightly elongated 
double-clubs, but characteristic are elmyjated dmiUe-spindles and spindles. 
These latter types are quite distinct, and there are no intermediate forms 
linking the two sets — i.e. double-clubs and spindles — together. They are also 
usually large in most species. 

IX. — Genus Juncella emend. 
A historical review of this genus has already been given, and also an 
emended diagnosis. In the restricted emended sense — i.e. those Qorgonellids 
whose spicules include " clubs " — the following species must be taken into 
consideration : — 

1. Juncella j'uncea Pallas. 

2. Juncella fragilis Eidley. 

3. Juncella flexilis Studer. 

4. Juncella harhademis^ Wiight and Studer. 

' It is extiemely doubtful whether the Bpecimen identified by Wright and Studer as /. barba- 

densis is the same as the original specimen of that name, so that it has been considered advisable to 
keep them separate. The " Chalk-Mger " /. bariadeiisis is a Juncella ; the original may not be. 


28"2 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

5. JuneeJla gemmacM^ Valenciennes. 

6. JunceUa ractmosa "Wright and Studer. 

7. JunteUa miniaeea Thomson and Henderson. 

8. Juncdla trilineata Thomson and Henderson. 

But in addition to these the following species have been also referred 
to this genus : — 

9. JunceUa santat-erueis Duch. and MIcIl 

10. Juntella funieulina Duch. and Mich. 

11. JiiHuUa harbadensis^ Duch. and Mich. 

12. Juncdla rimcn Ellis and Solander. 

13. Juncdla calyculata Ellis and Solander. 
14 JunceUa hydrix Valenciennes. 

15. Juncdla suradus Johnson. 

16. Juncdla lacris Verrill. 

17. Juncdla extans VerrilL 

Species 9-17 are, however, so imperfectly known that it is absolutely 
impossible to include them in any scheme of classification. In several cases 
they are names without descriptions ; and in the others, the descriptions are 
extremely vague, and are based on characters which are now known to be of 
no specific value. In no case have the spicules been investigated, so that it is 
even impossible to say whether they actually belong to this genus or not ; 
in fact, it b more than probable that they are not all referable to Juncdla. 

I have carefully searched through several old collections for authentic 
specimens of any of these ; but the result has been negative, so that in the 
absence of type-specimens, but for the sake of completeness, it has been 
decided to place them in a group — " incertae sedis " — by themselves, and give 
such references and descriptions as are available. 

An attempt, however, has been made to trace the affinities of species 1-8 
Each of these is discussed in detail under its place in the emended classi- 
fication suggested later, so that it is necessary here only to consider the 
characters on which the classification is founded. 

The first and most important of these is " the number of viain longitudinal 
canals," and this at once separates off Juncdla trilineaia from the others. 

An examination of the spicules marks Juncdla raccmosa as distinct (see 
figs. 14 and 23j. In addition to this, however, the general nature of the 
colony and the mode of branching are distinctive for this species, which 
under the present system includes Juncdla minncea. There, therefore, remain 
only species 1-5 to be considered. JunceUa JUriiii, J. fragilis, and J. barba- 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 283 

densis have proved to be but young stages of J. juncea, and must therefore be 
inchided under the older name ; so that the number of species is now 
restricted to two, viz., Jv.nceUa juncea and Juncella gemmacea. There can Vje 
no doubt that these two names have been very loosely used in the identi- 
fication of specimens, and with great justification; for after an examination of 
the macroscopic and microscopic character of a very large number of each of 
these, it must be confessed that it is almost impossible to distinguish between 
a branch of Juncella gemmacea and a portion of a colony of Juncella juncea of 
about the same size. 

Large specimens of J. juncea and complete colonies of J. gemmacea are 
unmistakable on account of the great diiference in the nature of the 

In the former the colonies are always simple or sub-simple, while in the 
latter they are very much branched and markedly dendriform. Solely for 
this reason has it been considered justifiable to maintain these as distinct 

The spicules are identical both in type and measurements ; but the 
extreme nature of the branching, which commences almost at the very base 
of the colony in the case of J. gemmacea, and the normally simple character 
of J. juncea, and the great length and size to which colonies of the latter 
species may attain, seem to justify theii" recognition as distinct species. It 
must be noted, however, that it would be extremely inad%dsable to attempt to 
distinguish between one of the long terminal twigs of J. gemmacea and the 
tip of a colony of about the same thickness as J. juncea. For this reason it is 
difficult to decide exactly to what species certain records refer when these 
have been based on fragments. 

In J. juncea there are two externally different tj^es, but morphologically 
these are the same. In one of these the lateral bare tracts which correspond 
to the two main longitudinal canals are evident throughout, but in the other 
there is no trace of these. 

The importance of this has been discussed under the species ; and it has 
been considered highly inadvisable to separate them, imless as varieties. 
This step has been taken only to obviate any future misapprehension. 

I would therefore suggest the following classification : — 

Species of JunceUa. 
A. Longitudinal main canals tico in number. 

(1) Colony simple, flagelliform — J. juncea Valenciennes, emend. 

(2) Colony much branched and somewhat bushy ; branches 

liform— J", gemvmcea Valenciennes, emend. 

284 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(3) Colony delicate, branched in one plane; branches tending to 
arise from one side — J. racemosa Wright and Stnder. 

B. Longitudinal main canals three in number. 

f4j Colony branched as in J^ yemynacea — J. trilineata Thomson and 

X. — Juncella juncea. 

Junei lapidd Pliny, Hist. Xat., p. 13, c. 25. 

Palmijuneui albu-i, Eumph, Amb. \-i, p. 126. 

Keratophifton simplex Seba, Thes. Ill, t. 105, fig. la. 

Gorgonia Juneea Pallas, xr^iii, p. 180. 

„ „ Pallas, xx^-ii, p. 226. 

Esper, \u, ii, p. 26, PI. m. 

„ „ Lamarck, ixiv, ii, p. 15, n. 34. 

„ „ Lamouroux, xxv, p. 419. 

„ „ Dana, iii, p. 664. 

Helittlla „ Gray, xi, p. 481. 

JunttUa „ Val., xvi, p. 14. 

Val., xlv, p. 182. 

Milne-Edwards and Haime, xxvi, p. 186. 

„ „ VerriU, xlvii, p. 37. 

Gray, xii, p. 204. 

KoUiker. xxiii, p. 140, L 18, f. 45, 46. 

„ „ Thomson and Henderson, xxxix, p. 314. 

„ gemmaeea Thomson and Henderson, xxxix, p. 313, PI. iv, figs. 4 
and 5. 

„ junua Ridley, xxxiii, p. 345. 

Gray, xii, p. 25. 

„ „ HicksoD, XV, p. 820. 

„ „ Studer, xxxiv, p. 659. 

„ „ Studer, xxr\-ii, p. 116. 

„ „ Wright and Studer, 1, p. 158, PI. xxxlv, fig. 12 ; PI. xu, 

fig. 38. 

Kent Sa>-ille, xxi, p. 92. 

„ JUxQit Studer. 

„ „ Germanoe, viiL 

„ „ Hickson, rv, p. 821. 

/ragilis PJdley, xxxiii, p. 347, PI. XXXI, fig. D. 

var., xxxiii. 

„ „ Thomson and Henderson, xxxix, p. 314. 

Simpson — A Revision of the GorgonelUdac. 285 

Juncclla fragilis var. ruljra Thomson and Henderson, xxxix, p. 314. 
„ harbadensis Duch. and Mich., v, p. 22, PI. v, fig. 5. 
,, „ Wright and Studcr, 1, p. 159, VI. xxiv, fig. 14 

Juncella juncea. 

This is a very old species, as may be seen from the Bibliography. I'allas 
referred it to the genus Gorgouia; but Valenciennes, in 1841, rightly 
considered it as a Juncellid, and placed it in the genus Juncella ; and in this 
genus it has remained, and has been so regarded by most authors; but, in 
1859, Gray, for no apparent reason, established the genus Helicella to include 
it. No one has, however, confirmed his opinion, so that it is unnecessary to 
discuss its position there. The species is a fairly distinctive one ; but very 
little positive content has ever been given to it. Ridley, in his Eeport on the 
Alcyonaria collected by H.M.S. " Alert," says : — " Neither Milne-Edwards and 
Haime nor Valenciennes give details full enough to enable the student to 
identify their species satisfactorily with that of Pallas and Esper. In the 
' Alert ' specimens and that figured by Esper the verrucae are closely packed 
over the cortex. In our specimen, which is about 46 inches (1150 mm.) 
long by 6 mm. thick at the present broken base and .3 "5 mm. thick at the 
tip, the basal end is almost smooth, the verrucae being either level with the 
surface or depressed below it ; towards the middle of the length they become 
projecting until they reach a height of about 1'25 mm. ; they are then 
adpressed against the surface of the cortex. A distinct median groove is to 
be traced along most of the stem." 

This was a most important contribution, and was the first description of 
the variation in the size of the verrucae, which is such a marked feature in 
this species, and which has led to several mistakes in identification. 

KoUiker, in 1865, first introduced the question of spicules into this 
species, and gives two figures of these (Tab. xvin, figs. 45 and 46). One of 
these represents a thick single-club, and the second a double-club. In the 
many records and short descriptions which occur scattered throughout 
Alcyonarian literature very little further was added, so that the followmg short 
description sums up the chief points upon which the species was identified. 
The colony is simple and elongated ; the cortex is thick ; the spicules contain 
clubs and double-clubs ; the A'errucae vary in size in the various parts of the 
colony (Pddley) ; the axis is hard and calcareous ; there are usually two bare 
streaks in the coenench}Tna. * 

Practically no attention was paid to the extraordinary fertility of 
variation which occurs with regard to all these characters, not only in 
different specimens, but also in ditfereut parts of the same specimen; nor 

286 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

was there any allowance made for different stages of development. As a 
result of this, three species— ^^z., J. fragUis, J. Jlcvilis, and J. barhadcnsis — 
were established on what must now be regarded as young colonies of this 
species. The large number of specimens, which undoubtedly belong to this 
species which we have been able to examine in detail with respect to the 
differences on which these three species were based, confirm beyond doubt 
the opinion of several authors — notably Kidley,Studer,Hickson, and Thomson, 
that these cannot be regarded as distinct. 

I give here a short description of these three species, followed by a 
systematic study of a large number of specimens which may help to give a 
true estimate of the variability of certain characters and the constancy of 
othei-s, and so foim a basis for a definite specific diagnosis. 

J. fragilis Eidley. 

In 1884 Eidley established tlic species /rayiVfs for two specimens from 
Queensland with the following characteristics : — Stem long, unbranched, 
diminishing very slowly to the tip, which may be either clavate or sharp- 
pointed, flexible, and easily broken. The diameter at the base is 5 mm., at 
the apex .'5-4 mm., except wlien the apex consists of a fine point. Tlie cortex 
is thick and crcamy-wliilc when dry ; there is no trace of a lateral line in 
the up\)er three-fourths. The verrucae are small, about 1 mm. in height, 
clavate, closely adpresscd against the cortex, crowded over all parts ; axis 
very slender, about 1 mm. in diameter at the base and hair-like at the apex ; 
near the base it is olive-brown, hard, and beset with longitudinal striae. 
The cortical spindles are the same as in </. gemmacca. He points out the 
following diflerences between this species and J. f/cmmacca: — 

(1) The verrucae arc small and crowded. 

(2) There are no lateral lines in the upper three-fourths. 

(3) Tlie colour is pale creamy-white. 

(4) The heads of the double stellate spicules are more abundantly 


Later, in 1887, Eidley referred, with doubt, two colonies from Mergui to 
this species as a variety. One of these was white or cream-coloured, the 
other was pale brick-red. He notes that these specimens approach J.juncca, 
wliich, he says, is distinguished from J- frayilis by its gieater size, its red 
colour, its larger and more distant polyp-verrucae, the presence of a space 
bare of verrucae above the base and by the possession of equal-ended douljle- 
stars. These specimens, he says, stand midway betweenjV.ncat ajid fragilis. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gonionellidue. 287 

In 1905 Thomson and Henderson refencd several fragments from Ceylon 
to this species. The axis was marked by longitudinal striae. In some the 
verrucae were nearly 2 mm. in height, and the diameter of the axis was 
1 mm. ; in others the verrucae were much smaller, and the diameter of the 
axis was 2 mm. The spicules showed some variation from those in Kidley's 

Juncella fragilis \ar. rubra. 

In the same paper Thomson and Henderson established a new variety, 
namely, ruh-a, to include a long, flexible, complete colony, which tapered 
gradually throughout its entire length. There was no trace of a lateral line 
or groove. The verrucae were numerous and closely adpressed, measuring 
about 1 mm. in height. 

From the above descriptions it is evident that this species has no definite 
specific character. Eidley himself had doubts as to its distinctiveness ; but 
its " simple " character at once separates it from J. gcmmacea. The specimens 
from Mergui are undoubtedly J. juncca ; but Eidley practically acknowledges 
this. I have examined the specimens described by Thomson and Henderson, 
and although these undoubtedly coincide with the description of J. fragilis, 
they also agree with young forms of J. juncca. A comparison of these 
specimens and Eidley's descriptions, with the numerous colonies of various 
ages which I was fortunate in obtaining at Mergui, proves beyond doubt that 
this species was based on young stages of J. juncca, so that I would suggest 
the merging of this species into J. juncca. At the same time the variations 
in the different characters, as seen in these specimens, are of great interest, 
and show how difficult it is to be certain of any species on a single or even_a 
few specimens, especially if they are yoimg. The question of the size of the 
verrucae and the presence or absence of bare spaces in this species is 
discussed further on, so that it is necessary here to note only its relative 
position in classification. 

Juncella flexilis Studer. 

This species was estabhshed by Studer for a small specimen (probably 
young) with the following characters : — 

" The stem is simple, rising from a Hat base. The colony is only 
20 cms. in height. The axis is thin and flexible, but contains lime 
The polyps first arise at a level of 2 cms. from the base ; they occur 
at first in two lateral rows, soon increasing in number, and occupying in 
the upper part the whole surface of the stem. The verrucae are 2 mms. 
long, are club-shaped, and are curved towards the stem. The coenenchyma 


2^58 ProceeiJings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

is thin, and contains an external layer of clubs, and below this a layer of 
double-clubs. The colour is dark red. 

Germanos (vm) identified a small specimen from Ternate with this 
species. It had two branches' (the type specimen is simple). He makes 
the following obser\-ations : — 

The colour is orange-red. The stem is cylindrical, with a rigid axis 
consistiiig of several concentric and homy layers. The branches are much 
compressed, and have a flexible axis. The spicules of the coenenchyma are 
clubs and double-wheels. The verrucae are high, club-shaped, and are curved 
towards the stem; they contain club-shaped spicules; the anthocodiae are 
white, entirely retractile, and have small spindles. 

Hickson (.XT) pro\-isionally referred some specimens to this species, but 
expressed an opinion that they might be young forms of J.juncm. 

The remarks which we have made with regard to J. fragUU apply equally 
well to this species ; and we would confirm Hickson 's opinion and merge this 
species into the older J.juncm. 

Localitks. — Between Flat Island and Mauritius (Studer). Ternate 
(Germanos). S. Nilandu, Maldives, 25-30 fms. (Hickson). 

Joncella barbadensis. 

Jitncdla harha<Unsis Wright and Studer, I, p. 159, PI. XXXIV, fig. 14. 

^Mien Dnchassaing and Michelotti described this species, they emphasized 
characters which have since proved to be of no specific importance. 

Wright and Studer, however, with considerable hesitation, regarded 
two small fragments in the " Challenger " collection as young stages of 
either barbadensis or juniculinn ; but at the same time note that certain 
identification is impossible, owing to the very brief description given by 
the authors and the absence of the type specimen to which reference 
mi^ht be made. 

In the " Challenger " specimens the coenenchyma is thin, and the spicules 
seem related to those of the J.juntta. They consist of unsymmetrical clubs, 
double-stars and spindles, which give the same measurements as those of 
J. jnncta. 

Wright and Studer note that in some respects their specimens resemble 
J. JUxUis Studer. 

From the foregoing it is quite endent that this is not a distinct species 
and I have no hesitation in referriag it to J. juncca. 

Localiij/. — Off > 'n'rero Island. 450 fathoms. 

' It ii Tioi improbable that this vu i joimg colony of /. fimMuet, 

Simpson — A Itcvision of the Gorgondlidae. 289 

Juncella juncea. 

In the Mergui Collection there are niinicrous specimens of this species ; 
and a study of these has enabled me to define this species with some precision. 
A superficial examination of these reveals two distinct types which, for the 
present, may be regarded as varieties with the following distinction : — 

Var. a — with slightly protruding verrucae and with the polyps all over 

the coenenchyma. 
Var. &— with markedly protruding verrucae and with two bare longitudinal 


I would emphasize the fact that these are but superficial differences, 
and that no taxonomic importance can be attached to them — consequently 
I refrain from naming them. I shall first examine them macroscopically 
with regard to theii' superficial differences. 

Var. a. — Fig. 9 [a, h, and c) gives a very good impression of the external 
appearance of this variety. The polyps are distributed irregularly over 
the ivliole coenenchyma, so that, at any one level, the arrangement is the 
same from any aspect. In the younger part of the colony — that is towards 
the tip — the verrucae are slightly club-shaped, and are adpressed to the 
axis, and are sunk in very shallow pits. About seven or eight may be 
seen on one transverse line (fig. 9c). 

Towards the middle of the colony the number increases to nine or ten, 
the verrucae project less, appear smaller, and are sunk in deeper pits. They 
are not so closely packed as in the younger part (fig. 9&). 

Near the base of the colony the appearance is quite different. The polyps 
are separated by intervals two, three, or more times the diameter of the 
verrucae. They are much smaller than in the upper parts, and the verrucae 
are now almost surrounded or engulfed by the coenenchyma (fig. 9J). 

Var. h. — (See corresponding figures, Via, b, and c.) 

In this variety the polyps are restricted to two definite longitudinal 
series, separated by two bare spaces, whose position is marked by a more or 
less distinct groove. Throughout the whole colony the polyps are more 
protruded than in the previous variety. The colony is more slender and 
tapering, and the coenenchyma is thinner. 

Near the tip of the colony there are usually two or three polyps in each 
series (fig. 12c). 

Towards the middle of the colony four or five is a common nimiber in a 
corresponding position. (Fig. 12i gives a view of the pit-tike depression in 
the area devoid of polyps.) 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Near the base the number increases to seven or eight (fig. 12a). The 
verrucae throughout are sub-conical and are adpressed to the stem, although 
in some cases they ai-e slightly dome-like. 

The following tables give a few measurements from several colonies of 
both of these varieties: — 

Table A. 


Height of 

Colony in 


Diameter of Colony in 

of axis 
at base. 

TbicknesB of 


at base. 

Thickness of 


near tip. 



Near apex. 










82 + 




3-5 (-5) 






























































62 + 




4-6 (-6) 





6 6-5 





Simpson — A Revision of the GorffoneUidae. 


Table J3. 



Diameter of Colony. 


of mis 
at base. 

Thickness of 


at base. 

o a 




] HO 


























































100 + 




4-5 (0-5) 




































83 + 




5-5 (0-5) 


















































































































The superficial differences between the two varieties having been noted, 
we may consider the general morphology of the species, and soe to what 
extent the varieties are worthy of distinction. 

292 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Coenenchyma. — Figs. 10 {a, b, and c) and 13 («, 6, and c) are given to show 
the structvu'e of the coenenehyma at the same levels as the corresponding 
figs. 9 («, b, and e) and 12 (a, b, and c) respectively. The coenenehyma may 
be differentiated into two distinct regions — (1) an outer superficial layer, in 
which the polyps are embedded, and which contains no canals ; and (2) an 
inner layer, which is intersected by a mesh work of transverse canals. 

In var. a the superficial layer is much thinner than the inner layer ; but 
in var. b the superficial layer is the thicker of the two. At the tip of the 
colony there is a conical growing point devoid of polyps and having no canals. 
The thickness of the coenenehyma hardly varies throughout the colony. 

Canal Si/sfems. — Tliis consists of (1) a longitudinal system and (2) a 
transverse system. The longitudinal system is composed of two series of 
longitudinal canals — (a) an outer, situated between the two layers of the 
coenenehyma, and with which the polyps connect directly ; and (b) an inner, 
situated between the inner layer of the coenenehyma and the axis. These 
two 8y8t«ms are united by the transverse canals which penetrate the inner 
layer of the coenench)Tna. 

The number of canals in each of the two longitudinal series diminishes in 
number from the base of the colony upwards. This, of course, is natural, 
since the number of polyps also decreases. 

In the inner series of longitudinal canals there are two, situated diametri- 
cally opposite one another, which are much larger than the others. They 
occur in both varieties ; but in the case of var. b they correspond to the 
position of the longitudinal bare spaces. 

The greater thickness of the coenenehyma in var. a may explain the 
absence of this phenomenon in the latter variety. 

ArU. — The axu< is marked by longitudinal ridges and furrows. The 
number of these correspond to the number of canals in the inner longitudinal 
series, and consequently diminishes towards the apex, so that this character 
is of no taxonomic importance (fig. 11 (a, b, andc)). The structure of the 
axis is ver)' well seen in this species. It is composed of concentric laminae 
of horn, impregnated with small limy sclerites. To the inside of the canals 
of the inner longitudinal series a layer may be detached showing the sclerites 
in situ. The innermost layers are much more densely spiculose than the 
outer. The diameter of the axis (unlike the coenenehyma) gradually 
diminishes towards the tip of the colony, where it becomes almost hair-like, 
and contains very little lime. 

Simpson — A llevision of the (Jor(/oucUidue. 293 

Spicidea uf J. jaiwca. 

The characteristic spicule is the simple-chib, which has been described 
already. A few typical variations are also shown in fig. 14. These are also 
double-stellate forms and double wheels or capstans. The following arc 
some of the measurements, length by breadth, in niillimetres : — 

(1) Cluhs.—0-ll X 0'04; 0-1 x 0-035; 0-09 x 0-034; 0-085 x 0-032; 

0-08 X 0-03; 0-08 x 0-02. 

(2) Bonhk Stors.— 0-01 x 0-05; 0-09 x 0-045; 0-08 x 0-04; 0-08 x 0-03. 

Distribution of J. juncea. 

(1) Australia. — Port Denison, Queensland, 4 fathoms (as J.fmcm and 
J. fragilis) ; Dirk Hartog, W. Australia, 45 fathoms ; Mermaid Straits, X.W. 
Australia, 50 fathoms; Torres Straits, 7-11 fathoms. 

(2) Oft' Sombrero Island, West Indies (as J. harhadensis). 

(3) King Island Bay and elsewhere (Mergui). 

(4) Ceylon Seas (as J. Jmicea), Gulf of Manaar (as J. fragilis), 

(5) Bourbon, and between Flat Island and Mauritius (as J. flexUis). 
(6j Ternate (as J. flcxilis). 

(7) Maldives (as J. flexilis) . 

(8) Off Table Island, Cocos Group, Andamans, 15-35 fathoms. 

Specific Diagnosis of J. jmicea. 

Colony simple or sub-simple, elongate, sometimes filiform, sometimes very 
thick : the coenenchyma varies greatly in thickness in the difterent specimens, 
but is constant in each ; this aft'ects the external appearance of the colony. 
The canal system is of the typical Gorgouellid structure, and there are tico 
main longitudinal canals. These may or may not produce an external 
impression ; in colonies with a thin coenenchyma their position is denoted 
externally by two longitudinal bare tracts ; but in those with a very thick 
coenenchyma, no trace of this is to be seen. The polyps are distributed 
diflerently in these two types ; in the former they are disposed in two 
longitudinal series, in which there is a varying number of rows, whicli 
diminish from the base upwards ; in the latter they are crowded all over the 
coenenchyma. The verrucae vary greatly in shape in the difterent parts of 
the colony ; near the base they are low and dome-like, or may even be 
depressed beneath the surface of the coenenchyma ; they gradually increase 
in size until near the top they are usually aub-conical, dii-ected upwards, and 
adpressed to the coenencliyma. The axis is hard and flexible ; it is composed 

294 Proceedings of the ttoijal trish AcademiJ. 

of concentric laminae, which consist of a homy substance iiupreguated with 
some form of calcareous matter. The surface is marked l)y longitudinal grooves, 
which correspond in number \.a the inner series of longitudinal canals, and 
therefore diminish from the base upwards. Sometimes two larger than the 
others are to be seen, and these represent the position of the two main 
canals. The spicules consist of the usual Juncella types, and include clubs, 
double-wheels, and double-stars. The colour varies from pure white, through 
orange, to dark red. 

XI. — Juncella gemmacea. Figs. 15-19. 

Gorgonia gemmacea Valenciennes, MSS. dans la Coll. du Mus. Paris. 

Verriuxlla „ Milue-Edwards and Haime, xxvi., p. 185, B 2, f. 7. 

JiDiceila „ KoUiker, xxiii., p. 140, t, 14, f. 4. 

„ „ "Wright and Studer 1., p. 158, PI. xxxiv, fig. 13. 

„ „ var. Ridley, xxxii., p. 241. 

„ „ Studer xxx\'ii., p. 117. 

„ Thomson and Russell, xliii., p. 162. 

Elliiella „ Gray, xii., p. 26. 

ElliseUa macuiaUi (pars) Wright and Studer, 1. 

Junctlla elongata var. Ridley xxxiiL, p. 346. 

Valenciennes in 1855 established this species to include a specimen in the 
Natural History Museum in Paris, under the name of Gorgonia gemviacea 
(MSS. dans la collect, du Museum Paris). 

In 1857 Milne-Edwards and Haime tefen-ed the species to the genus 
VeiTucella, and defined it as follows : — 

" Polj'pieroide dont les branches, assez nombreuses et cylindriques, se 
dichotomosent de loin en loin, et s'^cartent beaucoup entre elles ; les 
ramuscules terminaux allonges. Coenenchyme trcs-friable, d'un jaune 
ferrugineux k la surface et blancli&tre puis de I'axe. Verrues caliciferes tres- 
saillantes, arrond^es et dressees centre la tige." 

They give a very good figure, showing the mode of branching. In 1865 
KoUiker removed the species from the genus Verrucella to Juncella, and 
noted for the first time that " clubs " occurred amongst the spicules just as in 
J. juticea. He gives two figures — (1) a club-shaped spicule (woodcut 19, 1); 
(2) a cross-section of the axis (Pl. xia', fig. 4). 

Gray in 1870 referred this species to the genus ElliseUa with no apparent 
justification. (See our Historical Note.) This change, however, was not 
recognized by any subsequent authors, so that Ridley in 1884 identified 
some specimens from Queensland, under the name of J. gemmacm, and 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidac. 295 

remarked that the spicules are ahimst indistinguishable from those of 
J. janccK, while at the same time he expressed tiie opinion that ./. flexili^ 
Studer might not be a distinct species. The position of this species has 
already been discussed. 

It would be useless to go in detail into all the records of this species ; 
and in fact, it is very difficult to say whether the records of J. jwncea and 
J. gcmmacea are all correct in identification, as several authors do not mention 
whether their colonies were simple or branched. Another complication, 
however, creeps in. When fragments of colonies were examined, is it not 
possible that a branch of J. gcmmacea might be referred to J. juncea, 
especially when we remember that the question of branching is the chief 
distinction between the two species ? 

Before going on to discuss the various characters of this species in detail, 
I would give the following quotation, as it is not only of great interest, but 
has apparently been overlooked by several authors in their identification of 
this species. 

Ridley (1884) referred a colony from the N.-E. coast of Australia to 
the species elongata ; but in 1887 (xxxii,, p. 241) he replaced it in the species 
gcmmacea, noting that he had overlooked the fact that J. elongata had no 
" clubs." He says : — " It will be seen that we probably have a very variable 
species before us, colour, form, and size being alike not to be depended on by 
themselves. The spiculation is fairly constant, but differs so little from 
that of the allied forms [J.juiicellct and fragilis) as to be scarcely a sufficient 
guide per se to the recognition of the species." 

From the fact that the specimen referred to was dichotomously branched, 
I feel justified in recognizing it as J. gemiimcea. An interesting feature 
about this specimen is the fact that when found it had been broken off at the 
base, and the broken part had been overgrown with coenencJiyma, so that it 
had been living free in the water. An analogous state was observed in the 
case of a specimen of Isis hippuris Linn, in the Littoral Collection from the 
Indian Ocean. 

In the Mergui Collection there is a large number of specimens of this 
species, and these are augmented by several from the Indian Ocean Collection 
from the Indian Museum, Calcutta. By means of these it has been possible 
to study and compare several characters which are very variable in a 
manner which would have been impossible with only a single or even a few 

Branehiwj. — The mode of branching is of the nature of a false dichotomy. 
The large main branches of the colony are again branched almost in one 
plane, but Liie general appearance of the colony is bushy. 



Proceedings of the Royal Lt'-sh Academy. 

The distance between branchings, though not constant, seems to increase 
from the base upwards, so that the longest unbranched parts are the 
terminal twigs. This is more marked in the taller colonies. In young dwarf 
specimens the relative distances between the origin of the several branches 
in ascending order is less pronoiinced, and the branches themselves are pro- 
portionately thicker. These latter specimens therefore have a difterent 
appearance from the older and more elongated colonies, but must be ranked 
in this species when we take into consideration the mode of gix)wth, which 
will be discussed later. 

Before doing so, however, it will be well to tabulate corresponding 
mea.surements in individual colonies, and see how far these give us a clue to 
the mode of growth. Fortunately we have in our possession intermediate 
stages which show the different developments during growth from the 
shortest to the tallest. 

The following tables may ser\'e to form a basis for such a study. In 
Table A the measurements are all given in centimetres. The symbol + indi- 
cates that the exact length b not known, owing to the basis of attachment 
having been broken off. 

Table A. 



Lengtlt of 

Distance between » -_^|, ., , ■_ 
bnnches. '■ Leng«l> <>' t»>«»- 








12 + 





4 t 










5 + 















2 . 





S ♦ 





8 + 










3 + 



Figures 15, 16, and 17 show the branching in the colonies, which have 

been proportionately reduced. The largest (fig. 10) was 800 mm. in length. 

Let us consider two colonies wiiich in general build are (juite unlike one 

SiMP.soN — A lievisi'in of I Ik; Goriiondlidai: 


another. The large specimen is from Llie Mcigui Archipelago and the 
smaller is from the Andamans. 

The former is 400 mm. in height; the latter is 2.30 mm. in height: the 
longest twig in the former is 220 mm., that in tlie latter 70 mm. The 
greatest distance between branchings in the former is 120 mm.; in tiie latter 
it is only 27'5 ram. So far, then, the measurements are proportionate ; but 
wlien we take into consideration the corresponding diameters in tlie various 
parts, the difierence is at once very marked. In the smaller colony the total 
diameter of the several branches and twigs is greater than in the larger ; so 
that, at first, it is difficult to conceive that the dwarf colony could develop 
into a colony similar to the larger. 

Table B. 


Diameter of 
at origin. 

Length of 



Height of 


Diameter of 
at origin. 

Length of 



Height of 


Diameter of 
at origin. 

Length of 































5-5 . 





,220 ^ 






























Table B gives several measurements from three colonies of different 
sizes. One large branch has been selected and followed to the tip of the 
colony. The various lengths represent the consecutive distances at which 
branches arise from it. The first feature which may be seen from this Table 
is the fact that the distances at which the diflerent branches arise do not 
increase proportionately from the base upwards. (2) Such increase as 
exists is more marked in the taller specimens. (3) In the very dwarf 
colony, the distances actually diminish in the upper half. 

Let us now critically examine the measurements given in the same Table 

[2 7i'2] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

of the diameters at the corresponding parts. (1) The diameters of the 
branches in the young colony are equal to, and, in some cases, greater than, 
corresponding measurements in tlie older colonies. The series of measure- 
ments of twelve specimens given in Table C shows that (1) the length of the 
main stem varies very little ; (2) there is a distinct tendency towards an 
increase of length in the younger branches and twigs in the older specimens. 

Table C. 

1 Main Strm. 





■- i 

jo S 
■5 — 

rcuiltb in 



ickiiesa of 


anieter of 

ickness of 


ickness of 


ca « 



-S 2 


























































































































In Table C we have sougliL to analyse tlie uatiue of the constitution of 
the diameter — in other words, to find the actual proportion of a-xis and 
coeiiencliyma ; and here several very interesting and useful facts have come 
to light. 

( 1 ) The thickness of the coenenchyma at the tip of the twigs is almost 

a constant; in reality it is slightly thicker in the smaller specimens. 
It is noteworthy that the diameter of the axis at this part is 
negligible, being of a hair-like fineness. 

(2) Although the total diameter of branches lower down is greater than 

in the twigs, the actual thickness of the coenenchyma is never 
greater, and, in some cases, is actually less. 

Simpson — A Revision of Ihc Gorgonellidae. 299 

(3) The thickness of the coeneucliynia in lliu main steiu is seldom as 

great as in the branches or twigs, and is usually from 0"75 to 0'5 

times its thickness. 

Bearing these facts in mind, let us see if any inference may be made as 

to the mode of growth, and also as to the possibility of these apparently 

diverse forms being referable to a single species. 

(1) We find that what obtains with regard to the various measurements 

in different parts of the same colony also holds good in the 
corresponding parts of colonies of different sizes. 

(2) It is also obvious that increase in thickness in the older parts of a 

colony is due, not to increase of thickness in the coenenchyma, 
but to increase in the diameter of the axis. 

(3) Increase in length in the younger branches and twigs is not propor- 

tional to increase in the thickness of the coenenchyma, but tends 
rather to the reverse of this situation. 

We are therefore in a position to conclude that increase in the thickness 
of the coenenchyma is not proportionate to the age of the colony, but that 
the coenenchyma attains to its typical tliickness at a very early stage, and 
that further elongation and consequent thickness are caused more by the 
growth of the axis than the coenenchyma ; or, in other words, the earlier 
period of growth consists chiefly in development of the coenenchyma, while 
the strengthening of the axis and elongation of the colony come at a later 
period. Consequently the younger colonies are more bushy and fleshy, and 
the older colonies have proportionately a greater amount of axis, and are 
therefore more rigid. 

The distribution of the polyps, the nature of the verrucae, and the 
details of the canal-system are exactly similar to those described for the 
protruding verrucae variety of JmiccUa juncca. Figs. 18 and 19 have been 
added to show the leading characteristics; and these should be compared 
with the corresponding figures (12 and 13) of J. juncca. 

Colour. — The great majority of the specimens examined in this species 
are of a dark brick-red colour ; l^ut the following tints also occur : — 
(1) reddish orange, (2) brownish yellow, (3) orange-yellow, (4) lemon, and 
(•5) creamy-white. There is thus almost a series of gradations from white 
through orange to red. 

Spicides of J. gemmacca. 

The spicules of this species, as has already been pointed out, are identical 
both in types and measurements with those oi J. Juncca, so that the description 
and measurements given for the latter may be taken as typical. 

300 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Bistnhution of J. gemmacea. 

Eed Sea. 

Providence Island. 

Mascarene Island, 19 fms. 

Mermaid Straits. 

Queensland, X.-E. Australia : Percy Island, 0-5 fms. ; Port MoUe, 
12-20 fms. and between tide-marks ; Port Denison, 4 fius. ; Fitzroy 
Island, 11 fms. 

Amirante Island, 32 fms. 



King Island Bay, and elsewhere in the Mergui Archipelago, between tide- 
marks and up to 30 fms. 

Torres Straits, 8 fms. 

Gulf of Manaar. 

Torres Straits (as EUisdla maculata pars.). 

XII. — Juncella racemosa. Figs. 20-23. 

J. racemosa Wright and Studer, 1, p. 159, PI. xxxiv, fig. 11. 

J. vwiiacea Thomson and Henderson, xl, p. 81, PI. v, tigs. 7 and 12. 

J. racfinosa Thomson and Simpson, xli, p. 268. 

Tliis species was established by Wriglit and Studer for several small, 
dehcate, branched specimens in the "Challenger "Collection, with tlie following 
features : — The branches arise all in one plane ; in one specimen all the 
branches, to the very summit, are given off from the right side of the main 
stem, which is curved. Several of these are short and simple, while others 
are again branclied. All the branchlets are given oH' from one side of the 
branch, and, when branclied to a thiid degree, the same fact holds true. The 
polyps are uiunerous ; and on the stem and branches they show an eight- 
rayed star; on further contraction, they appear as small papillae ; when fully 
contracted, they are 1 mm. in heiglit and Oo mm. in diameter. On one 
surface of the stem and branches polyps are absent; and on this naked 
portion a feebly marked groove winds up the stem. The polyps are much 
more numerous and crowded on the smaller branches, where they are placed 
in three or four rows. The colour- of the coeneuchyma and polyps varies 
from reddish yellow to dark red. The bases of the polyps and tentacles are 
of a much lighter hue. The coenenchyma is thin, and hsis the characteristic 
spicules of Juncella. 

The figure of the spicules given in the " Challenger " Report (PI. xxxiv., 
fig. 11) does not, however, give a good appreciation of their- form ; and this led 

SiMr.soN — A Revision nf Ike GnrrjoneUldde. .'JOl 

Thomson and Henderson to establish a new species (J. miniacea) for a small 
specimen from tlie Indian Ocean. The long spindles described for the latter 
species have since proved to be extrinsic. 

An e.xamination of the type specimen, and also of the spicules of 
J. raccmosa in the British Museum, has proved beyond question that 
J. ininiacca is not distinct from ./. raccmosa. This has already been pointed out 
(Thomson and Simpson, xli.) in connexion with another specimen which 
occurs in the collection of Littoral Alcyonaria of the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta (figs. 20, 21, and 22). 

In the same collection, but hitherto undescribed, is a small portion of a 
delicate colony branched in one plane (fig. 21). The base is wanting ; and 
what appears to be the main stem may be only a primary branch which has 
been broken off at the point of attachment of an acorn shell. It is .30 mm. 
in length, and is distinctly cresceutic in shape. Five thread-like branches 
arise from the convex side, and one only from the concave. The longest of 
these is 55 mm. ; and it is noteworthy that the branches are also curved. 
They in turn give origin to finer branchlets, which, with very few exceptions, 
arise from the convex side. Two acorn-shells have become attached to the 
colony ; and these are overgrown with polyp-bearing coeuenchyma ; while 
one of them has given rise to a proliferation of the axis. 

The coenenchyma is very thin; and it is impossible to discover the nature 
and number of the main canals. 

The axis is thread-like, and is impregnated with lime. 

The polj'ps are more scattered than in any of the previously described 
specimens, and stand almost perpendicularly. The arrangement of these is 
not easily determined. In the finer twigs they occur in two single rows 
(fig. 22) ; but the intrusion of young polyps and consequent development 
tend to obliterate this symmetry, and give an irregular arrangement. 

The verrucae, when expanded, are cylindrical, and higher than broad ; in 
this condition an eight-rayed structure is seen at the top. On contraction 
they become dome-like, and no trace of the rays is to be seen. The colour of 
the colony is a pale brick-red throughout. 

The spicules are of the types characteristic of this species. 

Localitij. — Andamans. 

Diagnosis of J. racemosa. 

Colony delicate, branched in one plane ; the branches tend to arise from 
one side of the stem, and the branchlets show a similar tendency ; 
coenenchyma thin ; polyps in the finer twigs and at the tips of the branches 
are iisually disposed in two lateral rows ; in the older parts of the branches 

002 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

they occur irregularly over the coenenchyma. The verrucae, when expanded, 
are cylindrical, and either stand perpendicularly or are inclined upwards to 
the stem ; when contracted they are low and dome-like. The spicules are 
very minute, and are distinctly prickly in appearance (fig. 23). The following 
types may be distinguished : — 

(a) Slender clubs, with a distinct smooth middle portion, surmounted by 
a spiny head, only slightly thicker than the constriction. 

(6j Slicrt, stum])!/ clnls, much broader in proportion to their length, and 
with the spines slightly more divaricate. 

[c] Double wheels, with an elongated hub. 

{<!) Elongated forms, with a distinct smooth constriction, which may be 
conveniently termed double spindhs. 

(e) Occasional qiuidriradiatcs. 

(/) Needles in the anthocodiae. 

The following may be taken as typical measurements in millimetres as 
they occur in all the specimens so far known : — 



X 0'031 constriction 

0008 X 0008. 


X 0031 

0011 X 0008. 


X 0023 

0008 X 0-008. 



X 00.34 

0-008 X 0-009. 


X 0031 

0-011 X 0-008. 


X 0031 

0-008 X 0-008. 



X 0027 

0011 X 0008. 


X 0027 

0-011 X 0-009. 


X 0027 

0-008 X 0-008. 



X 0027 

0-011 X 0-008. 


X 0027 

0-011 X 0-011. 


X 0031 

0-008 X 0-008. 



X 0034 


01 X 

004, 006 X 


Colour-schemes — Brown throughout. 

Orange-red, with tips of the verrucae yellow. 
Pale brick-red. 

Localities. — '. 

Andamans, 120 fms. 
Andamans, „ 

ofif Japan, 345 fms. (Wriglit and Studer). 
(Thomson and Henderson). 
(Thomson and Simpson), 
(as stated above). 

SiMi'soK — A Rci'isiim (if Ihr < Icri/iiiirlliilac .303 

XIII.— Juncella trilineata. Figs. 24-26, 
Juncella trilineata Tliomsou and Henderson, .x.x.xix., p. 315. 

In 1905 Thomson and Henderson established this very characteristic 
species, of whicli the following notes are of particular interest. The specimen 
was sparingly branclied. "The polyps arise in three diflerent bands, leaving 
three narrow, bare strips, each of which has in its centre a bare rib or keel. 
Under each bare strip lies a large longitudinal canal." 

Only one specimen of this remarkable form has so far been described ; it 
was obtained at Patani, Siam. 

The spicules are of the Juncella type, and are hardly distinguishable 
from those of J. juncea. Very characteristic, however, is the presence of 
three main canals situated symmetrically around the axis. The result of this 
on the external appearance is that there are three longitudinal spaces on the 
eoenenchyma devoid of polyps ; the verrucae are therefore disposed in 
three longitudinal groups, and this arrangement is unique amongst 

" The polyps, which measure from I'l mm. to 1'5 mm. in height, are 
arranged in transverse rows of 3-4 ; but many smaller polyps occur which 
break this regularity." 

For a short distance from the end of the branches the polyps occur in 
three single rows (fig. 24) ; but passing downwards two, three, four, or more 
are to be seen, and scattered among these are immature forms, so that all 
that can be said with regard to the disposition of the polyps is that they 
occur in three longitudinal groups, the exact number in a transverse row 
depending on the position in the colony and on its stage of development. 

The eoenenchyma is of the typical Juncellid type ; it consists of an 
outer non-canal-bearing part and an inner canal-bearing part. These are 
separated by a concentric series of outer longitudinal canals. In the inner 
series of longitudinal canals which separate the eoenenchyma from the axis 
there are, however, three much larger than the rest ; these correspond to the 
three longitudinal tracts devoid of polyps and separate off the three polyp- 
bearing ridges (iig. 25). 

In the Indian Ocean Littoral Collection there occurs a small, simple 
colony, 55 mm. in height and 2-5 mm. in maximum diameter. The attach- 
ment has been broken oH', but has evidently not been far from the present 
base. For a short distance from the base there is a portion devoid of polyps. 
Throughout the remainder of the colony the polyps seem to be arranged in 
three irregular longitudinal series and as a cross-section reveals what are 
evidently the main caiials, we fool justified in referring the specimen to this 

K.I. A. FKOC, VOL. .\.\Vni., SKCT. U. [2 S] 

301 Proceedings of the lio/jal Irish Academy. 

species. The verrucae are about 1 mm. iu height, but are not so densely 
packed as in the tj-pe-specimen (fig. 24) ; but this may be due to its 
immature condition. 

The colour is orange-yellow, but the verrucae are paler. 

Locality — OS" Ceylon, 34 fms. 

I^iaffnosis of J. trilintata. 

Colony upright, sparingly branched, the branches long and slender. Very 
characteristic is the presence of three main longitudinal canals and the 
consequent disposition of the polyps in three longitudinal groups. The 
verrucae may show the diflereut stages characteristic of the genus. The 
following types of spicules may be distinguished (fig. 26). 

(«) Slender clubs, with a distinct central bare portion ; the knobs on the 
handle stand almost perpendicularly; the projections on the club-portion 
arise at a slight angle and are directed downwards. 

0068 X 0019 length of constriction 0017. 

0-068 X 0017 „ „ 0017. 

0068 X 0019 „ „ 0015. 

(J) Clubs, similar to (n), but thicker in proportion to their length. 

0072 X 00:38 length of constriction 0018. 

0068 X 0034 „ „ 0017. 

(c) Double-stars, with verj' few large smooth warts at each end. 

0076 X 0038 constriction 0019 x 0015. 

0066 X 0042 

0015 X 0-015, 

0061 X 0034 

0015 X 0012, 

(rf) Double-wheels. 

0065 X 0034 

constriction 0-015 x 0014. 

Colour. — Dark red. 

Localifies. — Pataui, Siam. 

Off Ceylon, 34 fms. 

XIII A. — Appendix to Juncklla. 

" Inccrtae Sedis." 

Juncella santae-crucis. 

1. Juncella santae-crucis Duch. and Mich., v., p. 21, t. 2, f. 1. 

2. Juncella viminella (?), santae-crucis Gray, xii., p. 29. 

1. "Polypario stirpe simplici, rigido; axe terete, lutescente, gracili; 
cortice cretaceo, albo ; calycibus irrcgulariter biseriatis, inaequalibus, nempe 
nunc majoribus nunc duplo minoribus ; ore tenninali, parvo, radiato." 

Simpson — A^Jlecinion of the Gnrgnncllidae. 305 

" The polyps are irregularly disposed in a double row on each side of 
the colony ; there is a median liare space on eacli side of the two flattened 
faces. The verrucae are unequal in height, and stand at right angles to the 
colony ; they are conical in shape ; the summit has a small opening which 
shows a radiated structure." 

Duchassaing and Michelotti had, however, only a fragment devoid of 
base ; the breadth was 5'5 mms., including the verrucae, the longest of which 
were two mms. in height. 

2. Coral simple, rigid ; axis cylindrical, yellowish, slender ; bark cretaceous, 
white ; cells irregularly disposed in a double row on each edge of the stem, 
unequal ; some twice as large as the others, smooth, terminal, small, and 
radiated ; lateral area flat and naked, with a central groove. 

Locality. — Island of St. Croix (West Indies). 

Juncella funiculina. 

Juncdla fimiculina Duch. and Mich., v., p. 22, PL vii., ligs. 9 and 8. 

Colony simple, flexible; polyps in a single series on two sides, small, 
adpressed to the stem, and directed upwards ; oval opening small, with a 
radiate structure ; coenenchyma thin, white ; axis yellowish. 

Locality. — Guadaloupe. 

Juncella barbadensis. 

Juncella barbadensis Duch. and Mich., p. 22, PI. v., figs. 5 and 6. 

Colony attached, simple, filiform, white ; polyps elongated with club- 
shaped spicules ; verrucae in a single series on each side ; there is a distinct 
median groove on each bare space. It is larger and more robust than 
J. fimiculina ; the verrucae are larger. 

Localities. — Barbadoes and Guadaloupe. 

Juncella calyculata. 

Gorgonia calyculata Ellis and Solander, vi., p. 95. 
Juncella calyculata Valenciennes, xlvi. 
Gm'gonclla calyculata KoUiker, xxiii., p. 140. 
Ellisella calyculata Gray, ii., p. 26. 
Ellis and Solander's description is as follows : — 

This Gorgon grows in a sub-divided order, having erect, thick branches 
with truncated papillae. The flesh is ash-colourcd without, and purple on the 
inside, furnished with large, cup-shaped mouths, disposed close together in a 
qumcunx order, and looking upwards, having polyps with eight fringed 
claws extending themselves from them. The bone is of a dark-brown 

[2 S 2] 

.'j06 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

colour aud hovny natiue. This sea-shrub sends forth round whitu eggs, 
larger than any of the genus. 
LocaJitij. — Isle of Bourbon. 

Jnncella hystrix. 

JujuxUa Ays/ri.c- Valenciennes, Comptes Eendus, xli., p. 14. 
Jnncella hystrii: Milne-Edwards and Hainie, CoralL, i., p. 186. 
Juncella hystrix Johnson, xix., p. 143. 
Jnncella hystrix Johnson, xviii., p. 506. 

The only description of any importance of this species is as follows : — 
Stem delicate. Verrucae markedly projecting. 
Locality. — Bahia. 

Juncella vimen. 
Jnncella vinun Valenciennes, Comptes Eendus, xli., p. 14. 
Jnno^lla vimen Milne-Edwards and Haime, CoralL, i., p. 186. 
Milne-Edwards and Haime describe this species thus : — 
Verrucae disposed laterally in such a manner that a large distinct 
non-polyi)-bearing median space is left. 
Locality. — Isle of Bourlx)n. 

Joncella sorcolns. 

Junccila snrcntns Johnson, xviii., p. 506. 
Juncella surculns Johnson, xix., p. 143. 
Locality. — Senegal. 

Joncella laevis. 
1865. Jnncella lacvig Verrill, xlviii., 1865, p. 189. 
1870. Jnncella laevis Gray, xii., p. 29. 

Verrill's original description is as follows : — 

"Corallum tall, simple, subcyliudrical, rather slender, diminishing in 
size both at the summit and near the base, where the polyps become 
obsolete. Cells adpressed, scarcely prominent, arranged in two broad 
bands, leavinf/ a narrow, median, iiaked space on each side, along which 
there ia a well-marked groove] they are placed alternately, at a distance of 
about one-fifth (-2) inch, in about six vertical rows on each side, pro- 
ducing a quincunx arrangement ; axis slender, cylindrical, calcareous, white, 
surrounded by about sixteen longitudinal lobes, two of which are larger 
and correspond with the lateral grooves ; the otheis to the rows of polyps. 
Length of the single specimen, imperfect at each end, 20 inches ; greatest 
diameter, | (-25) inch. Colour yellowish-brown, in alcohol." 

Simpson — .1 Itcuiaion of the tldrjunclUdae. 307 

LocaliUj. — Hong-Kong, China. 

Gray (xii., p. 29), not having seen the specimen, simply recapitulates the 
above description. 

Juncella extans. 

Jiincella extaiis, Verrill, xlvii., p. 37. 

" Tall and simple, with the very prominent verrucae curved inwards, and 
arranged crowdedly in a band on each side of the axis, leaving a wide, naked 
space on each side. Colour white. Axis greyish-white, stony, and rigid." 

Locality. — Fayal, Azores. 

XIV. — Scirpearia emend. 

(«•) Discussion of the Genus. 

1830 Scirpearia, Cuvier, i, p. 319. 

1878 Scirpearia, Studer, xxxiv., p. 660. 

1887 Scirpearia, Studer, xxxv., p. 67. 

1901 Scirpearia, Studer, xxxvii., p. 52. 

1889 Scirpearia, Wright and Stnder, 1., p. Ixv. 

1889 Scirpearella, Wright and Studer, 1., pp. Ixv and lo4. 

1855 Ctenocella, Valenciennes, xlvi., p. 14. 

1857 EUisella, Gray, x., p. 287. 

This genus was established by Cuvier in 1830 to include Pennatula 
mirahilis, but the following note may be interesting : — Milne-Edwards and 
Haime (Hist. Nat. Corall., 1. 0. 214) say: "The Alcyonarian described and 
figured by Cuvier under the name Pennatula mirahilis seems to be very little 
connected with Virgularia mirabilis, as some have suggested. It has a 
slender stem attenuated at the two extremities, and bearing at each side a 
simple series of widely separated polyps. Cuvier formed of it the genus 
Scirpearia, which has been adopted by Ehrenberg. Lamarck placed it in his 
genus Funiculina, near Pavonaria, under the name of FunicuUiui cylindrica. 
Fleming thought that the species was not distinct from Vii-gularia ; and 
Blainville affirmed that it was nothing but a Gorgonia. None of these 
opinions seem to me admissible. It is too imperfectly known to have a 
place assigned to it in a scientific classification of corals." 

In 1878 Studer resuscitated the genus, and gave the following diagnosis : — 
" Colony simple or branched ; axis cylindrical, horny, and calcareous ; 
coenenchyma thin; calyces projecting; in two longitudinal rows on the sides 
of the stem and branches ; spicules double-clubs and spindles." 

This, then, must be our startiug-poiut in generic determination. 

308 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

In 1901 he re-united under the name of Scirpearia aU the Gorgonellids 
with a simple, flagelliform colony which have large verrucae in the form of 
clubs, and whose spicules are double-clubs and spindles. The coenenchyma 
is thick £md the colony is bilaterally symmetrical. The polyps are disposed 
on two sides of the axis. 

Wright and Studer in 1889 give the following diagnosis : — '" Colony simple 
with a cylindrical calcified axis and thin coenenchyma. The polyps are 
seated in two longitudinal rows on each side of the stem. The spicules are 
double-clubs and spindles. The genus may include Scirpearia mirabUis 
Cu^ier and Vimindla JlageUum Gray." 

It must be remembered, however, that in the same memoir they separated 
ofl" the genus Scirpearella as follows: — "Colony simple or very feebly branched. 
Axis calcareous, brittle, smooth, or grooved. Polj-ps arranged iu rows or 
spirals, retractile, with more or less prominent verrucae. Coenenchyma is 
moderately thick and finely granular. The spicules are spiny spindles and 

We have already shown, however, that such a distinction cannot be said 
to obtain, and have already prop<jsed the uniting together of Scirpearia, 
Scirpearella, EUisella, and Ctenocella, and have given an emended diagnosis. 

In this emended sense, then, we now proceed to classify specimens with 
these characters into difTerent species. 

Before doing this, however, it might be well to give the following list of 
the various species which have, from time to time, been referred to the genus 
under consideration, under the names Scirpearia, Scirpearella, Ctenocella, and 
EUisella :— 

Scirptnrin flagellum. 
Scirpearia furcnta. 
ScirjKarcUa profunda, 
Scirpearella gracilis. 
Scirpearella rubra. 
ScirjKnrella itutica. 
Scirpearella aurantinen. 
Scirpearella alba. 
Scirpearella divisa. 

L - 

EUisella coecinea. 
Elliaella elongaia. 
Ctenocella pectinala. 

Si>rpsoN — A Revhion of the Gnrfjondlifhn. ."»(i9 

Some of these — e.g., flagdlum and clongata — have, at times, appeared 
under other generic names; but these will be discussed later under the 
species in question. 

(&) Classification of the Species. 

In formulating a scheme of elassificatiou for these different species, and 
also the large number of undescribed specimens which I have before me 
for identification, two courses were available, either (1) to describe every 
individual specimen, and name it on account of certain differences which may 
or may not be inherent, or (2) to study the group as a whole, tabulate all the 
points of difference in the various specimens, eliminate all variations, such as 
occur in the same colony, reject all environmental modifications, and an-ange 
the specimens around some central type. The latter plan has been adopted 
in the present work ; and for this reason it has been necessary to abolish 
several of the previously described species, not on account of their absolute 
identity with formerly described species, but on account of the differences 
which obtain in these different forms having proved to be not greater than 
differences appearing in an individual specimen. A very good example of 
this is seen in the case of Scirpearia furcata. Such a procedure has been 
possible in the case under consideration only on account of the large number 
of specimens which it has been my privilege to examine ; and it is more than 
probable that when a larger mass of material is available, it may still be 
possible to diminish the number of species in this report. 

The characters on which the present classification are based are the 
following : — 

(1) the number of main longitudinal canals, 

(2) the nature of the spiculation, and 

(3) the nature of the Ijranching. 

These, of course, are not all of equal value ; but a very rigid separation 
may be made into two classes based on the number of main longitudinal 
canals. It has been found that in this group specimens have either two or 
four main canals. 

The nature of the branching when it comes to be a question of " simple 
or branched," as we have already pointed out, is of little value except in 
certain well-defined species. This is very evident in such colonies as those 
described under Scirpearia fiwcata. On the other hand, the very character- 
istic mode of branching seen in Scirpearia pectinata would seem to justify 
its inclusion as a specific character. 

Scirpearia andamanensis and Scirpearia ramosa are also worthy of 
consideration in this respect. 

310 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The nature of the spieulation is also a character on which great reliance 
may he placed as a specific determinant; and, in the case of Scirpearia, it has 
proved to be of great value. 

Very good examples of this may be seen in the great contrast between 
the spicules of Scirpearin profunda and Scirpearia alba, or between Scirpearia. 
flagcUum and Scirpearia ramosa, or between Scirpearia furcata and Scirpearia 

By means, then, of a combination of these characters, it has been possible 
to arrange the numerous specimens which have been examined into certain 
fairly definite groups. It will be seen that in the great majority of cases 
eacli group is represented by a single species ; but where possible we have 
suggested affinities. It seems preferable, however, to designate these at 
present as groups rather than as species, although the latter procedure must 
also be used for reference. 

It is imnecessary to enter into the details of each gioup here, as that is 
much better left over until the various specimens are discussed; but we 
submit the following classification : — 

DmsiON 1. — Main Longitudinal Canals, TWO in number: — 

(a) profunda-group, . Scirpearia j>rofunda exaend. 

„ . Scirpearia hicksoni n. sp. 

„ . . Scirpearia vernicosa n. sp. 

„ . . Scirpearia anomala n. sp. 

(b) pectinata-group, . Srirpearia pcctinata emend, 
(f) elongata-gioup, Scirpearia elongata emend, 
(rf) flagellum-group, . . Scirpearia fagcllum emend. 

(c) thomsoni-group, . . Scirpearia Ihomsojii n. sp. 
(j/) alba-group, . Srirpearia alba emend. 

(j) aurantiaca-group, . Srirpearia aurantiaca emend. 

(A) furcata-group, . . Scirpearia furcala evaend. 

(i) andamanensis-group, . Scirpearia andamanensis n. sp. 

{j) ramosa-group, Srirpearia ramosa n. sp. 

(k) ceylonensis-group, . Scirpearia ceylonensis n. sp. 

(/) maculata-group, . . SriqKaria tnaculata emend. 

Division 2. — Main Longitudinal Canals, four in number : — 
(o) quadrilineata-group, . Srirpearia quadrilintata n. 8.p. 

SiMPSOX — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 311 

This group is characterized by the enormous size of the spicules. The 
two chief types which occur are : — 

d) Double-clubs with almost hemispherical ends, and 

(2) Elongated double-clubs, which approach double-spindles and even 

Four species may be recognized : — 

1. Sciiymriaprofunda Wright and Studer emend. 

2. Scirpearia Kicksoni n. sp. 

3. Seirpearia verrucosa n. sp. 

4. Scirpearia anomala n. sp. 

The following differential diagnosis of the spicules of these four species 

may be useful : — 

Scirpearia profunda (emend.). 

In this species the spindle-type predominates over the elongated double- 
club. The spindles are massive, very warty, and irregular in outline (fig. 27). 
Typical measurements are 0'122 x 0'057 ; 0'114 x 0'049 ; and a more slender 
type 0-106 x 0-034; 0-09 x 0-034. The double-clubs have almost hemispheri- 
cal ends, and have practically no constriction, 0-084 x 0-046 ; 008 x 0-053. 

Scirpearia Mcksoni n. sp. 
The spicules of this species are very regular in outline ; they are covered 
with slightly papillose warts ; and the elongated double-clubs have extremely 
blunt ends (Fig. 31). 

(1) double-clubs :— 0-08 x 0'05 ; 0-075 x 0'05. 

(2) Elongated double-clubs :— 0-11 x 0-045; 0-085 x 0-035. 

Scirpearia verrucosa n. sp. 

In this species the spicules are very irregular in outline ; they are 
covered with long papillose warts, which are widely separated. The ends of 
the elongated double-clubs and double-spindles are markedly pointed, and 
have the form of elongated cones (fig. 33). 

(1) Double-clubs :— 0-095 x 0-05; 007 x 04. 

(2) Elongated double-clubs:— 0-14 x 0-04; 0-11 x 0-02. 

Scirpearia anomala n. sp. 
The spicules of this species are not densely covered with warts, and tlie 
warts themselves are only slightly pajjillose. The ends of the elongated 
double-clubs and double-spindles are markedly conical (fig. 35). 

(1) Double-clubs:— 0-061 x 0*042; 0-06x0-04. 

(2) Elongated double-clubs: 0-15 x 0-034; 0-095 x 0040. 

B.I.A. PKUC, VOL. XXVUI., SECT. U. [^ ^] 

312 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

XV. — Scirpearia profunda (Wright and Studer). Fig. 27. 

Scirpearella profunda Wright and Studer, 1., p. 155, PI. xxxi., fig. 2 ; 

PI. XXXII., figs. 1 and la ; PI. xxxiv., fig. 7. 
Scirpearella gracilis Wright and Studer, 1., p. 156, PL xxxi., figs. 1 and la ; 

PI. XXXIV., fig. 6. 
Scirpearella rubra Wright and Studer, L, p. 157, PI. xxxiv., fig. 5. 
Scirpearella monili/orme Thomson and Henderson, xl., p. 82. 

We have examined the type specimens in the British Museum of these 
three species, and have come to the conclusion that they cannot be regarded 
as distinct S. rubra is undoubtedly the same as S. ffracilis; but S. profunda 
diflers in that it is branched. When we take into consideration, however, 
the great length of the flagelliform branches of S. profunda, we are quite in a 
position to conceive the longest fragment of S. gracilis as a portion of a 
branch of a much larger colony than that formed by 5. profunda. These two 
species, as Wright and Studer obserse, " were taken at the same haul of the 
dredge from a depth of 130 fms. ; although, no doubt, closely related forms, 
there seem sufficient differences to justify their being for the present treated 
as distinct." 

The spiculation is essentially the same in all three species ; and the nature 
and distribution of the verrucae sliow variations not greater than those in 
other cases of specimens undoubtedly belonging to the same species. For 
this reason we feel justified in merging the three species under the earliest 
name, S. profunda. 

The following are the chief characteristics of the difl'erent types : — 

S. profunda. — The colony is feebly branched. The axis is calcareous, 
brittle, and of a circular outline, with some spiral grooves ; it is formed of 
several concentric calcareous layers, which easily peel off. 

The polyps are in irregular spirals on the stem and branches, from 2 mm. 
to 3 mm. apart, but closer to one another towards the termination of the 
branches. The older verrucae are more conical than the younger ones. 
^^'hen fully retracted they are oblong conical 

The coenenchyma is moderately thick and finely granular. 

The colour in spirits is a whitish-brown. 

Locality. — " Challenger " Station 177, off the New Hebrides ; depth, 
130 fms.; bottom, volcanic sand. 

& gracilit. — Colony is simple, so far as can be judged. 

The axis is calcareous and very brittle ; it is grooved. The polyps are 
crowded on the stem in four rows, the polj-ps in one row alternating with 
those in the next row, so as to give a more or less spiral arrangement to the 

SnrpsoN — A Revision of the Gorgonellidue. 'il'i 

polyps colony. This arrangement is sometimes obscured by the addition of 
young polyps between the older ones. Towards the apex of the stem the 
polyps are in three rows, and at the very apex they are opposite. When 
withdrawn the verrucae are nipple-like. 

The coenenchyma is moderately thick. 

Locality. — "Challenger" Station 177, off tlic New Hebrides; depth, 
130 fms. ; bottom, volcanic sand. 

8. rubra. — Colony simple (not complete), but 620 mm. in length. The 
axis is calcareous, brittle, with two shallow grooves. 

The polyps are numerous, arranged in spirals on the stem. Towards the 
termination of the axis they are disposed in an alternate manner on the 
opposite sides of the stem. 

The coenenchyma is thin, with a compact layer of spindles and warty 

The colour in spirits is light red. 

Locality. — " Challenger " Station 232, Hyalonema ground, off Japan ; 
345 fms. ; bottom, green mud. 

S. moniliformc Thomson and Henderson is also referable to this 

Localitij. — Eight miles west of Interview Island, Andamans ; 270-45 fms. 

From the foregoing it is obvious that, except in the question of branching — 
a character to which very little importance can be attached, since the 
specimens are nearly all incomplete — the macroscopic structure shows a 
range of variation, such as we expect to find in long flagellifomi colonies. 
For this reason it is impossible to consider the question of diflerent species on 
these characters alone. Preparations of spicules from corresponding parts of 
the different colonies show no great disparity either in the tj'pes themselves 
or in the characters and measurements of the types, so that we are forced to 
rank these different specimens as one variable species having a type of 
spiculation diffei'ent from others known at present. 

Amongst the numerous undescribed specimens which have been examined 
in the preparation of this memoir none were found to agree with the 
" Challenger " forms ; but this fact may not be considered remarkable when 
we take into consideration the localities from which they were obtained. 

The spicules of tliis species are large and very characteristic (tig. 27 a-ff)- 
They consist of large warty spindles, some of which show a trace of a 
constriction. Two forms of these may be recognized — (a) slender and very 
warty, and {b) more massive spindles. In addition to these, the most definite 
type is the large double-club ; these have very massive warty ends, and 
practically no constriction, and some have more hemispherical heads than the 

[2 T2] 

31-1 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

others (c). These three types may be regarded as characteristic ; but other 
forms occur — e.g. irr^ular forms {d) : double-wheels (<•), crosses (g). 

The irregular forms {d) show variations which might be regarded as 
departures from double-clubs or from the massive spindles, and may be 
intermediate between the types [h] and [e]. In the same way those represented 
by (/] may be looked upon as annectant forms between types (c) and (g). 

The crosses ig) show great variation. 

The following measurements in millimetres may be taken as tj-pical : — 

(a) Spindles, slender and very warty: 0106 x 0034; 0103 x 030; 

009 X 0-034. 
(6) Spindles, very warty and massive: 0122 x 0-057; 0-118 x 0*057; 

01 14 X 0049. 
(f) Double-clubs, with massive warty ends and practically no constriction; 

0-084 X 0046; 0072 x 0046; 008 x 0053. 
(rf) Irregular forms : 0095 x 0053 ; 0095 x 0046 ; 0076 x 0053. 
(<•) Double-wheels, a few : 0072 x 0034 ; 0057 x 0027. 
(/) Croeses: Oil x 0076; 0084 x 0061; 0061 x 0034. 

Emendtd Specific Diagnosis. 

The colony is simple and feebly branched ; in the latter case the branches 
are long and dagelliform. The axis is calcareous and brittle ; it is composed 
of concentric layers; the surface is marked by longitudinal grooves; some- 
times two of these are deeper than the others. The polj'ps are disposed in 
two longitudinal series ; this arrangement may be obscured in the older parts ; 
and then the disposition may simulate a spiral. Near the base four rows 
may occur in each series ; but this number iliminishes in the younger parts, 
so Ui^ near the tip there is only a single row, alternately on opposite sides. 
The verrucae when partially retracted are conical, but when more fully 
withdrawn are nipple-like. The canal-system is typical. The coenenchyma 
is moderately thin and finely granular. The spicules are characterised by 
the presence of large, thick, warty spindles longer than the large double- 

XVI. Scirpearia hicksoni, n. sp., figs. 28-31. 

It has been found necessary to establish a new species for two portions of 
what must have been a very long, simple colony ; they are not continuous, 
however; and judging from the difference in the diameter of the axis in the 
two parts an intermediate piece of considerable length must have been lost. 
The base is wanting, and this must also have been some distance from the 

SiiMi'soN — A Rivision of the Gorgoncllidac. 315 

present basal part, so that the colony wlicn complete must have been of 
great length. 

The lower of the two parts under examination is 18 cm. in length, the 
upper part, which bears the tip of the colony, is 15 cm. The axis at the 
present base is 2*5 mm. in diameter, and tapers after 18 cm. to 2 mm. In 
the upper portion the axis tapers from 1'5 mm. to a fine point. Thus we 
see that the part of the colony having an axis varying from 2 mm. to 
1-5 mm. is wanting; and this at the lowest estimate cannot have been less 
than 18 cm., so that, without taking into account the basal part, the colony 
could not have been less than 50 cm. In all probability the total length 
would have exceeded 70 cm., so that we are dealing with a very long, simple 
iiagelliform colony. 

The surface of the coenenchyma is coarsely granular, and, especially on 
the verrucae, there are numerous ridges formed by aggregations of spicules 
(cf. Suhcrogorgia ornata, Thomson and Simpson). The coenenchyma proper 
is extremely thin ; but the large size of the verrucae renders this featiu'e less 

The genei'al colour of the colony is brick-red ; but where the anthocodiae 
are not retracted they appear as white specks on the tips of the verrucae. 

The polyps have a very characteristic arrangement; but this cannot be 
regarded as specific, as it is only superficial, and may have been caused during 
the process of killing. 

In the lower portion of the colony about oue-thiixl of the surface is bare ; 
and the verrucae seem to arise in the same plane on either side, and are 
continuous with it (fig. 28). This, of course, causes a crowding on the other 
two-thirds. On the side diametrically opposite the above bare space there is 
also a tract devoid of polyps (fig. 29). In the upper portion this arrange- 
ment is still visible ; towards the tip of the colony, however, the polyps seem 
to be distributed all round the coenenchyma ; but a trace of the bilateral 
arrangement is still discernible (fig. 30). 

The verrucae are large and have the form of truncated cones ; they stand 
perpendicularly to the coenenchyma. The largest are i mm. in heiglit and 
2'5 mm. in diameter at the base ; but towards the tip of the colony they are 
only 2"5 mm. in height and 1 nnu. in diameter. 

The larger of the verrucae are markedly conical ; but the younger forms 
are very much flattened owing to the contraction of the thin walls ; they are 
then less definite in position ; and many have their tips either incurved or 
directed upwards. When partially retracted they have a very marked eight- 
rayed structure at the siuumit, and show eight to twelve lougiludiual ridges 
formed by segregations of spicules. 

316 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The anthocodiae are very minute ; the tentacles are short and white, and 
bear one row of pinnules. They are first infolded, and then the tip of the 
verruca is introverted. 

The canal system is typical ; and the two main canals are evident in a cross- 
section, corresponding to the two bare spaces. There is no inequality in 
their size, so that we are justified in concluding that the apparent arrange- 
ment of the polyps is due to contraction while killing. 

The axis is cylindrical and very densely calcareous ; it is composed of 
concentric laminae. Near the base it is dark brown in colour ; but in the 
younger part it is of a golden-yellow hue. The surface is marked with 
irregular longitudinal striae which correspond to the inner series of canals. 
There is no suggestion of two depressions larger than the others. 

The spicules of this species are very characteristic (fig. 31). They are 
very regular in outline, and are covered with warts, which are slightly 
papillose at the summit. The elongated double-clubs are extremely blunt at 
the ends. 

The following are the chief types, with measurements, length by breadth, 
in millimetres : — 

{a) Large double-clubs witli a short broad constriction. The ends are 
almost hemispherical ; the warts are few in number, largo and 
papillose : 0-08 x 0-05 ; 0-075 x 0055 ; 0075 x 005. 

(6) Smaller double-clubs very similar to the above : 006 x 003 ; 
0-05 X 0025. 

(c) Elongated double-clubs with round ends. In some of these the 
constriction is very marked, while in others it is hardly visible, so 
that this tj'pe passes through double-spindles to simple-spindles. 
They arc covered with few, large, papillose warts: O'll x 0045; 
Oil X 0035; 01 X 0-04; 0085 x 0035; 007 x 002. 

Locality. — Andamans, 36 fathoms. 

XVII. — Scirpearia verrucosa n. sp. Figs. 32 and 33. 

In the Indian Museum Lilloral Collection there occurs a complete simple 
flagelliform colony, 27 cm. in length, attached to a piece of shell, for whicli the 
establishment of a new species has been necessary. The coenenchyma is 
very thin, and the surface is granular; its maximum thickness is about 
075 mm. 

The general colour of the colony is salmon-pink ; but the anthocodiae and 
the tips of the verrucae, when only slightly retracted, are white. The 
distribution of the polyps is identical with that iu Scirpearui hicksoni n. sp. 

SiAiPSON — A Revision of the Gorcjonellidae. 317 

The lower 4 cm. bear no polyps ; tliis is followed by two bare tracts whicli 
diminish to two distinct lines from which the verrucae diverge at acute 

The verrucae have the form of truncated cones ; but the walls are very 
thin, and even near the base they have collapsed, and present the appearance 
of those near the tip in the previous specimen. Throughout the whole of 
the colony they are directed slightly upwards (fig. 32), and the tips are 
incurved ; this is more marked towards the apex. Near the growing point 
they are wart-like. The largest of the verrucae are 2'5 mm. in height and 
about 1'5 mm. in diameter at the base. 

The canal system is identical with that described in the previous 

The axis is cylindrical, but tapers slightly towards the tip ; it is greenish 
brown near the base, but becomes pale yellow in the younger portion. It is 
not very calcareous, and the surface has only very indefinite longitudinal 

The spicules (fig. 33) of this species are extremely characteristic; they 
are covered with long papillose warts, which are for the most part widely 
separated, and so give a very irregular outline to the spicules. The ends of 
the elongated double-clubs and double-spindles are markedly pointed, and 
have the form of elongated cones. 

The following are the chief types, with measurements, length by breadth, 
in millimetres : — 

(rt) Double-clubs with a short, broad constriction, with almost hemispherical 
ends and with large, slightly papillose warts : 0"09a x O'Oo ; 
0-09 X 0-04:5; 0-08 x 0-05; 0-07 x 0-04 

(J) Elongated double-clubs approaching double-spindles and even- 
spindles ; these have markedly conical ends ; the constriction may 
be more or less definite ; and they are cov-ered with relatively 
distant, long, papillose warts : 0114 x 0-04 ; 0-13 x 0'035 ; 
0-11 X 0-03; 0-11 X 0-02. 

Locality. — Andamans Sea, 55 fms. 

XVIil. — Scirpearia anomala n. sp. Figs. 34 and 35. 
This species has been established for a small, complete, simple colony in 
the Littoral Collection of the Indian Museum. It is 17 cm. in length, 
attached to a piece of decayed shell which is overgrown with Polyzoa and 
worm-tubes. The diameter of the colony near the base is 1'75 mm. ; midway 
it is 2 mm., while near the apex it is 1'5 mm. ; so that there is only a slight 

3 1 8 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The coeueuchyma is moderately thin and finely granular ; the general 
colour of the colony is orange-yellow ; but the verrucae are reddisli. 

The polyps are confined to two longitudinal, lateral tracts, separated by 
two bare spaces. Near the base of the colony, and also in the younger part 
near the tip, there is a single row of polyps in each series ; but in the middle 
part there are two irregular rows, owing to crowding and the interposition 
of young polyps. 

The verrucae, when only partially retracted, are cylindrical, elongated, 
and slightly turned towards the coeueuchyma (fig. 34&). Near the base 
(fig. 34a) and the tip (fig. 34c) they are almost completely retracted, and then 
appear as low warts, and may even be sunk within pits in the coenenchyma. 
The great majority of the verrucae are directed upwards, but some are 
tui-ned downwards. When expandeil they are about 12o mm. in height and 
1 mm. in diameter at the base. 

The canal system is typical ; the two main longitudinal canals are only 
slightly lai-ger than the others. 

The axis is cylindrical, tapers only slightly, and is calcareous. The 
colour varies from brown to yellow ; the surface is marked by faint longi- 
tudinal striae. 

Tiie spicules of this species (fig. 35) are very characteristic. They consist 
of double-clubs, double-spindles, and some which approach spindles. They 
are not densely covered with warts ; wliile the warts themselves are only 
slightly papillose. 

Tlic following are the chief tjrpes, with measurements, length by breadth, 
in millimetres : — 

(n) Small double-clubs, with almost hemispherical ends, and irregularly 
coveretl with small papillose warts and with a short, broad con- 
striction : 0-061 X 0042; 006 x 004. 

(b) Slightly elongated double-clubs very openly warted and with relatively 

blunt ends: Oil x 006; 0-095 x 0-046; 0099 x 0049. 

(c) More elongate<l double-clubs, approaching double-spindles and even 

spindles. The cuds are markedly conical, and the constriction is 
more or less definite : 0015 x 0-034; 0-08 x 0-03. 
Locality. — Andamans. 

Pectlvata GitOUP. 

This group is easily distinguished by the character of the spiculation, but 
also, and more readily, by its unique type of branching. 

.ST:\rr.sox — A Hrrhlov nj the (Iniuiniirlliiliir. 810 

XIX. — Scirpearia pectinata emend. Figs. 36-45. 

Kcratophyton seba Thesaurus, t. Ill, p. 193, PI. cv., fig. 19. 

Gorgonia pectinata Pallas, xxvii., p. 224. 

„ „ Pallas, xxviii., p. 179. 

Lanicarek, xxiv., t. 11, p. 1^.20, et 2nd edit, ]>. 4f).S. 

Ptcrof/orgia „ Dana, cxi., p. 652. 

Ctenocella „ Valenciennes, xlvi., p. 14. 

„ „ Milne-Edwards and Haime, xxvi., t. 1, p. 185. 

„ „ Eidley, xxxiii., p. .348. 

„ „ Studer, xxxvii., p. 119. 

Gorgonella „ Kolliker, xxiii., p. 140, PI. xviii., fig. 41. 

This species, as we have already pointed out, is the sole representative of 
the genus formerly known as Ctenocella ; so that the diagnosis of that genus 
in the early records summarizes the specific characters. 

Valenciennes, in establishing the genus (C'omi)tes Eendus, t. xli., p. 14), 
gave the following generic diagnosis : — " Le sclerobase s'allongeant en 
baguettes droites et pectin^es d'uu seul cote de la tige prineipale." 

Milne-Edwards and Haime in 1857 refer to the genus as follows : — 

" Polypi^roide s'allongeant en baguettes droites et pectinees d'un seul 
cote " ; and also : " Polypieroide dont la tige etles branches sont cylindriques 
et ressemblent beaucoup aux Juucelles. Scl^renchyme sub-verruqueux. 
Couleur jaune-rougeatre. 

" Localitd. — Mers de I'lnde." 

Wright and Studer (1., p. Ixvi) gave the following diagnosis : — 

" The colony is branched in one plane ; and so that all the simple twigs 
arise in an ascending order from the upper surface of the stem. Tiie verrucae 
are short on two sides of the twigs. There are distinct median furrows. The 
spicules are warty double-clubs ; those of the polyp-calyces are, according to 
Ridley, somewhat different from those of the coeuenchyma, being longer and 
provided with two, often three, whorls of tubercles. The inner whorl so 
approach in the middle of the spicules that the median naked zone which us 
characteristic of the spicules of the coenenchyma is here absent." 

With regard to the "Alert" specimens, PJdley says: — " The front and 
back of the two main (outer) branches are bare of polyps for from one-third 
to half their length from their origin. The verrucae are but slightly 
prominent on the outer branches. The colour is pale salmon." 

Localities. — Warrior Eeefs, Torres Straits, 12 fathoms. 

B.I. A. PUOC, VOL. X.WUl., SKCT. li. [2 V\ 

320 Proceedings of the Ro//al Irish Academy. 

Of the spicules he says : — " The verrucae spicules show a modification of 
the same type as those of the general cortex, being only more elongated than 
those, and bearing two or sometimes three distinct whorls of tubercles, 
besides a few median terminal ones on each half of the spicule ; the two 
inner whorls almost meet in the middle, so as to obliterate the median bare 
zone, whicli is characteristic of the cortical spicules." 

"Wliile working on the coast of Lower Burmah I was fortunate in 
obtaining a large number of this very interesting species ; and these have 
formed the basis of a somewhat detailed study. The following table gives a 
few of the measurements of some of these ; and notes have been added where 
it was considered necessary. Taken in conjunction with the various 
paragraphs which follow, it may serve to elucidate the more important 
characters of this species. 


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[2 17 2] 

3*22 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The following notes on some of the aberrant specimens may serve to 
give an idea of the inherent specific character : — 

II. One of the pi-imary branches has been broken off after a distance 
of 28 cm. ; but the branch which arises nearest that point has developed 
twigs on the inner side, and has so continued the general development 
as if primary. 

VII. One of the primary branches, along with the first two secondaries 
which arose from it, has been broken off; but the fourth has taken its 
place, and continued the regular development of tertiaries just as if they 
were secondaries. 

IX. One of the primary branches is only feebly developed, and has 
six short slender secondaries. The second secondary has developed tertiaries 
after the manner of a primary. 

X. A similar mode of development to that described for II. has taken 
place in this specimen. 

Branching. — The branching of this unique type is extremely characteristic. 
The main stem is usually very short, and gives rise to two branches dichoto- 
mously ; these arise at varj-uig angles in the different specimens. In some 
they lie almoet horizontally (fig. 36) ; in others they are inclined at 45° 
(fig. 37), or even 60° (fig. 38), to the horizontal. In a typical specimen 
these primarj' branches give rise to secondaries on the upper inner aspect 
in a symmetrical manner, giving a distinct comb-like arrangement. The 
angle at which these arise is ver)- characteristic. When colonies are preserved 
in spirits or drietl, they usually contract, so that the secondary branches 
overlap on eitlier side (fig. 39) ; but a study of these, when immediately taken 
from the water, shows that this does not occur when growing freely. In this 
condition all the secondary branches stand vertically, and arise from the 
primary branches at an angle complementary to that at which the primary 
branches arise from the main stem. Thus if the primary branches are 
horizontal, the secondary arise at right angles ; if the primary branches arise 
at an angle of 60' from the main stem, the secondary branches come of}' at 
an angle of 30°. Stages between these are of course not infrequent. Fig. 3 
shows the habit of a colony in the contracted condition, while figs. 36-38 
show different angles of origin. 

Secondary complications sometimes occur in the branching, but it is 
noteworthy that these tend to follow the tyjx? already described. For example, 
in several specimens one of the primary branches has been broken off ; but 
the secondary branch which arose at this point has developed tertiary 
branches in a manner analogous to the primary branch (fig. 40). Occasionally 

Sim I '.-UN — A Revision of the GorgoncUidac. 323 

also the majority of the secondaiy branches may be only feebly developed, 
but one may give rise to a large number of tertiaries. Sometimes, for 
no apparent reason, tertiaries may arise from tlie secondary branches ; 
but in all cases these arise on the inner side and ascend vertically, thus 
maintaining the specific type of branches (fig. 41). 

Main CciTials. — In every tertiary and secondary branch there arc two 
large canals running from end to end; those correspond with the bare 
portions of the coenenchynia, and are consequently in the plane of branching. 
In dried specimens their position is usually denoted by a groove due to the 
collapse of the canal walls. In young colonies and in the upper part of large 
colonies these secondary canals unite with the canals in the primary Ijranch, 
one on either side ; but towards the base of older colonies they do not all 
unite ; but the last three to ten may run parallel in the primary branches, 
and so pass into the main stem, where as many as twenty may be visible 
(figs. 42 and 43). 

Distribution of polyps. — In no case do polyps occur on the main stem. 
On the primary branches they are restricted to the outer aspect, i.e., the side 
diametrically opposite the one from which the secondary branches arise. On 
the secondary branches they are disposed on the two inner surfaces — i.e., the 
surfaces in the plane of branching are bare (fig. 44). In the upper half of 
the secondary branches, however, the polyps may encroach on the bare spaces, 
and appear as if distributed all over the coenenchyma. 

Nature of the verrucae. — In the younger parts of the colony the verrucae 
are low and dome-like ; but in the older portions they seem to become smaller, 
and in the lowest parts may appear as pit-like depressions. 

rig. 1 shows the structure of an expanded polyp. 

Spicules. — The spicules of this species might be said to consist almost 
entirely of double-clubs, or, at any rate, of double-clubs and double-spindles 
(fio-. 45). It is possible to group these into several distmct types which mat/ 
show an evolution-series. It is noteworthy, however, that all are practically 
of the same length, so that it is improbable that they are different stages in 
development. The following groups, with their measurements, length by 
breadth, in millimetres, may be distinguished :— 

(a) JDouhle-cluhs with hemispherical ends and a narrow bare constriction 
definitely marked oil': 0057 x 0-038; 0-053 x 0-053; 0-053 x 0-034. 

(6) Double-clubs with the " heads " much more open than in («), i.e., there 
is a distinct whorl of warts on either side of the constriction, 
and the "hub" is very warty: 0-057 x 0-038; 0-057 x 0-034; 
0-057 X 0-031. 

324 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academij. 

(c) Bouble-chibs with still more open " heads," i.e., one whoii of warts on 

either side of the constriction, and the " hub " with only about three 
warts. These approach rfwift/e-w/ice/s : 0"057 x 0'038; 0-057 x 0-034; 
0-053 X 0-031. 

(d) lilore slender doMc-clvhs with a proportionately longer constriction, 

and with no definite arrangement of the warts of the " heads," which 
might be termed divaricate : 0-053 x 0-031 ; 0-053 x 0-027. 

(e) More elongated douhlc-duhs which approximate to doxihle-spindles. The 

warts are large, but have no definite arrangement : 0-061 x 0-023 ; 
0-057 X 0-023; 0057 x 0-021. 

(/) Double-spiiidles not markedly warty (in some there is hardly any 
constriclion) : 0-057 x 0019; 0-057 x 0017; 0-057 x 0015. 

(f/) The type figured as (g) is evidently a developmental form of one of 
the other types : 0-046 x 0023 ; 0046 x 0-022. 

A small portion, about 20 cm. long, of a primary brancli of what has 
evidently been a large colony occurs in tlic Littoral Collection of the Indian 
Museum: twenty-seven secondary branches arise from it; all are simple 
except one whicli is dicholomously branched ; the longest is 17 cm. in length. 

The surface of the coenenchyma is granular; the thickness attains a 
ma.\imiim of 1 mm. 

The polyps are disposed irregularly ; on the primary branch tliere is one 
distinct Ijare tract, witli a fairly deep groove, the other is not so evident ; on 
the secondaries it is almost impossible to detect a bare streak. 

The verrucae when expanded arc slightly adpressed to the coenenchyma; 
when retracted they are low and dome-like. They are very small, V)eing 
about 1 mm. in diameter at the base, and varying from 0-5 to 1 mm. in lieight. 

The canal system is typical of the species. 

The axis is cylindrical and yellowish ; it is composed of concentric 
laminae, and there is a distinct white core which is more calcareous than the 
outer laminae. There is a slight trace of grooving on the surface. The 
anthocodiae and spicules agree in every detail with those described for the 

Locality, — Andamans. 

Note. — This specimen is described in the table given in the Indian Ocean 
Littoral Alcyonaria Keport (Thomson and Simpson) as specimen M. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonelliilac. 325 

Bistrilnition : — 

Indian Ocean (Pallas). 

Seas of the Moluccas (Lamarck). 

India and China (Gray). 

Cuba (British Museum Collection of H. Christy). 

Oft' Nortli-West Cape, West Australia, 3-4 fathoms (Studer). 

Torres Straits (Studer). 

Cuba (Eidley). 

Warrior Eeef, Torres Straits, 12 fathoms (Eidley). 

Mergui Archipelago, Burma. 

Andamans (Ind. Mus. Litt. Coll.). 

Elongata Geodp. 

This group is easily differentiated from the others by means of its spicu- 
lation. The spicules are characteristic and very minute. 

XX. — Scirpearia elongata (figs. 46-48). 

Oorgonia elongata Pallas, xxviii., p. 179. 

Gorgonia elongata Esper, vii., t. Iv. 

Gorgonia elongata Lamarck, xxiv., t. ii., p. 220, 2nd ed., p. 499. 

Gorgonia elongata Dana, iii., p. 664. 

Juncella elongata Valenciennes, xlv., p. 182. 

Juneclla elongata Valenciennes, xlvi., p. 14. 

Gorgonia elongata Ellis and Solander, vi., p. 96. 

Juncella elongata Milne-Edwards and Haime, xx^^., i., p. 187. 

Juncella elongata KoUiker, xxiii., p. 140. 

Ellisella elongata Gray, x., p. 287. 

Ellisella elongata Gray, xi., p. 481. 

Ellisella elongata Gray xii., p. 25. 

Ellisella coccinca Gi'ay, x., p. 287. 

Ellisella coccinca Gray, xi., p. 481. 

Ellisella coccinca Gray, xii., p. 26. 

Nee. Juneella elongata Hickson, xiii., p. 85. 

Nee. Jtmcella elongata Thomson and Henderson, xl., p. SI. 

This is a very old species, but one which has caused more trouble to 
systematists than any other in the group, owing to the fact that the spicules 
have hitherto never been investigated. The descriptions, based on a few 
superficial characters, are so vague that on these alone it is possible to 
identify almost any branching Gorgonella witli this species. 

326 Proceedings of the Rn/jal Irish Academy. 

It is very doubtful if the long list of synonyms given here were in all 
cases coi-reetly identified ; but in the absence of the specimens themselves, it 
is better to retain tliem until definite information on this point is forth- 

While examining the Alcyonaria in the Museum of the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons, London, I came across a beautiful specimen labelled ' Gm-(jonia 
dowjata (Eeg. No. 184), belonging to the Hunterian Collection, of which the 
following description occurred in the catalogue: — " It consists of a short, broad 
stem, from which seven main branches arise ; these, after proceeding about 
6-7 inches, give off a brancli wliich proceeds upwards nearly parallel with the 
main stem, and about equal to it in thickness. The crust is of a vermilion 
colour ; and the polyp-cells are very numerous and arranged in alternate 
rows, especially towards the free extremities of the branches, which are 
all more or less flattened. The axis is of a light yellow colour, and of a 
small size in comparison with the crust." 

Habitat. — West Indies. 

As this is tlie oldest authentic specimen bearing the specific name elongata, 
I have considered it advisable to resuscitate this old species, give it some 
positive content, and regard this specimen as the type. For this purpose, 
Dr. Bunie has supplied me with a beautifnl photograph of the colony 
and also a sketch dmwn with a "camera lucida," on which fig. 46 is 
based. Preparations of the spicules have also been made for the first 
time, and fig. 48 gives the chief types which occur. 

In the collection of Gorgonellids in the British Museum, there is a very 
delicately branched colony wliich Gray referred to the species Ellisdia 
rofcJHw, establi.shed by him in 1857, with the following diagnosis : — "Coral 
furcately branched ; brandies sub-cylindrical, very long, virgate ; bright 
scarlet." The spicules of this specimen are identical both in types and 
measurements with those of the specimen in the Hunterian Collection 
(figs. 47 and 48), and an examination of the general habit of the two colo- 
nies will at once render it obvious that they cannot l^e regarded as distinct. 
Both the specimens are from the " West Indies." 

The t}'pe specimen (fig, 46) is almost 1 metre in height, and is complete. 
There is a large spreading basis of attachment from which a very tliick stem 
about 12 mm. in breadth arises. The branching commences almost at the 
very base. One of the primary branches is 41 mm. in diameter ; but the 
secondary branches, at a considerable distance from this, have a breadth of 
4 mm. ; about the middle of the colony the smaller elongated branches are 
3"5 mm. in diameter, and at 8 cm. from the tip they are 2 mm. in ibamoter. 
There is considerable anastomosis in the lower part. 

Simpson — A Revisimi of the Gorgonellidae. 327 

Tho branching is distinctly dichotomous, and the branches enclose an 
acute angle ; this is also very marked Ellisella eoccinea. 

The coenonchyma is very thin, and in the dried state extremely brittle ; 
it is densely spiculose. 

The canal system is not easily recognized, owing to the fact that Ijotli 
the specimens are very old, and have been preserved in a dry condition ; 
but it is still possible to detect two large longitudinal canals. I'hcir ]iosition 
is, however, very marked externally. 

The polyps are disposed throughout the whole colony in two very definite 
longitudinal series, separated by very wide and distinct bare tracts, which, 
in the lower region, are depressed and furrow-like. In the older branches 
there are four to six rows of polyps in each series ; these are situated in 
what appears to be diagonal arrangement. In. the younger branches and 
twigs the number diminishes to two, and eventually to a single row 
situated laterally and irregularly alternating. 

The verrucae are slightly elevated, with the oral aperture directed 
upwards, but they are very much shrivelled, owing to desiccation. 

The axis is typically Gorgonellid in structure, and is very hard, especially 
in the lower portions. The fact, however, that the specimens are dry renders 
the axis harder and more brittle. 

The spicules of this species are extremely characteristic and very 
minute. They consist of (1) small double-clubs with closely set, almost 
smooth warts ; (2) double-clubs with more irregular heads ; (3) small- 
slender, elongated double-clubs ; and (4) spindles. (See figs. 48 and 48a.) 

The following are some of the measurements, length by breadth, in mm.: — 

(1) 0-068 X 0-042 ; 0-065 x 0-042 ; 0-053 x 0-038. 

(2) 0-061 X 0-03 ; 0-057 x 0-025 ; 0-057 x 0-03. 

(3) 0-061 X 0-023; 0-061 x Q-OID; 0-057 x O'OIS. 

(4) 0-06 x 0-023 ; 0-058 x 0'015. 

locality — West Indies. 

This is a very distinct group, and is characterized cliiotiy by the nature of 
the spicules. These are remarkable for the great length of the constriction, 
the open disposition of the warts, and llic hIiuusI sniootli nature of tlie 

p. I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVUI., SECT. B. ['2 X] 

328 Proceedings of the Rot/al Irish Academy. 

XXI. — Scirpearia flagellum emend. Figs. 49-60. 

1863. Juncella Jlagdlum Joliuson, xviii., p. 505. 

1864. „ „ „ xix., p. 142. 
1870. Viminella „ Gray, xii., p. 29. 
1881. Scirpearia „ Studer, xxx\a., p. 558. 
1891. „ ochracca Studer, xxxvi., p. 559. 

1901. „ flagellum Studer, xxxviii., p. 53, PI. ix., figs. 1-3; PI. xi., 

figs. 10 and 11. 
1901. „ ochracca Studer, xxxviii., p. 53, PI. ix., figs. 4-6. 
1909. „ flagellum Thomson and Eussell, xliii., p. 1G8, PI. 8, 

fig. 2. 

Tliis is a very old species, and was originally referred to the genus Juncella. 
In 1870 CJray a.ssigncd it to his new genus Viniinella; but with no apparent 
reason, and without giving any f\irther specific content. He, however, gives 
as a synonym, J. ciians Verrill ; but as this was based on purely external 
characters, it is extremely doubtful whether much stress can be laid on tlie 
identity with the latter sjxjcies. Wo have for tliis reason excluded it from 
the list of synonyms. In 1901 Studer rehabilitated the species, and gave a 
description of the spicules and, also, very good figures of the colonies. He 
referred the species to the genus Scirpearia. He, however, established 
anotjjer species — namely, ttcliracen, which cannot now be regarded as distinct 
from that under consideration, and which we therefore give as a synonym. 

With i-egard to Juucdla flagellum, Joimson, in establishing the species, 
says : — 

" 1 have ventured to assign this coral to the genus Juncella. Valenciennes, 
a naturalist for whom I entertain the highest respect, considers it to be 
the Scirpenria viirabilis of Cuvier. There is, however, so mucli doubt as to 
what the coral so named by the illustrious Frenchman really is, that I 
hesitate to ascribe mine to that species — the more especially as it clearly 
falls within the tlcfinition of the genus Juncella' (as it appears in the 
" Histoire Naturelle des Coraillaires " of Milne-Edwards, vol. 1., p. 186), 
forming a member of the section of Gorgonellaceae, which is made up of 
Gorgoniad corals, having a smooth bark and a sub-lithoid axis, containing so 
much carlK)nate of lime as to effervesce in muriatic acid. From Juncdla 
juncea Esper and J. rimen Val. (species found at the Island of Bourbon) it 

' The introduction of the study of apirules has, horever, remorcd it from the genus Juncella, 
from the fact that it contains no club-shaped spicules. 

Simpson^ /I Revision of Ihe florgondlidue. 329 

would seem to bo distinguished by the large size of the cup-bearing papillae ; 
from J. elongcda, a Mediterranean species, by its being simple, not branched." 
The original description of the species is as follows : — 

"Simple, elongated, slender, flexible, slightly twisted on its own axis, and 
tapering upwards. Bark calcareous, white, smooth, and impuncturate, 
enveloping a hard, grey axis, which has a somewhat polished surface, marked 
with straight striae. The axis is highly charged with carbonate of lime. 
The coral is quadrangular in section, and has on eacli of tlie two narrower 
sides two series of closely set papillae, having the eight-lobed orifices of polyp 
cells at their apices. These papillae are obpyriform or ovate ; and in dried 
specimens they are turned upwards and adpressed to the stem. Near the 
base of large specimens the papillae are in three somewhat irregular rows. 
The other two sides of the stem are free from papillae; but there is a slightly 
elevated line along the middle. The base spreads out to a moderate extent 
upon the object to which it is attached. The spicula of which the liark is 
composed are tuberculated staves, two or three times as long as broad, the 
tubercles having a tendency to collect at the extremities. 

" The longest example of this coral which I have seen measured about 
7 feet in length ; and it was without its basal portion. The greatest thickness 
was three-eighths of an inch ; the largest papillae were the tenth of an inch 
in length, and about the same across. In another example, 5 feet in length, 
the base spread out to the size of a shilling ; and the papillae commenced 
about 3 inches above this basal expansion. The smallest specimen that has 
occurred was .31 inches long ; this is in the Britisli Museum. In the collection 
of that establishment there is a large stone, with numerous specimens of this 
coral' upon it, alongside examples of Caligorgia verticillaris Gray {Primnoa 
verticillaris Milne-Edwards). These were brought from St. Michael's, one of 
the Azores, and presented to the Museum by Mr. McAndrew." 

Studer (xxxviii.) adds the following note with regard to the " Monaco " 
specimens : — 

The colonies are long and flexible, and attain a length of 650 mm. The 
polyps are club-shaped, slightly inturned towards the axis ; they are 
arranged on two sides of the stem ; in the lower part in several rows ; but 
towards the tip in a single row, alternating on the two sides. The spicules 
are spindles and double-clubs. Their dimensions arc 0-0G7 x 0-015 mm. ; 
0-061 X 0-0154; 0056 x 0-015; 0-067 x 0-025. 

The colour varies from whitish yellow to red. 

' It is, of course, doubtful whether these nre really J. doiigata, ns it would be impossible to decide 
their specific or even generic position by n superfioinl examination. 


330 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

Locality. — To the east of Graciosa, Azores, 454 metres. 

To the east of Pico, Azores, 318 metres. 
With reference to S. ochracea Studer (xxxviii.) makes the following 
observations : — 

This species is more delicate than S. fla/jdlum. The axis is calcareous; 
white ; rigid near tlie base, flexible near the tip. The polyps occur on two 
sides of the stem ; towards the base in two irregular rows, but merging into 
only one row on each side. They have the shape of cylindrical warts or 
truncated cones, and stand almost perpendicularly to the coenenchyma. 
They are 2 mm. in heiglit, and about 2 mm. in diameter at the base. The 
spicules are very like those of S. flnijcllum ; they consist of double-clubs, 
with large warts and spines at the two ends : sometimes of a yellowish ochre, 
sometimes of a white colour. They arc slightly larger than those of 
S. flagcllnm. 

The colour of the colony is yellowish brown to orange. 

Taking into consideration what has already been seen with regard to 
variation in the group, we see no reason for separating tliis off as a distinct 

LocalHy. — To the east of Pijo, Azores, 318 metres. 

We have examined a beautiful, whip-liko colony, 37 cm. in length, from 
Naples,' which we refer to this species. The diameter near the base is 2 mm.; 
but near the tip it b only 1 mm. It gradually tapers upwards, but the 
terminal 25 cm. are almost uniform in tliickness throughout. 

The coenenchyma is very thin and finely granular ; the surface is marked 
by longitudinal ridges and furrows, which are the outward expression of the 
internal canals ; two of are much deeper than the othere. The general 
colour of the colony is reddish orange, but the tips of the verrucae are 
distinctly more reddish. 

Tlie lower 25 cm. of the stem are devoid of polyps ; this is followed by 
two opposite longitudinal bare tracts wliich persist to the tip of the colony. 
On the other two sides the polyps are disposed in a single row in each series. 
This gives the colony a very markedly bilateral appearance. The verrucae 
are cylindrical, tall, and narrow. They average 2 mm. in height and 1 mm. 
in diameter. They stand sometimes in opposite pairs ; but the more common 
arrangement is alternate. The polyps on the same side are separated by 
distances of about 3-5 mm. The verrucae are longitudinally striated ; and 
the summit has a very definite eight-rayed structure. They stand almost 

' Thia specimen was given to me for identification by Professor J. Arthur Thomson, who 
suggested that it might be incorporated in this memoir. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 331 

perpendicularly in many cases ; but more frequently they are slightly turned 
towards the stem (fig. 49). A very noteworthy feature in this connexion is 
to be observed. The colony has been broken and preserved in two portions. 
In the longer upper part the polyps are nearly all directed towards the tip ; 
while in the lower part thoy are almost all turned downwards. Taking these 
points into consideration, it may be inferred that the verrucae have power of 
rotation through 180° both longitudinally and vertically, or, in other words, 
the anthocodiae may take up any position on the surface of a hemisphere 
whose radius is the length of a polyp. 

The canal system is well developed, but there are very few canals, owing 
to the small number of polyps which occur on the colony. The two main 
canals are very lai'ge ; and their position is indicated on the surface of the 
coenenchyma by two very delicate depressions on the axis ; also by two 
grooves larger than the others. 

The axis is hard and densely calcareous ; it is yellow in colour ; and the 
surface is marked by longitudinal ridges and furrows. 

Attached to the colony is a young bivalve (probably Pteria macroptera). 

The spicules of this specimen consist of the following types (fig. 50) : — 

(1) Double-clubs with a long, narrow constriction, and with almost 

hemispherical ends. The warts are irregularly disposed, are few in 
number, and are almost smooth: 0'07 X O'Oo; 0'065 x 003; 
0-065 X 0-023. 

(2) More elongated double-clubs with the same characteristics, and with 

blunt ends. 

A noteworthy feature about this specimen is the fact that there are very 
few double-spindles or types with conical ends. 

Locality. — Naples. 

We have also referred to this species a specimen in the Cape Collection. 
The spieulation is typical ; and the only difference is the very close disposition 
of the verrucae. We have shown, however, that this is a character in which 
the species shows great variability. It is a very characteristic colony, growing 
on a piece of branching coral (like Lophohelia) (fig. 51). It is 9 cm. in length, 
and bears one branch (which has been broken) at a distance of 2 cm. from 
the base. The coenenchyma is thin and coarsely granular. The general 
colour of the colony is creamy-white. 

The lower 2'5 cm. of the main stem and also the part of the branch which 
is present (1"5 cm.) are devoid of polyps. On the remainder of the main 
stem the verrucae are disposed on two sides, and alternate almost regularly. 
They have the form of fiatteued domes, and give the sides of the colony a 

332 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

very undulating appearance (fig. 52). Their bases meet in the middle line. 
The tips of the verrucae have a very definite eight-rayed structure. Fig. 53 
was made from a longitudinal section through the colony to show the 
attachment of the strong retractor muscles of the anthocodiae. 

The canal-system is typical, but the inner portion of the coenenchyma, 
that is to say, the portion between the two longitudinal series of canals, is 
very minute. 

The axis is pale yellow in colour, and very flexible ; the surface is marked 
by indistinct longitudinal striae. The spicules (fig. 54) of this specimen are 
typical of the species, but are on the whole larger and broader. 

Locolitij. — Buffalo River, East London, N., 15 miles, .310 fathoms. Bottom, 
coral and mud. 

In the Cape Collection there are also a number of small young colonies, 
which are extremely interesting, and which are undoubtedly young forms of 
this species. Tlie longest of these is 7"5 nun. and the smallest .3-5 cm. in 
length. They have all the same general appearance, and maintain the 
relative proportions throughout, so that a sliort description of one colony will 
give the essential characters (fig. 55). All are attached to pieces of rock, 
coral, or shell. 

The stem is about 1 mm. in diameter near tlie base, and only very slightly 
less at the tip. The coenenchyma is very thin, and finely granular ; the 
general colour of the colonies is a bright orange-yellow. 

The polyps are ilisposeil in two longitudinal series ; and altliough the two 
median bare tracts are not well pronounced, the colony has a markedly 
bilateral appearance. They occur in a single row in each series ; but the 
interposition of young forms sometimes masks this distribution. They stand 
sub-opposite or sometimes alternately ; but the young polyps tend to break 
this otherwise regular structure (fig. 56). 

Tlie verrucae are elongated and cylindrical ; they are turned towards 
the stem, and are directed upwards ; their surface is marked by longitudinal 
ridges and depressions ; the apex when partially closed has a distinct eight- 
rayed structure ; in many cases the infolded tentacles may be seen projecting 
around the oval opening. 

The canal system is well developed ; the canals are distinct but few in 
numlier ; the two main canals are large. The axis is cylindrical, hard, and 
very calcareous; the surface is marked by very indistinct longitudinal 

The spicules (fig. 57) are characterized by the small number and large 
size of the almost smooth warts and by the very marked constriction in the 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 333 

double-clubs. The following are the chief types, with measurements, length 
y breadth, in millimetres : — 

(1) Double-clubs with a very long constriction and with almost 

hemispherical ends. The warts are almost smooth; they are 
openly disposed and arranged almost in whorls : 0-068 X 0-034 ; 
0-061 X 0-03; 0057 x 0-027. 

(2) Elongated double-clubs passing to double-spindles. There is a very 

distinct constriction; and the ends are markedly conical. The 
warts are not closely set, and are almost smooth : 0-114 X 0-023; 
0-103 X 0023 ; 0-095 x 0-027 ; 0-095 x 0-023. 

Irregular forms, crosses, and scales from the tentacles also occur. 

Locality.— O'^eil Peak, N.W., \ W. 9^ miles; 90 fathoms. Bottom, 
broken shell. 

To show the varied appearance of the verrucae, we have included here 
three figures of specimens of Scirpcaria flagcllum in the Monaco Museum. 
(See figs. 58, 59, and 60.) 

XXII. Scirpearia thomsoni, n. sp., figs. 61-63. 

Juncella elongata Thomson and Henderson, xl., p. 81, PL i., fig. 10 ; PI. ix., 
fig. 17. 

We have no hesitation in establishing this new species for a specimen 
which was originally referred to the species Juncella clongatct by Thomson 
and Henderson, who were compelled to base their diagnosis on the very 
inadequate description of this species which was available at the time of 
publication of the Indian Ocean Deep Sea Alcyonaria Report. At that time 
the spicules of Scirpearia. elongata {Juncella elongata) were unknown; but an 
investigation of the spicules of an old specimen in the Museum of the Hoyal 
College of Surgeons, and the consequent resuscitation of that old but 
imperfectly known species has caused the necessity of removing the present 

The colony shows several very characteristic features : for example, 
(1) the nature of the branching, (2) the marked rigidity of the colony, 
(3) the nature of the verrucae ; but most of all the distinctive character 
of the spicules, which mark it off as a very definite and new species. 

The specimen is 22 cm. in height, and is branched approximately in 
one plane. The branching is almost dichotomous ; and the silhouette of the 
axis (fig. 61) gives the essential features. On the whole, the colony is very 
rigid, owing to the very densely calcareous nature of the axis. The coenen- 
chyma is moderately thin, but densely spiculose ; the general colour of the 
colony is salmon-pink. 

334 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

" The axis is calcareous, rigid, and brittle ; it is slightly oval in section ; 
but in the younger portions it becomes quite C3'lindrieal, and tapei'S till it is 
thread-like. It shows a veiy white core surrounded by a brownish cortex." 

The polyps are disposed in two longitudinal series on opposite faces, 
each of which consists of from two to four irregularly alternating rows. The 
verrucae are low and truncate; when retracted there is a deep depression in 
the centre wliich is directed slightly upwai'ds. Tins gives a very characteristic 
appearance (6g. 62). They are about 0'4 mm. in height and 1'5 mm. in 
diameter at the base. 

The spicules are extremely characteristic, and quite unlike those of any 
other species (fig. 63). They consist of the following types, with measure- 
ments, length by breadth, in mm. 

(a) Double-clubs with almost hemispherical heads, and with a relatively 

long constriction. On either side of the constriction the large 
warts are arranged in a whorl, while beyond tliis there is a very 
warty hub which gives the whole head a very irregular outline : 
008 X 004; 0-07 x 0035. 

(b) Smaller double-clubs in which the whorl is not so pronounced : 

GOT X 0-46 ; DOT x 0042. 

(c) A peculiar type, which approximate to capstans with terminal warty 

projections : 008 x 004 ; 0-07 x 0021. 
(</) Elongated double-duba with a long, nanow constriction, with the inner 

warUs arranged appro.xiniatcly in a whorl, and with more or less 

elongated and irregularly warted hubs: 0"114 x 0053; 0'114 

X 0046 ; 0095 x 005. 
((•) Double-spindles (.some of approach spindles). The ends are 

almost conical, and are variously covered with very irregular warts 

which give the whole a very ragged outline : 0125 x 0038, 

0-11 X 03; 01 X 0027. 
Xofrt/i/y.— Bay of Bengal, 88 fathoms. 

XXIII. Scirpearia alba (Thomson and Henderson), figs. 64 and 65. 
Scirpeareila alba Thomson and Henderson, xl., p. 82, PI. ix., fig. 15. 

This species was established for three long, incomplete specimens, of a 
white colour, 28, 411, and 408 mm. in length, with a corresponding diameter 
at the lower end of 175, 23, and 175 mm. 

Two of the colonies are unbranched ; but the largest branches at a distance 
of 251 mm. from the lower end. 

The axis is cylindrical, hard, brittle, and very calcareous, but becomes 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 335 

very flexible and filiform near tlie tip. It is uiarkcd Ity a number of 
grooves which iini up for a short distance, and also by a number of small 

The stem is oval in section, v^ith a groove on the two flattened surfaces 
faintly marked in two of the specimens. 

The verrucae occur in a single row on each side of the stem, those of one 
row alternating with those of the other. They are low and truncated 
(0'45 mm. in height), laterally compressed, with spreading basis (fig. 04). 

The diameter is 1'4 mm. at the base and 0'65 mm. at the apex. 

The coenenchyma is moderately thick. 

The spicules of this species (fig. 65) are extremely characteristic. They 
consist essentially of double-clubs, which are almost as broad as long, and 
have a very short but extremely thick median constriction. 

Their ends are almost hemispherical, and are covered with abundant 
rugose warts. There are also a few elongated narrow double-clubs, with 
more openly-warted heads, and with a longer constriction. Some of these 
approximate to spindles. Small, apparently developmental, forms and a 
few crosses also occur.' 

The following are typical measurements of the chief types, length by 
breadth, in mm. : — 

(a) Short thick double- clubs : 0-15 X 0-17; 0-15 X 0-095; 0-13 x 0-11; 

0-13 X 0-095. 
(6) Slender double-clubs : 0-15 x 0-02 ; 0-13 x 008 ; 0-09 x 0-03. 
(c) Irregular or developmental forms : 0-057 X 0-02. 

Locality. — Bay of Bengal, 88 fathoms. 

Specific Diagnosis. 

Colony simple or slightly branched, long and filiform; axis cylindrical, 
calcareous, and grooved; coenenchyma moderately thick; vernicae in a- 
single row on each side of the stem ; spicules consist essentially of short, 
thick double-clubs almost as long as bioad and with a very narrow con- 
striction ; the ends are almost hemispherical, and are covered with densely 
rugose warts. 

' The large spindles described from the type specimen of the species are undoubtedly extrinsic. 

p. I. A. PHOC, Vol.. XXVIII., SKIT. K, [2 1'] 

ri80 Pfoceedbigs of the Roijnl Irish Academy. 

XXIV. Scirpearia aurantiaca (Thomson and Henderson), figs. 66-68. 

Scirpearella aurantiaca, Thomson and Henderson, xxxix., p. 311, PI. iv., 

fig. 7, PL v., fig. 15. 
Scirpearella sp., Thomson and Henderson, xxxix., p. 312. 

Scirpearella divisa, Thomson and Henderson, xxxix., p. 312, PI. vi., 

fig. 8. 
Scirpearella aurantiaca, Thomson and Russell, xliii., p. 163, PI. viii., 

figs. 4, 6, and 9. 

This species was establislied by Tliomson and Henderson for several 
portions of colonies from Ceylon. 

The colony is slightly branched. The axis is cylindrical in shape, very 
calcareous, and marked by two or tliree slight winding grooves in the lower 
portions. The general colour of the branches is yellowish-white 

The verrucas occur on all sides of the branches. They are conical in 
shape, truncated at the tip, 2 mm. in maximum height, and 1"5 mm. in basal 
diameter. In colour they resemble the stem in the lower part; but tlie tip is 
orange-yellow, thus standing out against the general colour of the branches. 
The edges of the oral end curve inwards, and all stages, from an opening with 
an eight-lobed margin to a simple pore-like opening, and finally to a com- 
pletely closed tip, may be seen. The polyps are all completely withdrawn 
into the coenenchyma. 

The coenenchyma is granular in texture and only of medium thickness. 
It is practically composed of spindles and double-clubs. 

The spicules are small in size, and measure, length by breadth, in milli- 
metres : — 

(1) Spindles : 006 x 0-03 ; 008 x 002 ; 0-085 x 0-03. 

(2) Double-clubs: 00.-)5 X 003; 007 X 004; 006 X 004. 
Locality/. — Deep water outside pearl-banks. Gulf of Manaar. 
Scirpearella sp., Thomson and Henderson. 

We would also refer the specimen described in oj). cit., p. 312, to this 
species. It consisted of a damaged colony, broken in four pieces, attaining 
a total length of 48 cm. The base is present, but the tip of the colony has 
been lost. The main stem, after a distance of 4 cm., gives rise to a branch 
which has been broken off at its point of origin ; a second branch arises after 
another 12 cm.; it is 11 cm. in length. The iliameter of the main stem is 
2-5 mm.; about the middle of the colony it is 1*5 mm. 

The coenenchyma is finely granular, and is about Oo mm. in thickness 
throughout the entire length. 

Simpson — A Revision of the GorcfoncUidae. ^37 

The general colour of the colony is brick-red ; but the anthocodiae are 

The base of the colony and the main stem for a short distance ai"e devoid 
of verrucae, but in tlie polyp-bearing region they appear to occur all round 
the stem in rows, and so simulate a spiral arrangement. Closer examination, 
however, reveals two distinct longitudinal sinuous bare tracts. There are 
about four irregular rows in each of the polyp-bearing regions in the older 
parts ; but in the branch, which is present, there are only two rows ; while 
near the tip there is only one. The verrucae are small and comparatively 
distant. In the older part of the stem they are cylindrical, stand perpendi- 
cularly, and are about 1 mm. in height and 0-5 mm. in diameter ; but in the 
branch they are more retracted, and almost dome-like. '\\Tien partially 
retracted the apex is flattened, and has a distinct eight-rayed structure. 

The canal system is typical ; the two main canals are not much larger 
than the others, but are quite distinct. The axis is cylindrical, and is 
composed of concentric laminae ; it is densely calcareous, hard yet flexible. 
The surface is deeply grooved, especially in the lower part. This is due to 
the large size of the canals of the inner longitudinal series. 
Localitij. — Ceylon Sea. 

Scirpearella divisa. — We have examined the spicules of this species, and 
can find no reason for separating it from S. mirantiaca. The type-specimen 
consisted of a fragment of a reddish-orange colony with four branches, 7 cm. 
in height and about 2 mm. in diameter. The ^'errucae are very low and 
gently rounded; towards the end of the highest branch, where they are 
closely crowded and very distinct, the arrangement appears to be in four 
rows with a suggestion of a spiral ; in the older parts the verrucae are very 
inconspicuous, not close together, and somewhat irregularly disposed. 

The coenenchyma is finely granular, almost smooth to the naked eye, 
The axis is very calcareous, light yellow in colour, with ten shallow grooves 
on the part examined. It is about 1'4 mm. in diameter out of a total branch 
diameter of 2 mm. 

The spicules of this species are very characteristic. They consist of : — 

(a) Do\ible-clubs with hemispherical heads in which the warts are arranged 

concentrically ; the constriction is very short : 0'0684 x 0049 ; 
0-065 X 0-038 ; 0-053 x 0-03. 

(b) Double-clubs, slender with elongated ends, tending to double-spindles : 

0-084 X 0-019; 0-076 x 0-029; 0-076 x 023. 

(c) Spindles— warty : 0-095x0-027; 0-095 x 0-02; 0087 X 0-015. 

[2 F 2] 

838 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

In addition to these tliere are often forms which are intermediate between 
types («) and {h) ; but these cannot be regarded as constituting a distinct 

As we have already pointed out, the branching, as shown in this specimen, 
is not of a character of sufficient vahie for specific determination. We would 
therefore suggest mei'ging it into the older species S. aurantiaca. 

Locality. — Ceylon Sea. 

In the Littoral Collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, there is a very 
long, simple, llagelliform colony which has unfortunately been broken into 
five pieces. The attacliment is broken oil', but very near tlie base, as is 
evident from the absence of verrucae at the present basal portion. The total 
lengtli of the colony is over 112- cm. The diameter near the base (without 
vernicac) is .S mm. ; about midway it is 2 mm., while near the tip it is 1 mm. ; 
80 that the tapering is very slight. 

The coenenchyma is very smooth, and is about Oo mm. in thickness 
throughout the entire length of the colony. 

The general colour is brick-red ; but the anthocodiae are white. Near the 
base of the colony there are no verrucae ; but after a short distance they 
appear as if distributed all over the coenenchyma, and so simulate a spiral 
aiTangement; a distinct trace of two bare longitudinal spaces is, however, 
clearly discernible ; these tend to disappear towards the tip of the colony, 
owing to its extreme slenderncss and the interlocking of the verrucae. 
There are five rows near the base in each polyp-bearing tract ; but these 
gradually diminish to two near the tip. The verrucae are small and 
relatively distant. Near the base they have the form of sliort cylinders 
(fig. 66) ; but are often flattened, owing to the collapse of the thin walls ; 
they are about r25 mm. in height, and 0"75 mm. in diameter, and stand 
almost perpendictilarly. Towards the tip, however, they are smaller, more 
retracted, and appear as small domes directed slightly upwards (fig. 67). 

Tlie two main canals, corresponding to the two bare tracts, are clearly 
visible in a cross-section. The other canals of the inner series are relatively 

The axis is cylindrical, densely calcareous, and very brittle. It tapers in 
a more marked degree than the colony itself. The colour of the lower part 
is bro%vn, but the core is white. There are deep longitudinal depressions on 
the surface. The laminae are very thick, and may be seen with the naked 
eye, in spite of the small diameter of the axis. 

The spicules (fig. 68) are quite typical of the species. 

LoMlity. — Laccadives, 30-50 fms. 

Simpson — A Revision of the GorgoneUidae. 339 

XXV.— Scirpearia furcata. Figs. 69-91. 

Scirpcaria fu/rcata Hickson, xv., p. 822; figs. 8 and 9. 

Scirpearia fm-cata var. (?) Hickson xv., p. 822. 

ScirpearcUa indica Hickson, xv., p. 822 ; fig. 10. 

Scirpearia sp. (?) Thomson and Henderson, xxxix., p. 313, PI. iv. 

fig. 1 ; PI. v., fig. IG. 
Sdrpearella sp. B. Thomson and Henderson, xxxix., p. 312. 

Juncella eloiigata (Val.) Hickson, x., p. 821. 

Sdrpearella aurantiaca Th. & Eussell, p. 163. 

Perhaps no species in the whole family shows so great variability or has 
given so much trouble as the one now under consideration. Hickson formed 
two new species on fragments from the Maldives, and referred one to 
Scirpearia, the other to Scirpearella. At the same time he hesitatingly 
referred some fragments to the species Juncella elongaia.. Thomson and 
Henderson, in the Ceylon Alcyonaria Eeport, refrained from naming some 
fragments which did not seem to agree with any of the formerly described 
species. They referred one to the genus Scirpearia as Scirpearia sp. (?), the 
other to Scirpearella as Sciipearella sp. B., and iu so doing give the following 
note : — 

" Our impression is that the elougafceci forms of Scirpearella, Juncella, and 
the like, so monotonous in general appearance, so perplexingly diSerent when 
one gets beneath the surface, are subject to great variability." 

Before proceeding to differentiate the reasons upon which I have merged 
all these species under the earliest name it might be well to give a short 
description of the different specimens. I'rofessor Hickson has very kindly 
sent me small portions of his Scirpearella indica and Juncella elongata, as 
well as the type specimen of Scirpearia furcata figured in his report. 
Professor Thomson has also placed pieces of the Ceylon specimens at my 
disposal. This has been of immense service to me, as only by means of a 
critical examination of these and other specimens to be described later, could 
a thorough specific determination be arrived at. 

Scirpearia sp. (?) Thomson and Henderson. 

A beautiful colony, 41 cm. in length. The base has been broken off, but 
probably not far from the present base. The main stem, after a distance of 
4: cm., bifurcates, and gives origin to Lwu long, whip- like branches ; these are 
almost equal in length. The diametei oi the main stem is 2*o mm., that of 
the branches at their origin 2 mm., and neir the tip I'o mm. There is thus 
only a very gradual tapering. 

340 Proccediwjs of the Roi/at Irkk Academy. 

The coenenchjTna has a very arenaceous smface, aud is moderately thin. 
The general colour of the colony is reddish orange ; but the verrucae are 
distinctly red. 

The pol)'ps are disposed in two longitudinal series, each consisting of two 
or three transverse rows, and separated by two distinct bare tracts (tig. 69). 
There is no flattening of the branches, nor is there any sign of a longitudinal 
depression. The verrucae are low and slightly dome-like. 

The axis is slender, tapering only slightly, and is deeply grooved. It is 
composed of concentric laminae, and is densely calcareous ; tlie diameter at 
the base is lo mm., but it is hair-like at the tip. 
Localities. — Ceylon Seas. 
Scirptaria furcata Hickson. 

This species was established for two fragments from the Maldives. The 
larger was 90 mm. long. Both e.xhibited an orange-red-coloured coeuenchyma, 
with dark red dome-shaped verrucae, closely crowded, but separated into two 
groups by broad, spirally directed, bare tracts. The more delicate specimen 
had a single branch which was bifurcated at its e.xtremity. (See xv., lig. 8.) 
Localities. — S. Nilandu, 25 fathoms; N., Male, 20 fathoms. 
IScirpearia fureata var. (?) Hickson. 

A specimen 200 mm. long, slightly branched, and difl'ering from the type. 
It is more delicate in build, lias less prominent verrucae, and the coloiu 
is not so much a pure re<l, but is tinged with orange. 
Locality. — N. Nilandu (Maldives), 24 fathoms. 

Superficially, these different specimens are hardly distinguishable. Tlie 
forked specimen of S.jurcata and the type specimen of S. sp. (?) are identical 
in colour and in the distribution and nature of the verrucae ; but the 
branches in the former are short ; while in the latter they are long and 
whip-like. The other specimens of S. fv.rcata and the type specimen of 
S. /urea (a var. (?) seem, however, to fonu intermediate links. Let us now 
consider the specimens referred to Scirpearclla. 
ScirpcarcUa indica Hickson. 

This species was established by Hickson for several specimens from the 
Maldives with the following characteristics : — 

All are nnbranched. The diameter of the specimens varies very little, 
and is in all about 3-5 to 4 mm. ; the apex is blunt. The verrucae vary 
considerably. In one specimen they are pointed and about 1 mm. in height 
at the base of the other, they are broader and less prominent. In places 
they have an appearance like " a shallow ledge that reminds one of the 
edible nests of the swallow (Collocalin)," similar to that described by 
Wright and Studer for S. profuruta. The verrucae are arranged in six or 
seven slightly spiral rows. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae, 3-11 

The colour varies in the ditt'erent specimens. In one the coenenchyma 
is white, but the tips of the verrucas are red. In another the verrucae are 
white tliroughout ; iDut there are streaks of pink along the coenenchyma 
running irregularly and uniting at the base to give the coenenchyma a general 
pale red colour. Other specimens are entirely white. 

Locality. — S. Nilandu (Maldives), west passage of Atoll, 30 fathoms. 

Scirpcardla sp. B. Thomson and Henderson. 

A somewhat damaged colony, which has unfortunately been broken in 
five pieces. The base is complete, but a short piece at the tip has been lost. 
The total height is 28 cm. ; the diameter near the base is 3"5 mm. ; but 
near the present tip it is 1"5 mm. At a distance of 20 cm. from the base 
there is a distinct angular bend ; it is difficult to say whether this is the 
origin of a branch or a growth consequent on fracture. 

The coenenchyma is e.xtremely thin and finely arenaceous. The general 
colour is pale-pink or salmon-pink ; but the verrucae are white, and streaks 
of the same colour permeate the coenenchyma. 

The polyps are apparently distributed all over the colony; but close 
examination reveals two indistinct, sinuous longitudinal bare tracts. The 
verrucae are low domes, and scarcely project beyond the coenenchyma (fig. 70). 

Owing to the extreme thinness of the coenenchyma, the canal system is 
very ill-defined. 

The axis is very calcareous, hard, and, in the younger parts, brittle. 
It is composed of very thick concentric laminae ; the surface is faintly and 
irregularly marked by grooves. 

Locality. — Ceylon Seas. 

As was the case with the two species already discussed, the two now 
described are identical on superficial examination. Let us now proceed to 
investigate in what respects the two groups differ. 

/iwmto-group. indica-gxow^. 

The verrucae are separated into The verrucae are separated into 

two longitudinal series by two very two longitudinal series by indistinct 

distinct bare tracts. bare tracts which may even disappear 

near the base. 

There are two or three longitudinal xhe verrucae appear as if distri- 

rows in each series. baited in five to seven slightly spiral 

The verrucae are low and dome- 


The verrucae may be (1) long and 
pointed, (2) projecting ledges, (3) low 
and dome-like, (4), almost level with 
the coenenchyma. 

342 Proceedings of the Poijnl Irish Academy. 

Thus we see that, although superficial!)' they may present very different 
appearances, when we investigate the various characters nothing of specific 
moment can be found to obtain. The question of " five to seven slightly spiral 
rows " resolves itself into two series of two to four rows in which the bare 
tracts are hardly distinguishable. 

JnnceUa elongata (Val.) Hickson, xv., p. 821. 

Hickson referi'ed some fragments to this species, but expressed doubt as 
to the identification. He gave the following notes : — One specimen (in three 
pieces) was 315 mm. in length. The total diameter was 35 mm., and the 
axis 2 mm. in the middle region. Nearei" the base the coenencliyma is 
relatively thin or very thin, and nearer the apex much thicker. The colour 
of the coenencliyma is pale pink and the verrucae are tluoughout shallow 
domes, white in colour. The verrucae are separated by distinct bare tracts 
into two longitudinal series. In the portion I examined there were six to 
seven rows in eiich series. Other specimens were pale red and orange-red in 
colour. In the latter, which wa.s 230 mm. in length, the verrucae were 
scattered and prominent towards the distal end, but there is an almost smooth 
coeuenchynia near the base (fig. 71). 

The spicules are double-clubs, warted spindles, and a few more elongated 
spindles, with fewer tubercles arranged in regular rows. Tlie warted spindles 
and double-clubs vary in length from 008 to 0085 mm. Some of the pouited 
spindles are 01 mm. in length. There is evidently a good deal of variation 
in the shape of the spindles (fig. 72). 

The colour, the prominence of the verrucae, and the definiteness of 
pronounced tracts fi-ee from verrucae, are also characters in which the species 
shows much variation. 

Locality. — S. Nilandu, 25 to 30 fathoms (Maldives) Hulule, Male Atoll, 
25 to 30 fathoms (Maldives). 

Xole. — In one specimen Hickson says clubs similar to those in J. 
juncca occur ; but this probably belonged to that species. 

In the Littoral Alcyonaria Collection of the Indian Museum there is a 
portion, 35 cm. in length, of what has evidently been a long flagelliform 
colony ; Ijoth the basal and terminal parts are wanting. 

The coenenchyma is granular and moderately thick. The diameter is 
almost constant throughout the part under examination ; it is about 4 mm., 
while that of the axis is 2 mm. The general colour of the colony is orange- 
red, but the anthocodiae are white. 

The polyps are disposed in two longitudinal series separated by two narrow 

SiMi'.S(nN — A Revision oj Uic Ourjoncilitluc. 343 

bare strips whicli become more indistinct, Imt still visible, towards tlie tip 
(fig. 7o). These are spirally twisted ; but this is, no doubt, duo to a general 
torsion of the colony. In each series the polyps appear in rows diverging 
from the bare tracts ; this gives a very marked spiral arrangement, but this 
is also due to torsion. Transversely four or live is a common nundjcr in each 
series. The verrucae are sub-cylindrical and closely adpressed to the stem ; 
the outer insertion is lower than the inner. They are about 1'5 mm. in 
height and 0'75 mm. in diameter at the base. When retracted they are sub- 
conical, and have eight converging lips (fig. 74). 

The canal system is very definite and typical ; the two main longitudinal 
canals are extremely large. 

The axis is yellow in colour, and markedly calcareous; the surface is 
apparently smooth ; it tapers only slightly in the portion preserved. 

LomliUj. — Off Table Island, Cocos Group, Andamans, 15-35 fathoms. 

When we take into consideration the fact that the great majority of 
these forms are fragmentary, and also the slight basis on which the genera 
Juncella, Scirpearia, and Scirpearella were formerly differentiated, there is 
small cause for wonder that the various specimens were referred to one or 
other of these genera on account of differences which we hope to show are 
not specific, but only different manifestations assumed by extremely plastic 

We have made a very exhaustive study of the spicules in all the forms of 
which descriptions have been given; and although these show certain deviations, 
nevertheless they may be grouped into a number of more or less definite 

Fig. 75 gives a very good representation of the different types and 
deviations therefrom in the case of the spicules in the Indian Museum 
specimen. Fig. 72 of the spicules of Hickson's Juncella clongata has also 
been added, and a comparison of these two groups should at once indicate the 
affinities of these two apparently difierent forms. A similar comparison 
might be made with regard to the others with a like result. 

If, then, the character of spiculation can be regarded as specific, we sliould 
be compelled to unite all these extremely divergent forms into one very 
variable species. This procedure may, at first sight, seem rather drastic, as, 
it may be argued, the different variations occurred not in each specimen but 
in different specimens. 

They distinctly show a range of variation wliich cannot be easily com- 
prehended within an individual colony. 

We are, however, fortunately in the possession of a large colony which 
has the same characteristic spiculation, and which does actually slmw a range 

R.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVin., SECT. B. [2 X\ 

34:1 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

of variation as great as, if uot greater than, that recorded for the individual 
portions hitherto described. 

We therefore propose to give a fairly exhaustive account of this colony, 
and regard it as the type of the species in its emended form. 

A beautiful colony of an orange-red colour 52 cm. in height and about 
16 cm. in breadth. It is largely branched, approximately in one plane, and 
in a manner similar to that in Jimcdla gemmacea. It is complete to the very 
base ; but some of the bi-auches have been broken off". These are nearly all 
preserved, however ; and it is possible to piece them together so as to get an 
idea of the nature of the colony as a whole when living (fig. 76). 

The main stem has a diameter of 4o mm. at the base and 3'o mm. at a 
heitrht of 100 mm. where it has been broken off". 

The first branch arises at a distance of 18 mm. from the base ; it is 3 mm. 
in diameter at its point of origin, and tapers gradually to a point ; it is 
145 mm. in length. The second arises after another 33 mm., and attains a 
length of 445 mm. ; it is 4 mm. in diameter at its origin, and gives rise to a 
secondary branch 375 mm. long aft4?r a distance of 82 mm. ; the diameter of 
the latter is 3 mm. at its point of origin. A third primary branch comes off 
at a distance of 95 mm. from the base, and is 3 mm. in diameter near its 
origin ; it is 430 mm. in length, and tapers gradually to a conical point. 

The coenenchyma is thin and finely granular ; it is of a pale yellow 
colour, but the verrucae are red. Near tlie base long streaks of red extend 
longitudinally from the verrucae and interlock, giving a peculiar tessellated 
pattern (cf. the type specimen of Scirpmrdla »ji. JJ.). This feature may be 
seen in other parts of the colony. 

The polyps are disposed on the branches in two longitudinal series, 
separated by two distinct bare tracts, which may be more ireegular or even 
altogether absent. 

Near the base the verrucae are only slightly elevated, and in many cases 
hartUy project beyond the coenenchyma (fig. 77). 

Near the origin of the second primary branch there are 3-5 longitudinal 
rows in each series ; the verrucae are low and dome-like, or in some cases 
like bluntly truncate cones, having an eight-rayed structure at the summit 
(fig. 78). 

About midway on the third primary branch there are 4-5 longitudinal 
rows in each series ; the verrucae are sub-cylindrical and closely adpressed 
to the stem (fig. 79). 

Towards the tips of the branches the number of rows of polyps in each 
series diminishes to two and eventually to one ; the verrucae are sub-cylin- 
drical or in some cases dome-like (fig. 80). 

Simpson — A Revision of the Oorgoncllidae. 'i4o 

TIuis wo sec that this specimen exhibits all tlic variation phases which 
arc represented in the various specimens previously discussed. 

The canal system is typical ; the two large main canals corresponding 
to the two bare tracts are very pronounced. 

The axis is cylindrical, calcareous, and made up of concentric laminae. 
It tapers gradually from the base upwards, and is fairly flexible. The 
coenenchyma is thus of an almost uniform thickness throughout. The 
surface of the axis is marked by longitudinal striae, the number of which 
varies in the different parts of the colony. The following are the chief 
types of spicules (fig. 81), with their measurements, length by breadth, in 
mm : — 

(«) Small double-clubs with a narrow constriction, and with openly 

wartedends: 0-076 x 0-038; 0-068 x 0-046; 0068 x 0-034. 
(h) Smaller double-clubs with comparatively few warts on the ends : 

0-065 X 0-034; 0-061 x 003; 0-057 X 0-038. 
(c) Smaller double-clubs with the ends more densely covered with smaller 

warts: 0-046 X 0-023 ; 0-042 X 0-019; 0-038 x 0-015. 
{d) Elongated double-clubs with openly warted ends: 0-08 X 0-023; 

0-068 X 0-031. 
(e) Elongated double-clubs with closely warted ends : 0-072 x 0-03 ; 

0-068 X 0-027; 0-065 X 0-023. 
(/) Narrower double-clubs, simulating spindles : 0-076 X 0-019 ; 0-072 

X 0-023; 0-065 X 0-019. 
Locality. — Providence Island, 29 fathoms. 

In the Cape Collection there is a large number of colonies which are 
extremely diverse in external appearance, but all of which have essentially 
the same spiculation. It is absolutely impossible to differentiate these 
from S, furcata; so that I have decided to include them in this species and 
give a few notes on each specimen, with special reference to the variations. 

In addition to the more mature colonies, there are a few undoubtedly 
young forms, the largest of which is only 50 cm., and the smallest 8-5 cm. 
in length. All are of a creamy-white colour, and form a striking annccteut 
series, showing the various " types " of verrucae which are undoubtedly only 
different stages in retraction (fig. 82). 

Locality. — Hood Point, N., 5| miles, 42 fathoms. Bottom : sand and 

We shall commence with those forms in which the verrucae are very 
small, and gradually pass to those in which they are more expanded, and 
show that a series exists connecting the must extreme types. 

[2 Z 2] 

346 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academij. 

A beautiful, simple colony of a pale orange colour. It is 17 cm. in 
length. The base is broken off and the tip is dome-like. 

The coenenchyma is moderately thick, and is finely granular. The polyps 
are distributed over the whole of the coenenchyraa ; in some parts they 
appear as if in spirals, but they are in reality in longitudinal rows, the 
members of which irregularly alternate. Four of these rows may be seen 
from one aspect. The veri'ucae are extremely small, and are sunk into pits 
in the coenenchyma, so as to be almost level with it (fig. 83). The members 
of one longitudinal series are separated by distances about three to four 
times the length of the verrucae. The verrucae themselves are somewhat 
cylindrical, and have a distinctly eight-rayed summit. There is not the 
slightest trace of a bare tract. 

The canal system is, however, typical. The two large main canals are 
quite prominent in a cross-section. This reminds one of the type of Juncdla 
juncea witli nou-projectiug verrucae. 

The axis is lamellar, densely calcareous, and very hard ; the surface is 
iudeJiuitely marked by longitudinal atriations. 

Locality. — Off and east of Cape Morgan, 36 fatlioms. Bottom : stones. 

A long, simple, flagelliform colony, 50 era. in length. The diameter near 
the base is 5 mm. ; near the tip it is 4 mm. The coenenchyma is thick, 
being slightly over 1 mm. throughout. The general colour of the colony is 
a dull orange-red. 

The polyps are distributed in two longitudinal series separated by two 
narrow bare tracts ; there are four to seven alternating rows in each series. 
The verrucae are small and are closely adpressed to tlie coenenchyma, 
being sunk in pits so as to bo almost level with it. They are very much 
retracted, however, and there is every reason to believe that when expanded 
they would lie more than double their present length (fig. 84). 

The membera of one row irregularly alternate with those of the 
adjacent row. 

The canal system is well developed, and is clearly seen in the thick 
coenenchpna ; the two main canals are veiy large. 

The axis is flexible, but very hard and densely calcareous ; it is about 
2"5 mm. in diameter near the base. The surface is marked by distinct 
longitudinal striae. 

LocolUy. — Umhlangakulu Eiver mouth, N.-W. by N., 1\ miles ; 50 fathoms. 
Bottom : sand, shell, and sponge fragments. 

An almost complete colony, 24 cm. in length, of which only the base 
is wanting. This specimen is extremely interesting, as it shows to what 
extent the polyps may be extruded in this species. 

.Snii'SdX — ,1 Urvl^i'iu III' llir (iiirijiiiiilliihi.c. •>17 

The diameter (if the ,st(Mu is 4 miii. near the base, Ijiit iliiuiiiishesfiraihially 
to 3 mm. near the tip. The coenenchyraa is thick ; the general colour of the 
colony is pale yellow ; but the tips of the verrucae and the anthocodiae are 

The present specimen agrees in detail with the last, except in the nature 
of the verrucae (cf. figs. 84 and 85). 

Locality. — Off and east of Cape Morgan, 36 fms. Bottom : stones. 

A beautiful, complete, simple colony, 22'5 cm. in length ; the 
coenenchyma is moderately thick and densely granular ; the general 
colour is a bright orange-yellow ; but the tips of the verrucae and tlie 
anthocodiae are white, and there are also white streaks throughout the 

The polyps are distributed in two lateral, longitudinal series ; the bare 
median tracts are fairly well defined. The number of rows in each series 
varies from two to four. The verrucae are sub-cylindrical, directed 
upwards, and adpressed to the stem (fig. 86). The members of two adjacent 
rows alternate with one another so that the tip of one verruca is on a level 
with the base of the next higher in the adjacent row. The verrucae are 
about 1'25 mm. in height and 0'75 mm. in diameter. Near the base they 
are much smaller, more distant, and a few are even sunk into pits in the 
coenenchyma. The anthocodiae are white ; the tentacles are short, but have 
a dense aboral armature. 

The canal system is typical and well developed ; the two main canals are 
easily seen when a piece of the coenenchyma is detached. 

The axis is slender, flexible, but very calcareous ; the surface is marked 
by longitudinal striae. 

Lvcality. — Umhloti Eiver mouth, N. by W. half W., 8| miles, 43 fms. 
Bottom : sand, shells, and hard ground. 

A small, complete colony, 15"5 cm. in height; is almost identical with the 
last specimen. 

The following diiferences may be noted : — 

(1) The colour is almost brick-red. 

(2) The verrucae are slightly smaller and are more adpressed to the 

coenenchyma. (Both these differences are probably due to greater 
retraction and to the fact that the colony itself is smaller.) 
Locality. — Umhloti Eiver mouth, N. by W. half W., 83 miles, 40 fms. 
Bottom : sand, shells, and hard ground. 

In the Littoral Collection of the Indian Museum there are four filiform 
colonies which have the characteristic spiculation of S. fwrcata, to which 
species we have therefore assigned them. They difler considerably in 

.S48 Proceedings of the Royal Irish AcaJcmij. 

external appearance, so that the following notes and figures (figs. 88 and 90) 
give some idea of the fertility of variation. Let us commence with those in 
which the verrucae are most contracted. 

A long, simple filiform colony, 82 cm. in length, and having a maximum 
diameter of 2-5 mm. The coenenchyma is finely granular, and only 0-25 mm. 
in thickness near the base. The colour of the colony is a pale orange-yellow ; 
but the tips of the polyps are reddish. 

The veiTucae are small and wart-like ; when retracted they are sunk into 
the coenencliyma, and show an octoradiate structure (figs. 88« and 88?<). The 
polyps are disposed in two longitudinal series, with two or three transverse, 
irregular rows in each series. No polyps occur on the lower basal part of the 
colony. The polyp-bearing areas are separated by two bare tracts, in one of 
which there is a distinct furrow, caused by the cnllapse of one of the main 
canals ; the position of the other main canal is clearly visible owing to the 
extreme thinness of coenenchpna. 

The verrucae are about 1 mm. in diameter. 

The canal system is well marked and is quite typical of the group. The 
canals themselves are all ver}' large. 

The axis i.s cylindrical, dark brown at the base, where it is about 1"5 mm. 
in diameter ; and pale yellow in the upper portion, where it is hair-like in 
fineness. The surface is marked by indistinct longitudinal furrows and 
ridge-s. Fig. 89 shows the chief types of spicules. 

Locality. — OH' Malabar Coast, 36 fnis. 

A small, complete, simple colony, 27 cm. in length, from the Andamans, 
also occure in the Indian Museum Littoral Collection. It is of a creamy- 
white colour, and is almost uniform in thickness throughout ; it agrees in 
detail with the lost sjjecimen from the Malabar Coast, except that each 
tmnsvcree row has only one polyp or occasionally two polyps. The axis is of 
a straw colour througliout. 

The spicules are identical with those described for the other specimens. 

Localiiij. — Andamans. 

Two slender colonies, of a creamy-white colour, with projecting wart-like 
veiTucae. The smaller colony is complete, and is 39 cm. in lengtii ; it is 
225 mm. in diameter near the base (without verrucae), and about the middle 
of the colony ; tlie basal portion which is present is 47 cm. in lengtli. The 
diameter at the base is 2"75 mm., while at the broken end it is 4 mm. 

The coenenchyma is granidar, and moderately thin ; it is creamy-white in 

Polyps do not occur for a considerable distance from the base ; thereafter 
they are separated into two longitudinal series by iwo sinuous dt^iirtssions 

Simpson — ^1 Rvuisioa of the Gorcjonellidac. 


(fig. 90?*) ; the two series approach so closely together as to appear as if 
merged into one, covering the whole of the coeneuchyma, especially towards 
the middle of the colony. The verrucae are low, broad, and mound-like ; 
they are sometimes 2-5 mm. in diameter at the base. Towards tiie base 
(fig. 90rt) they are almost level with the coenenchyma; while near the tip 
they are often sunk into depressions in the coenenchyma (fig. 90c). The 
opening is circular, sometimes elongated, and has eight lips around it, giving 
a very definite pattern. 

The canal system is typical ; the two main canals are large. The axis is 
brown at the base, but 3'ellow in the younger part ; it is composed of 
concentric laminae, and is markedly calcareous. There are definite 
longitudinal striae, especially in the older part. Fig. 91 shows the 
predominant spicular types. 

Locality. — Off Malabar Coast, 36 fms. 

Amongst the Alcyonaria collected by the writer in the Mergui Archi- 
pelago, Burma, there are six specimens which undoubtedly belong to this 
species. Five of these are long and fiagelliform, and represent a series in 
development ; they are very slender, and taper only slightly from base to 
apex. The following measurements will serve to illustrate the most salient 
features : — 


Diameter of 




length of 


of colony 

of axis 



at base. 


at base. 


27 cm. 

l'7o mm. 

1'5 mm. 

1 mm. 

Creamy- white, 

but yellowish 
towards base. 


42 cm. 

3 mm. 

2'0 mm. 

l'2o mm. 



61 cm. 

3"7o mm. 

3 mm. 

2 mm. 

Pale creamy - 


86 cm. 

2'75 mm. 

2'7S mm. 

2 mm. 

Creamy- white. 


117 cm. 

4-5 mm. 

3-2.5 mm. 

3 mm. 

Dull white. 

The coenenchyma is very thin, as may be seen from the above measure- 
ments ; it is finely granular and very compact. 

The mode of distribution of the polyps is very pronounced. Two of the 
specimens, (namely, I. and IV.) bear the disk of attachment, so that in these 
the arrangement may be studied from the base. The lower portion, for a 
considerable distance, is devoid of polyps ; in the polyp-bearing region of the 
colony the verrucae are distinctly separated into two series by two longitu- 
dinal bare spaces, whose position is sometimes indleutcd by depressions. 

350 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

This is especially marked towards the tip ; but the depressions are 
coutiuued very visibly along the non -polyp-bearing basal portion of the 

The number of vennicae in a transverse row in each of tlie two series 
varies according to the position in the colony. Towards the middle of the 
colony as many as six may occur ; but this number decreases both towards 
the base and the apex, in each of which two or even one is the common 
number. Young forms occur scattered throughout the other verrucae, and 
the distribution is then veiy dilKeult to determine. 

The verrucae are very minute and wart-like ; when retracted, they are 
slightly sunk into the coeneuchyma, and present a distinct eight-rayed 
figure which simulates a pseudo-operculum. In some cases they protrude 
slightly, and give the surface of the colony a faintly undulating appearance. 

The axis is composed of concentric laminae, and is markedly calcareous ; 
the surface varies in colour from black, through brown to pale yellow, 
according to its age. It tapers only very slightly. 

The canal system is well developed; even in tliese slender specimens 
a cros»«ection, when viewed with a hand-lens, reveals the two longitu- 
dinal series. The part of the coenenchyma between these two series is 
verj' small compared with the outer non-canal-bearing part. The two 
main canals are extremely large in proportion to the others; and to this 
is due the very obvious longitudinal depressions even in the non-polyp- 
bearing part. 

Locality.— Mergui Archipelago, Burma. 

Scirpearia furcata vur. roboBta. Figs. 92-96. 

We have examined two characteristic colonies, one from the Indian 
Museiun Littoral Collection and one from the Mergui Collection. These 
exhibit certain differences from the other specimens ol furcata, but for the 
present we would consider them as a variety oi furcata. 

The colony in the Indian Museum Littoral Collection is complete with 
its basis of attachment ; it is 20 cm. in height and '6 cm. in breadth, and 
consists of a main stem from which a branch of 65 cm. in length arises at a 
distance of 6 cm. from the base (fig. 92). A second branch arose 1 cm. from 
the first ; but this has been broken at the point of origin. The diameter of 
the main stem near the base is 4 mm. ; near the tip it is 3*5 mm. The two 
branches seem to arise in planes perpendicular to one another. The stem 
and branch are cylindrical. 

The ojcnenchyiim proper is finely granular and thin, never attaining a 

Simpson — A Revision nf the, Gorgonellidae. 351 

thickness of over 1 mm., but about 0-5 mm. near the base. Near the tip of 
the main stem it has been rubbed oH'. 

The general colour of the colony is brick-red. 

On superficial examination the polyps appear to be distributed over the 
whole of the coenenchyma : but a minute inspection reveals a disposition 
in two longitudinal series separated by a sinuous line in the lower portion : 
this is more marked in the upper half and in tlie branch where a distinct 
depression is visible. No polyps occur on the basal 1"5 cm. 

The verrucae are large and dome-like ; they are about 2 mm. in diameter 
and 1-25 mm. in height. There is a trace of an eight-rayed structure at the 
summit (fig. 93). They vary very little in the different parts of the colony. 

The canal system is typical ; the two large main canals are very 

The axis is cylindrical, very calcareous, and gives great rigidity to the 
colony ; it is composed of concentric laminae. The colour varies from brown 
in the lower portion to pale yellow near the tip. The diameter near the 
base is over 3 mm. ; it does not taper very markedly untU it approaches the 
tip. The surface is marked by indistinct longitudinal striae. 

The spicules (fig. 9-4) consist of double-clubs and elongated double- 
spindles, which in some cases approached the spindle type. 

The following are the chief types, with measurements, length by breadth, 
in millimetres : — 

(rt) Double-clubs with a short constriction and with the warts somewhat 

regularly disposed : 0-08 x 0-04; O'OTo x 0-046; GOT x 0042. 
(h) Smaller double-clubs with the warts nearest to the constriction 

arranged in a whorl: 0-06 x 0-034; 0-04.5 x 0-025. 
(c) Elongated double-spindles with irregular disposed warts: 0-1 x 0-035; 

0-095 X 0-03; 0-09 x 0-03; 0-08 x 0-025. 
(cl) Spindles (like type (c), but with no constriction): 0'09 x 0-025; 

0-08 X 0-02. 

Types (c) and {d) are more abundant in the verrucae. Very characteristic 
is the occurrence of a large number of conieally shaped elongated double- 
clubs and spindles. 
Locality. — Andamans, 
Another very characteristic, complete, simple colony, 17 cm. in length, 
occurs in the Mergui Collection. Externally it recalls the projecting- 
verrucae type of Jwicella juncea ; but the nature of the spiculation precludes 
this possibility. The disk of attachment is present. The diameter at the 
base, without verrucae, is 2 mm. ; it increases in thickness very markedly. 
B.i.A. I'UJC, VOL. .'C.Kvr-i , S-: '7. :). i_'A .Ij 

.3o2 ProrcetlinffS of the Rot/al I)-ish Academi/. 

so that near the middle of the colony it is o"5 mm. (including verrueae) ; 
from this position to the tip it decreases, so that midway it is only 35 mm., 
while the apex itself is distinctly pointed (fig. 95). 

The coenenchyraa is finely granular, and, except near the base and 
towards the tip, it is very thick. About the middle of the colony, where 
the diameter of the axis is 0"75 mm., the coenenchyma is 2 mm. in 

The colour of the colony is creamy-white. 

The verrueae are dome-like; but the oral opening is directed slightly 
upwards ; they are about 1 mm. in height and 1 mm. in diameter at the 
base. The colour is markedly flattened throughout its entire length ; on 
each of the two flattened surfaces there is a very deep groove ; these 
separate the polyps into two longitudinal series. In each series there is 
a varying number of polyps ; near the base there are four transverse rows ; 
towards the middle of the colony there are five ; while from this point 
the number diminishes, so that near the apex there is a single row in 
each series. Young forms (xcwr anioiiL'^t, however, and break tlie 
fundamental symmetr)'. 

The canal system is well marked ; the two main canals corresponding 
to the two longitudinal grooves are very large ; in this and other respects 
it is characteristic of the group. 

The axis is very slender ; at the it is only slightly over 1 mm. in 
rliamet«r ; from this it tapers gradually to an almost hair-like fineness at 
the lip. It is black in colour near the base, but passes through pale 
brown to yellow near the apex. 

The spicules (fig. 96) are almost identical with those in the previous 
specimen, both in tj'pes and measurements. 

Locality. — Mergui Archipelago, Burma. 

XXVI. Scirpe&ria andamanensis n. sp. Figs. 97-101. 

This new species is established for a very distinctive specimen in the 
Littoral Collection in the Indian Museum. 

The colony is 17 cm. in height and 9 cm. in maximum breadth ; it is laxly 
branched in one plane. The branches arise in an irregiilar and sub- 
alternate manner, and are considerably elongated. The basis of attachment is 
broken off at what is e\idently a short distance from the actual base. (The 
colony is shown complete in fig. 97.) 

The stem and branches are cylindrical, and taper very slightly. The 
coenenchyraa is about 1 mm. in thickness ; and this is almost constant 

SiMPS'JN — A lt(Wini.(»l Oj' llic doiiloiiclliddC. 353 

tlirougliouL llic colony, being sliglilly thinner in Llic older portions. Tlie 
surface is fmcly granular. 

The general colour of the colony is ochreous-yellovv ; Ijut the tips of the 
verrucae and the anthocodiae are white. 

The polyps are distributed in two longitudinal series situated laterally — 
that is, on the aspects perpendicular to the plane of ramification. In each 
series there are from three to four irregular rows. The two bare spaces are 
quite distinct, and only here and there are median depressions to be seen. 

The verrucae vary considerably according to the stage of retraction. When 
expanded they are mammilliform, are directed upwards, and adpressed to the 
coenenchyma. This is well seen near the tips of some of the smaller branches 
where the coenenchyma is relatively thicker and where they are depressed 
into the coenenchyma (fig. 98). When partially retracted they are wart-like 
or sometimes like short truncated cones standing perpendicular to the 
coenenchyma (fig. 99). When still further retracted they appear as small 
I'ounded projections or may be even sunk beneath the surface of the 
coenenchyma (fig. 100). 

In all stages an eight-rayed figure is discernible. They are about 1 mm. 
in diameter, and may attain a height of over 1 mm. 

Two large main canals corresponding in position to the bare tracts are 
plainly visible in a cross-section. The small canals are very numerous 
owing to the large number of the polyps in a transverse row. 

The axis is cylindrical and calcareous. It is about 3 mm. in diameter at 
the base, but gradually tapers to an almost hair-like fineness. It is composed 
of concentric laminae. The surface is greenish-brown in colour, but towards 
the centre it is whiter owing to the greater amount of calcareous matter; there 
are indistinct longitudinal striae. 

The spicules (fig. 101) are "pale yellow or colourless; they consist of the 
following types, of which the measurements in millimetres are given : — 

(ft) Large double-clubs, with almost hemispherical ends, and a very .short 
median constriction : 0-07 X 0-035 ; 0'07 X O'Oo ; 0065 x 004 ; 
0-06 X 0-04. 
{!}) Smaller double-clubs with more openly waited heads and a longer 

constriction : 0-045 X O'Oo. 
, (c) Elongated double-clubs with comparatively few irregularly distributed 
■ warts : 0-08 x 0-023 ; 008 x 0-02 ; 0-06 x 0-015. 

{(I) Spindles (these may be modifications of type ic) in which the con- 
striction is not visible) : 0-09 x 0-02. 

Locality. — Andamans. 


354 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 

XXVII. Scirpearia ramosa n. sp. Figs. 102-104. 

In the Littoral Collection of llie Indian Museum there occui"S a very 
beautiful and characteristic branched colony for which it has been necessary 
to establish a new species. The mode of branching, the nature of the 
veiTucae, and the distinctive character of the spicules, are all features of 
great importance. The colonj' is complete with its basis of attachment ; it is 
14 cm. in height and about 9o cm. in maximum breadth, and is branched 
irregidarly in one plane. The majority of the branches aiise at nearly right 
angles ; they are long, and may ascend for a considerable distance without 
giving rise to finer twigs. They vary very little in diameter throughout 
their entire length (6g. 102). They are flattened in the plane of ramification, 
so that a cross-section is elliptical. The diameter of the main stem is 
2*5 mm., but some of the branches are 3 mm. in their longer and about 2 mm. 
in their shorter diameter. 

The coenenchyma has a very granular surface ; it is 1 mm. in thickness 
towards the tip of the branch, but considerably less in the older parts where 
the axis Is thicker. 

The colour of the colony in spirit is yellowisli-rcd ; but tlic verrucae are of 
a more decided reddish tint, and streaks of red pass indefinitely from them, 
and gradually merge into the general tone of the coenenchyma. When dry 
the whole colony is almost ochreous yellow. 

The p<'>lyps occur on the branches, but not on the main stem ; they are 
distribute*-! in two distinct series on the sides, or non-flattened aspects, of the 
branches ; but occasionally they encroach on the flattened surfaces. There 
are thus two very distinct bare longitudinal zones. 

The verrucae have the appearance of verj' low truncated cones, and are 
almost cratcr-hke ; they hardly project beyond the coenenchyma. This is 
due to their great contractihty, as is evident from the shrunken appearance. 
They are about 0*5 mm. in height and 2 mm. in diameter at the summit. 
The oral opening is very large ; it is circular in outline, and the eight 
retracted tentacles apparently form a pseudo-operculum (fig. 103). 

The canal-system is typical of the group ; the two main canals are very 
large, and correspond to the bare tracts. On several of the branches there 
is a distinct longitudinal furrow indicating their exact position. 

The axis is cylindrical, and is composed of definite concentric laminae ; a 
cross-section shows lines radiating from the centre to the circumference. The 
outer more homy portion is brown in colour, but the more calcareous central 
part is white. The surface is marked Vjy longitudinal ridges and furrows, the 
number of which varies according to the portion of the colony examined. Two 

Simpson —--I Reels ion of the GoryoiieUidae. -^55 

of the furrows, larger aud deeper Lliaii the utliers, correspond in position to 
the two large main canals. 

The spicules consist essentially of double-clubs ; but these may be 
elongated and narrow, and with so short a constriction as to ajipcar like 
warty spindles. The warts are large and close-set. The spicules arc either pale 
yellow or colourless. In the coenenchyma there are only double-clubs, with 
warty, hemispherical heads, and a short constriction. The following measure- 
ments, in millimetres, are typical : — 

0'07 X 0-05 ; 0-07 x 0-045. 
0-05 X 0-03 ; 0-04 x 0-02.5. 

The spicules of the polyps are, on the whole, longer and narrower than 
those of the coenenchyma. They are 

(1) Double-clubs, with warty, slightly elongated heads, and with a short 

constriction: 0-09 X 0-02; 0-08 X 0-02; 0-06 X 0-025. 

(2) Thicker double-clubs, more like those of the coenenchyma : 

0-08 X 0-035. 

(3) Warty spindles (occasionally a constriction is discernible) : 

0-07 X 0-02. 
Locality, — Andamaus, 20 fms. 

Specific Diagnosis. 

Colony branched in one plane; most of the branches arise almost 
perpendicularly, but soon turn upwards ; they are flattened in the plane of 
ramitication, vary very little in thickness throughout their entire length, and 
terminate bluntly. The polyps are distributed for the most part on the 
non-liattened aspects of the branches, and stand perpendicularly ; the 
verrucae, when retracted, have the form of low, truncated cones, aud may 
even appear almost level with the coenenchyma. The oral opening is closed 
by the inturned tentacles, which thus form a pseudo-operculum. The 
spicules consist essentially of (1) broad double-clubs, with a short 
constriction aud almost hemispherical ends ; (2) elongated, broad double- 
clubs, with very rounded ends, and with the same character as the previous 
type ; aud (3) longer and narrower double-clubs, which may approximate 
double-spindles, and eventually spindles. 

XXVIII. Scirpearia ceyloneusis n. sp. Figs. 105-107. 

Among the Alcyonaria collected by Professor Herdman in Ceylon is a 
beautiful branched specimen which was not described in the general report. 
It has been found necessary to establish a new species to include it. 

356 Proceedings of the Roi/al Irish Academi/. 

The total height of the colouy is 31 cm. ; it consists of a main stem 
30 cm. in height, from which four branches arise, all ou one side. The first 
arises at a point 4 cm. from the base ; and the others after 2'5, 3, and 10 cm. 
consecutively. The lowest branch is broken, and is 13 cm. in length, but 
was evidently much longer ; the others are 5'5, 10, and 15 cm. respectively 

(fig. 105). 

Tlie main stem after the origin of the first branch and all the branches 
are markedly flattened in tlie plane of ramification. 

The diameter of the main stem near the biise is 2 mm., and its greatest 
breadth in the flattened portion 3 mm. The branches vary considerably 
in thickness. The colour of the colony is a pale orange-yellow ; but the 
verrucac are more reddisli. The coeueuchyma has a very granular surface ; 
it is nearly 1 mm. in thickness in the branches, but tliinuer in the older 
parl«, where the axis is proportionately lai"ger. 

The polyps occur on tlic branches and also on tlie main stem, except on 
the portion Ixjlow the origin of the firet branch ; tlicy are distributed in two 
longitudinal series on t!ie sides of the branches ; the flattened aspect is broad, 
anil quite devoid of polyps. In each series this is a single row ; but o\er- 
crowding or the interijosition of young fonns sometimes obliterates the 
symmetiy (fig. 106). 

The verrucao, when retracted, arc lnw, truncated cones, and often show 
very distinct wrinkling ; they project very little beyond the coenenchynia. 
llany "f the anthocodiac are only partially withdrawn ; and the infolded 
tentacles appear to form a cone; on furliicr retraction their bases form a 
Iiorizontal pseudo-operculum, and the verrucac present a very shrunken 
appearance. The tentacles are eventually quite covered up by the inturned 
sides of the vermcae. 

The canal system is typical and well defined ; the two main canals, 
corresponding in position to the bare tracts, are lai-ge ; and a depression is 
sometimes visible owing to a collapse of the walls. 

The axis is thin, cylindrical, composed of concentric hmiinae, and markedly 
calcareous. It is yellow in colour ; and the surface is striated, two grooves 
slightly larger than the othera being seen in some places. 

The spicules (fig. 107) consist of the following types, with measurements, 
length by breadth, in millimetres. 

(a) Double-clubs, with a short constriction and with almost hemispherical 
heads, veiy irregular in outline, covered with few large warts: 
008 X 0-042 ; 0076 x 0046 ; 0076 x 042. 
(6) Elongated double-clubs, with rounded ends, and openly-warted : 
008 X 0038 ; 008 x 0034. 

Simpson — A Rcr/.s-inii of i/w (7or;/ri)ir///i/iir. ;J57 

(r) Move elon2;ated double-eliilis, merging into doiiblc-spindles. The warts 
on those are sometimes disposed in whurls : 0084 x 0027 ; 
0-082 X 0'03; 0'082 x 002G. 

From these measurements it will be seen that there is very little 
difl'erence in the lengths of the various types, but that the breadths diminish 
proportionately more than the lengths. Intermediate forms also occur. 

Zoaditij. — Oti' Galle, Ceylon. 

XXIX. — Scirpearia maculata. Figs. 108 and 109. 

Ellisella maculata Studer, xxxiv., p. 629, Taf. iv., fig. 27 {k, h, and c). 

Wlisella maculata (pars) Wright and Studer,!., p. 160, PI. xxxiv., fig. 9. 

Ellisella calamus Studer, xxxiv., p. 660, Taf. v., fig. 28 {a, h, c, d, and c). 

Ellisella calamus Eidley, xxxiii., p. 348. 

It is with considerable hesitation that we still recognize this species as 
distinct. It has been impossible, however, to examine the type specimen of 
the species ; but we have seen a Banda specimen in the British Museum, 
of which Professor Bell has sent me a photograph (fig. 108). The other 
specimen, from the Torres Straits, described in the " Challenger " Eeport, has 
proved, on examination of the spicules, to be Juncella gcmmaeea. 

There can be no douljt, however, that Ellisella calamus is the same as 
Ellisella macidatii, since in spiculation they are identical, and the macroscopic 
characters on which they are separated are only variational dillerences. This 
will be evident from the following description. Studer, in describing 
E. maculcda says : — 

The stem is cylindrical, forked, divided into only a few long cylindrical 
branches. The colony is 5 cm. in height ; the diameter of the stem is 5 mm., 
that of a branch 3 mm. One of the branches is 13 cm. in length. 

The stem and branches are covered with verrucae, which hardly project; 
these occur laterally, on the thicker branches, in several rows, leaving a 
narrow, shallow median space, which disappears in the twigs. The verrucae 
have a circular opening. The spicules are (1) double-clubs, 0*095 mm. in 
length ; and (2) a few warty spindles, 0-084 mm. long. 

The colour of the coenenchyma is orange-red ; the verrucae are dark red. 

Locality. — Mermaid Straits, North-West Australia, 50 fms. 

In separating E. calamus from E. mamdata he gives the following diagnosis 
of the former : — 

Simple, rod-like, cylindrical stem. The length of the largest specimen 
is SO cm. The maximum diameter is 2 mm. The axis is horny and 

358 Froceedings of the lloi/al Frisk Academy. 

calcareous, with alternate homy and limy rings, flexible, yellowish. The 
cortex is fairly thick. The verrucae project as pointed cones only in the 
upper portion. They occur on the sides of the stem in quincunx, in several 
rows, leaving a narrow, shallow, smooth space, which gradually becomes 
narrower till it disappears in the terminal portion. 

The spicules are like those of macnlata, namely, spiny double-clubs and 
spindles (0-06). 

Loceili/)/. — Mermaid Straits, 50 fms. 

Eidley (xxxiii., p. 348), in identifying a specimen in the "Alert" 
Collection with E. calamus, gives the following notes: — 

A specimen 9 inches (225 cm.) long; incomplete. The colour is dark 
brick-red. The fusiform spicules were almost twice as long as tliose of 
Studer's .specimen. He says nothing of tlie dimensions of the double-clubs. 

Locality. — Port Deuison, Queensland, 4 fms. 

The following notes from the " Challenger " specimen in the British 
Museum (fig. lOS) may be of interest :— The fragment is 50 mm. in length, 
and has a diameter varying from .3-5 mm. at the base and 2 mm. near the tip. 
The coenenchyuia is about 1 mm. in liiickness tliroughout ; the canal system 
is typical t>f the group, and there are two distinct main canals which define 
two longitudinal bare sjiaces, although Wrigiit and Studer refer to only "a 
very narrow median groove." 

The iM)ly]« are disposed in two longitudinal series ; but a torsion of the 
whole colony lioa resulted in a false sjiiral appearance. The verrucae are 
small and dome-like ; some are adprcssed to the stem; while others are almost 
retracted within the coenenchymo. 

The axis is of the typical Junccllid stnicturc. 

Wright and Studer thus define the spicules, of which the chief types are 
shown in lig. 109 : — 

"The spicules consist of (1) salmon-coloured spindles, 012 x 004 mm.; 
0-08 X 002 mm. (2) sherry-coloured double-clubs : 01 X 006 mm.; 006 x 
004 mm. (3) Ncctlles: 006 x 002 mm. 

Localitij. — Banda Islands. 

Note. — Fig. 110 of the Torres Straits specimen of Juncclla gemmacea, which 
was originally described as Ellisclla maculata, has been added here to 
illustrate convergence in the group, and show how futile it is to attempt to 
separate Juncellids into genera without an examination of the spicules. 

XXX. Scirpearia qnadrilineata n. sp. Figs. 111-11.'^. 

It ha.s l>een found ne<'fH.iary to cntabiisli this now spocios to include a very 
distinctive sj)e(iuie!i in wliith the most predominant feature is the presence 

Si>fPSON — A Revlf<!o)i. (if tlin Goi-fjnncllidac. I^of) 

of four main Iniigitiulinal caiiak, and tlio conseqnent distrilmlion nf tlic 
veiTucae mfour longitudinal series. 

The colony is complete, simple, and Hagelliform ; the basis of attachment 
is conical, covered with coenenchyma, and spread over a piece of rock. The 
total height of the colony is 35 cm. ; the diameter at the base is 4'5 mm. ; 
near the tip it is 2 mm. 

A very noticeable feature in the general appearance of the colony is the 
fact that it is markedly square in section. 

The coenenchyma is thin ; near the base it is 0-75 mm. in thickness ; 
but near the tip it approaches 1 mm. Around the periphery of the axis 
there is a system of longitudinal canals, of which /o!(/' are markedly larger 
thau the others ; these are arranged symmetrically, equidistant from one 
another, and thus forming the corners of a square (fig. 111). No outer 
system of longitudinal canals was visible ; but the coenenchyma is so thin that 
these may be easily overlooked. It is extremely difficult to cut through the 
coenenchyma without damaging it, so that it is quite possible that these are 

The polyps are disposed in a very characteristic fashion. They are 
grouped in foiir definite longitudinal series, separated by four bare spaces 
which correspond in position to the four main canals (fig. 112). Each 
series consists of a single row; but near the middle of the colony they 
are somewhat crowded, and give an appearance of two rows, due in great 
part to displacement. 

Near the base and towards the tip they are more openly arrancfed, 
but always in four series. 

The verrucae are low and dome-like, and have a maximum height of 
O'o mm. Towards the tip of the colony and near the base they tend to 
become almost level with the coenenchyma ; while the extreme basal portion 
is quite destitute of polyps. When partially closed they show a very distinct 
eight-rayed figure. The anthocodiae are very small, and are all retracted 
within the verrucae. 

The axis is made up of concentric laminae ; it is extremely limy and very 
hard ; the colour of the outside is brown, but the core is white ; the surface 
is marked by faint longitudinal striae. Near the base the diameter is 3 mm. ; 
but towards the tip it becomes almost hair-like and less limy. 

The spicules are quite distinctive. We liave figured six types (fig. 113). 

(«) Double-clubs with very densely warted and regular heads; the 
constriction is \e\-y short ; and the warts are symmetrically 
arranged : 0-06 x 0'05 ; O'OTG x 0-049 ; 0-076 X 0-046. 

U.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVllI., SECT. B. [3 L'l 

360 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(6) Smaller double-clubs, with a longer constxiction, with more open heads, 

and with the warts less symmetrically arranged : 006 X 0034 ; 

0-05 X -031 ; 0049 x 0027. 
(c) Elongateil double-clubs, tending towards double-spindles, with rounded 

blunt ends: 0091 x 003S ; 0087 X 0034 ; 0083 X 0034. 
((/) Elongated double-spindles, with pointed ends, and with a definite 

constriction: O'llS x 0-034; 0114 x 0-31; 0114 x 0023; 

0103 X 0023. 
(e) Long epindles with a hint of constriction : 0125 X 0-23 ; 

0-114 X 0-031. 
(/) Shorter spindles also with a hint of constriction: 0095 x 0019; 

0-087 x 0-015 ; 0016 X 023. 

We have little hesitation in defining (<»), (6), and (c) as distinct types ; 
but it is just possible that (/) might develop into (<) or (d) according as 
increase with growth was greater in length or in breadth. So many of each 
kind occur, however, that we feel justified in defining them as separate for 
the present, at any rate, until- more is known with regard to their growth. 

The colour of the coenenchyma is a bright orange-red — but the tips of 
the verrucae are more reddish. 

Locality. — Laccadives, 30-40 fathoms. 

Diagnosis, c-olony simple ; spicules contain double-clubs and double- 
spindles, with transitions to spindles. The coenenchyma is thin, and 
contains /oMr main longitudinal canals. The verrucae are disposed in /o!/r 
definite longitudinal series, separated by four bare tracts, which correspond 
in position to the four main canals. The colony is markedly square in section. 

XXXI. Genus Hicella emend. 
(a) Discussion of the Genus. 

This genus was established by Gray in 1870 (Cat. Lith. Brit. Mus., p. 40) 
in the following terms : — 

Coral fan-like, in one plane, branched ; branches forked, rather diverg- 
ing. Bark smooth, brown. Polyp cells cylindrical, truncated, diverging 
from the stem at nearly right angles , mouth open. Axis calcareous, wh ite 

To this genus he refers a specimen under the name Nicella mauritiana, 
and gives as a synonym his pre\ious Scirpearia dichotoma (P.Z.S., 1859, 481-2). 

Ridley (xxix, p. 130) identified a specimen from Mauritius under the 
name iVifW/a dichotoma, and made the following observation on the spicules : 
"There is a dense cortical layer of small double-heads and a subjacent 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgoncllidae. 86 1 

layer of longer densely tuberculate spindles, having a bare median space 
more or less clearly indicated." 

Wright and Studer, with these facts as a basis, give the following 
diagnosis : — 

" The colony is upright, branched, with a thin coenenchyma and 
protruding verrucae, which arise perpendicularly, and appear to be 
terminally truncated. The polyps arise from either side of the' stem and 
branches, leaving a middle space free. The spicules form a cortical layer of 
small double-clubs and an internal layer of long densely warted spindles." 

The following species have been from time to time referred to this 
genus : — 

N. diclwtoma (Gray). 

N. mauritiana (Gray). 

N. laxa Whitelegge. 

N. flahellata (Whitelegge). 

N. reticulata Thomson and Simpson. 

N. imstidosa Thomson and Simpson. 

An examination of the type-specimen of Scirpcardla moniliforme Wright 
and Studer, in the Collection of the British Museum, has revealed the fact 
that this species should Idc included in the genus Nicella. Thomson and 
Henderson also referred VcrruceUa flahdlata Whitelegge to this genus, so 
that the generic diagnosis has been emended to include these forms. 

Thomson and Simpson (xli., p. 267) referred a specimen in the Littoral 
Collection of the Indian Museum to this genus under the name Nicella 
fxCstvlosa, with the following reservation : — 

" It is with some hesitation that we refer this type to the genus Nicella. 
It is a matter of no small difficulty to distinguish between Nicella, Gorgonella, 
and Verrucella. . . . 

" Our specimens approach Nicella in several respects, though agreeing 
with none of the deseiiljed species ; and as the positive characters of the other 
genera are absent, we feel justified in making a new species to include these 

The present study of this genus has, however, convinced me that the 
presence of the abnormally large spindles is a character which cannot be 
overlooked; so that, while still acknowledging the specific rank of the 
specimens under consideration, I would suggest their withdrawal from the 
genus Nicella, but until a revision of the species of Verrucella and Gorgonella 
has been made I would not hazard an opinion on their generic position. With 


362 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

regard to the spicules of this group, we also made the following observation : — 
" Distinctions based on spicules alone are very unsatisfactory in this group 
(Gorgonella and Verrucella), because the spiculation varies at different levels ; 
and transition forms are so numerous and varied that it is sometimes almost 
impossible to distuiguish between double-spheres, double-stars, and double- 
clubs, each in turn passing gradually to double-spindles. In A^crrucella . . . 
there are double-stare ; in Goi-gonella . . . double-spheres occur." 

As I have elsewhere pointed out, I doubt very much the validity of 
these two genera, ou the present spicular distinction, but await a revision of 
the known species for a solution of tlie ditticulty. 

(b) Chssifimtion of the Specks jcith emended Diagnoses. 

On this basis four species may be recognized, and are included in this 
report. These are: — 

N. dichotoma Gray. 

N. Jlahellata (Whitelegge). 

N, reticulata Thomson and Simpson. 

N. moniliforme (Wright and Studcr). 

The following short specific diagnoses may prove useful : — 

Kieella JlaMlata. 

The colony is branched in one plane ; the smaller branches tend to arise 
from one side of the larger. Tiic cocnenchyma is moderately thin, and often 
presents a ridgetl appearance due to segregations of spicules. The polyps are 
disposed in two longitudinal series; in tlie younger part they occur in a 
sinuous row on either side of the branch ; but in the older portions they are 
more numerous and may encroach slightly ou the median bare spaces. Tlie 
verrucae vary in siiape and size according to the stage of retraction ; when 
expanded they are prominent, and show an eight-rayed figure at the summit ; 
when retracted tlicy api)ear as low conical warts, and there is no trace of an 
octo-radiate structure. The axis is composed of concentric laminae ; and the 
surface is marked by longitudinal striae. 

The spicules consist of (1) small double-clubs, (2) small double- wheels, 
(3) elongated double-clubs, (4) long, massive, bluntly terminating double- 
spindles, (5) long, slender simple-spindles. (See fig. 115.) 

Nicella reticidala. 

Colony branched in one plane, with abundant anastomosis ; the branches 
and twigs are very slender, so tliat the colony is extremely reticulate and 
tiabelliform. The cocnenchyma is thin and finely granular. The polyps are 

Simpson — A lievmon of the Gorgonellidae. ^63 

dispuiud maiuly in two longitudinal series; but deviations from this type 
occur, owing in some cases to overcrowding, in others to the anastomosis. 
The verrucae are usually low and dome-like. The spicules consist of (1) small 
double-clubs and elongated double-clubs, and (2) long double-spinflles and 
simple-spindles. These two sets are quite distinct ; but the spindles are not 
so disproportionate in length to the double-clubs as in most other species. 

Nicclla nioniliforriK'. 
Colony simple or feebly branched, slender, filiform, and of almost uniform 
diameter throughout; polyps disposed in two longitudinal series, near the 
tip in one row, but in the older parts in two or more indefinite rows in each 
series. The spicules are very characteristic. They include small double- 
clubs and elongated slender double-clubs : also spindles of two kinds 
(1) long, slender, spiny spindles, and (2) long, thick, densely warted spindles. 
The spindles are sometimes more than twice as long as the typical double- 
clubs. (See figs. 117 and 118.) 

XXXII. NiceUa dichotoma Gray. Fig. 114. 

Scirpearia dichotoma Gray, xi,, p. 481. 

Nicella mauritiana (Gray), xii., p. 40, fig. 12. non Nicella maAiritvaiia 

Nicella dichotoma Kidley, xxix., p. 130. 

Nicellcb diclwtonuo Thomson and Eussell, xliii., p. 161, PI. vii., tigs. 1 and 5. 
Nicella laxa Whitelegge, xlix., p. 319, PL xvii., figs. 30-33. 

This species was established by Gray in 1859 under the name of Scirpearia 
dichotoma. He defined it thus : — " Coral fan-like, in a single plane, irregularly 
dichotomous. Cells cylindrical, elongated, truncated, in a row on each side 
of the branches, sub-alternate." Locality. — Mauritius. In 1870 he formed 
another species, Nicclla mauritiaim, while he gave as a synonym Scirjxaria 
dichotoma. Since this new species is the same as the older dichotoma, it was 
unnecessary to give it a new name, although he referred it to a new genus, so 
that the newer name must give way to the older. The description of Nicella 
Tiiauritiana is as follows : — 

" Coral fan-like, dichotomously branched ; stem cylindrical, longitudinally 
striated ; bark thin, pale brown ; cells elongate, cylindrical, longer than the 
diameter of the stem, ascending, truncated at the tip, placed rather iiTe- 
gularly, sub-alternate (rarely sub-opposite) on each side of the stem and 
branches; axis pale greyish-brown." Locality. — Mauritius. 

Kidley in 1882 re-identified the species, and described some specimens 

364 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadeniij. 

from Mauritius, giving suiiie positive, additional characters. One of his 
specimens was 340 mm. in height, and 240 mm. in maximum diameter. He 
says : — " The shape of the verrucae varies considerably according as to 
whether they are open or closed ; in the former condition they are rectangular 
at the apex, while in the latter they appear conical with rounded apices. 
The basal diameter may vary from 1-25 mm. to 2-25 mm. when closed. The 
spicules consist of a dense cortical layer of small double-heads and a sub- 
jacent layer of longer densely tuberculate spindles having a bare median 
space more or less strongly indicated. The colour is variable, (1) ochreous 
yellow to a dull flesh colour, (2) diity white." 

In 1897 "Wliitelegge established a new species under the name Nicclla 
htxa witli the following charactere: — The colony is feebly branched; the 
brandling is lateral and in one plane. The axis is laminate and calcareous. 
The coenencliynia is thin, and when viewed with a lens presents a series of 
minute ridges, forming a network of raised lines, which are lighter in coloiu- 
and consist of double-club spicules. The polyps are confined to the sides of 
the stem and branches in a single row on each side. The verrucae are large, 
alternate, and stand nearly at right angles ; they are divided at the summit 
into eight lobes. The spicules consist of (1) short double-clubs with smooth 
or warty tuliercles : 01 x 005 mm. ; 007 x 003 mm. ; 005 X 002 mm. ; 
(2) fusifonn spindles with rather obtusely pointed ends and a spiny tubci- 
culatcd surface : 025 X 006 mm. ; 02 x 005 mm. ; 01 x 003 mm. Many 
of both kinds are a little flattened. The colour is a light mouse-grey. 

He .says : — " Tliis species differs from N. dichotovia by its smaller and 
more distant polyps and by its lax method of branching." 

We have already seen that neither of these two characters is of much 
taxonomic importance ; and, taking into consideration Eidley's observations on 
the size of verrucae in difl'erent stages of retraction, we do not feel Justified 
in ranking this as a distinct species. At the same time Gray gives a very 
good figure of his N. maurUiana, and the branching there is almost identical 
with that figured by W'hitelegge. In Gray's figure also the distribution of the 
jxilyps varies in different parts of the colony, so that while in some branches 
they are more closely packed, in others they are quite as distant as in 
Whitelegge's figure. The spicules are identical with those described by 
Kidley ; and the network of ridges described by Whitelegge, though not given 
in Gray's description, are unmistakably present in his figure. We therefore 
see no reason for ranking N. hxa as a separate species. 

Thomson and Russell, 1909 (xliii., p. 161, Plate vii., figs. 1 and 5) describe 
some specimens as follows : — 

Several colonies of chestnut-brown to umber-brown colour. The largest is 

Simpson — .1 licmion of the Goryonellidae. ."^Go 

20 cm. in height by 8 cm. in maxiinuiu lucudLh, and con.si8ts of a main stem, 
witli lateral branches, which are again repeatedly liranched. For the most 
part the branching is in one plane ; but this is not rigoi'ously adhered to. 
On the main stem of one of the larger specimens there is a curious gall-like 
swelling from which branches arise on all sides. 

The stem is 4 mm. in thickness at its base, and gradually tapers to 2 mm. 
at the ends of the branches. The axis is light brown in colour, and very 
calcareous. On the surface of the general coenenchyma, and on the verrucae 
there are irregular wavy longitudinal ridges, producing a characteristic bark- 
like appearance. Under the low-power microscope the texture seems finely 

The verrucae are very prominent, x-ising more or less perpendicularly to 
a height of 2 mm. They occur on all sides of the stem ; but in the upper 
parts of the branches a bilateral arrangement is well defined. At the apex 
of the verrucae there is an indication of eight lobes, from which the tentacles 
here and there project. 

Another specimen, the basal part of a large colony, branches in a some- 
what irregular fashion, and not rigidly in one plane. The verrucae are much 
less bilateral, especially near the base of the colony. Examination of the 
spicules shows that this may be referred to N. dichotoma. 

Locality. — Salomon A, 65 fathoms ; Salomon B, 60-120 fathoms. 

XXXIII. NiceUa flabeUata (Whitelegge). Fig. 115. 
Verrucella fialellata Whitelegge, xlix., p. 319, Plate XVII., figs. 34-37. 
Nicella flabdlata Thomson and Henderson, xl., p. 80. 

This species was established by Wliitelegge for a specimen from Funafuti, 
but was then included in the genus Verrucella. Thomson and Henderson, 
in identifying a specimen from the Indian Ocean witli this species, concluded 
that it should really be referred to the genus Nicella ; and in tiiis we 
thoroughly agree. The spiculation is quite distinctively Nicellid in 
character ; and, as these authors point out, the actual shape of the verrucae 
matters little in a generic diagnosis. As a matter of fact, the nature of 
the verrucae, as shown in the figure given by Whitelegge, is intermediate 
between that in N. dichotoma and the Indian Ocean specimen. 

The notes following may serve to indicate the chief specific characteristic. 

The colony is branched in one plane ; the branches show a tendency to 
arise from one side. The axis is densely calcareous and is striated. A 
noteworthy feature is the presence of two distinct grooves corresponding in 
position to the two main canals, 

366 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The polyps occur in a sinuous row on each side of the younger branches ; 
on the stem and on the older portions of the branches tliey are more numerous, 
and enci'oach on the two bare, flattened surfaces, always leaving a slight 
median depression free. Those on opposite sides alternate. The verrucae 
may be slightly prominent or may appear as low conical warts. When 
partially retracted, they show an eight-rayed figure ; but when fully withdrawn, 
this is not evident. An average height may be taken as 1 mm. 

The coeneuchyma is of medium thickness, and may have ridges on the 
surface. The canal system is the t)'pical Juncellid. 

The spicules are essentially of two types, viz., small double-clubs and 
long thick double-spiniUes. The double spindles are about four times as 
long as the small double-clubs. There are, however, in addition to these 
two types : — (1) some small double-wheels, with elongated warty hubs; 
(2) elongated double-clubs ; (3) long slender spindles with practically no 
constriction. Very small short rods and spiny spintlles occur in the tentacles. 

The colour of the Funafuti specimen was yellowish-white; that of the 
Indian Museum specimen was ochreous yellow and brownish-white. 

XXXIV. — Nicella reticulata Thomson and Simpson. Fig. IIG. 
NictUa reticulata Thomson and Simpson, xli., p. 266, Plate iv., fig. 5 ; 
Plate viii., fig. 12. 

This species was established by Thomson and Simpson (.\li., p. 266) for 
specimens in the Indian Museum Littoral Collection. We have considered 
it advisable, however, to recapitulate the original description for the sake of 
completeness. A typical colony measures 27 cm. in height by 10 cm. in 
maximum breadth, and is attached by a very much broadened expansion. It 
consists of a main stem, only 2 cm. long, and measuiing 4-5 mm, in diameter. 
At the distal end of the main stem four branches arise, two sub-opposite and 
two at slightly iliflcrcnt levels, but all very close together. These diverge 
at varying angles, the two lower being almost horizontal, the other two also 
in the same plane of ramification. These ramify irregularly in one plane 
and anastomose freely, forming a lai-ge, almost semicircular, tlabelliform 
mass, with very irregular meshes. 

The coenenchyma is thin and compact, and presents a glistening 
arenaceous appearance. The colouring is very peculiar, being generally 
reddish-brown in the lower part of the colony, but gradually merging into 
slaty grey in the upper parts. Patches of grey appear throughout the red in 
some of the colonies, and viu versa ; while one colony from the Laccadives is 
almost uniformly of a brick-red colour. The surface bears longitudinal 

SiMi'SMN — A Revision of the Govfjonellidae. 367 

furrows, which are sinuous, and sometimes ahnosl spirally twisted ; one being 
generally deeper than the others. These extend into the secondary branches, 
and even into one side of the twigs, tlie number diminishing with the size of 
the branches. 

The axis is very calcareous and cylindrical in form. It is composed of 
concentric laminae, and has an almost olive-green colour at the base, gradually 
merging into a pale yellow in the smaller branches. 

The polyps are disposed essentially in two longitudinal series; but 
deviations occur in several places, due sometimes to the anastomosis and 
sometimes to overcrowding. They are chiefly lateral on the main stem or 
primary branches ; in the secondary branches they are arranged almost all 
round. On the finer branches and twigs they occur for the most part on two 
sides ; but this rule is broken occasionally by the occurrence of polyps on all 
the four sides. The verrucae are dome-like, but slightly flattened on the 
twigs. They are separated by intervals of about 1 mm. in the branches ; but 
their bases touch on the branchlets and give an undulating appearance. 
They measure about 0'5 mm. in height and 1 mm. in diameter. Wlien the 
verruca closes over the retracted polyp, an eight-rayed star is formed by the 
eight lobes of the wall. The anthocodiae are very minute and are completely 
retractile ; the spicules are arranged transversely on the tentacles. 

The spicules of the coenenchyma consist of small double-clubs, elongated 
double-clubs, double-spindles, and simple-spindles. The double-spindles and 
simple-spindles in this species are not so markedly disproportionate as in 
most other species ; but their distinctive character justifies their inclusion in 
the genus Nicella. 

The following are a few of the more common types, with measurements 
in millimetres : — 

(«) Double-clubs, with smooth warts : 

0-05 X 0-04 ; constriction 0-02 broad x O'OOS long. 

0'048 X 0-04 „ 0-02 „ x O-OOo „ 

(h) Elongated double-clubs, with fewer and more irregular warts : 

0-06 X 0-04 ; constriction 0-03 broad X 0-01 long. 

0-048 X 0-035 „ 0-02 „ x 0-012 „ 

(c) Spindles with round warts, and double spindles, having a smooth part 
in the middle : 

0-09 X 0-025 ; smooth part, 0-02 long. 

0-085 X 0-028 „ „ 0-018 „ 

{d) Minute crosses, with a very distinct cross, 0-04 X 0-04. 
(c) Minute irregular crosses, elongated along one diagonal, with distinct 
cross, 0-05 X O-O:^. 


368 Proicetlinys of the I\o>/<il Irish Academi/. 

Those of the tentacles are short, warty rods: 005 x 0-015; 006 x 0015 ; 
0-6 X 0015. 

Localities. — Persian Gulf, 48-49 fms. Laceadives, 30-50 fms. 

XXXV. — Nicella moniliforme emend. Fipp. 117 and 118. 

SeirjKayella monilijormc Wright and Studer, p. 156, PI. xxxiv., fig. 8. 
non. Gon/onia vionili/onnc Lamx., xxv., p. 420. 
nee. Scirpearella vumiliforvie Thomson and Hendei-son, xl., p. 82. 
nee. Scirpcami monili/ormis Gray xii., p. 39. 

Tliia species, as established by "Wiight and Studer in the " Challenger " 
Report, is a very distinctive one, based chiefly on the character of the 

The colony may be simple or feebly branched ; the branched type-specimen 
wa-s 505 mm. in length; and the branch arose at a distance of 215 mm. from 
the base; one of the unbranched forms was 325 mm. in length. The 
colonies are veiy slender and do not vary much in diameter throughout the 
entire length. The coenenchyma is thin and coarsely granular. 

" Tlie axis is very deeply grooved ; ten grooves can be very easily counted 
on the older portion of the axis ; but these diminish to tw^o at the apex. 
These ridges show througti the coenenchjnua as linear furrows." 

" The polyps, are arranged on the stem, the lower portion in four irregular 
rows; towards the apex they are alternate and arranged on either side 
of the stem; while for the first GO mm. of the stem, counting from the ba.sal 
ilisk, they are al^sent They are retractile within the well marked but 
shallow vemicae ; these latter measure at their base 1 mm. An occasional 
verruca will l>e found larger and more elevate<l than the rest, measuring 
l"5 mm. in diameter and the same in height ; these generally are to be found 
near the summit of the axis." 

The dispasition of the vemicae is in two longitudinal series; and the two 
bare tracts are marked by distinct furrows larger than the others. 
Unfortunately Wright and Studer give no figure of the colony itself ; and, as 
the figure of spicules is somewhat misleafling, we have thought it advisable 
to add to this memoir two figures from the tjT)e-specimen in the British 
Mu.seum (figs. 117 ", ^, and r). 

The colour in spirit is white. 

The nature of the spicides in this spiecies and also their relative 
proportions are very striking, and mark it ofl' as distinct. The following four 
types can easily be identified :^«) long, comparatively slender spindles, 
covered with coarse spines or small warts; (i) long, thick spindles, very 

Si.Mrsu.N — ^1 UcL'L^iioii (ij Ike Gorijinidlulac. 360 

densely warted; (c) slender double-clubs, with elongated conical ends, and 
with the constriction more ui' loss marked ; ((I) anudl double-clubs, witii 
almost hemispherical ends and with a definite smooth constriction : aberrant 
forms, such as crosses, («) also occur. There are small needles in the 

The following measurements, length by breadth in millimetres, will give 
the relative proportions of these different types (see fig. 118) : — 

(ff ) Spindles — long, thin spiny or with small warts : 0'2 x 0'0o4 ; 

0-15 X 0-026; 0-13 x 002. 
{h) Spindles— long, thick and densely warted: 015 X 0-046; 0-13x0-042. 
(t) Double-clubs — slender, with elongated ends, and with the constriction 

more or less markedly defined : 0-11 X 0-045 ; 0-099 X 0-043 ; 

0-087 X 0-03; 0-065 x 0-025. 
{(1) Uouble-clubs — with massive ends, and with a distinct, short, smooth 

constriction: 0-072 x 0-042; 0-072 x 0-038; 0-057 x 0-038. 
((0 Crosses— 0-16 x O'll ; 0-12 x 0-12. 

(/) Needles— small (in anthocodiae) : 0-06 x 0-011; 0-04 x 0-02. 
Locality — Amboina : 100 fathoms. 

XXXVI. Bathymetrical Distribution. 

Tlie whole group is essentially littoral in its distribution. The great 
majority of the specimens hitherto described have been di-edged within the 
hundred- fathom line ; in fact, the only records outside this range are from 
(1) " Challenger " Station 232, known as the Hijulonoiia-gvowuA off Japan, 345 
fathoms; (2) "Challenger" Station 177 off the New Hebrides, 130 fathoms; 
(3) a dredging made by the " Investigator," off the Andamans in 124 fathoms ; 
and (4) off the Azores, 150 and 200 fathoms. 

At the first of these Juncdla raccmosa and Hcirpcaria jJi'o/unda were 
obtamed, at the second Scivpearia profunda, at the third only Juncdla 
racemosa, and at the f oiirth only Scirpearia flagellum. 

Consequently these are the only three species which can lay claim 
to deep-sea forms ; and it is interesting that all the records of these 
species are from over 100 fathoms, and also that each has been found in 
distant localities over this depth. At the same time it is not improbable 
that these specimens occurred in deep water at the edge of an almost vertical 
reef, and that these were merely " escapes " from the reef. 

Such records are not unknown ; and the writer has experienced siinilar 

occurreuces in the deep water off the almost perpendicular reefs on the east 

coast of Africa. 

[8 C 2] 


Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Xialla monUiformc is recorded from one hiuidred fathoms, and the only 
other records from over fifty fathoms are Scirpcaria thomsoni and Scu^jcaria. 
alba, both from 88 fathoms. The following table will give at a glance the 
chief records for each of the species in this report : — 


JunctUa juncca, 
Jv.ncdla gcmmacm, 
Juncilla raccmosa, 
JunceUa trtliiuata, 
Scirpcaria profunda, 
Scirpcaria hicksoni, 
licirpearia verrucosa, 
Scirpenria niutmaln, 
Scirpcaria pccliiutta, 
Scirpcaria elonijata, 
Scirparia Jlaijdlum, 
Scirpcaria thomsoni, 
Scirpcaria alba, 
Scirjxaria anrantiaca, 
Scirpca rUi fu rcata , 
Scirpcatia andamancnsis, 
Scirpcaria ramosa, 
Scirpcaria ceyloncnsis, 
Sciipcaria mactUata, 
Scirpcaria qxtadrilincata 
NiccUa dichotonia, 
NiccUa jialclUUa, 
A'icdla rcticidata, 
KiecUa moniiiformc. 


. 010; 4; 7-11; 15-35; 25-30; 45; 50. 

. 0-8; 4; 8; 11; 19; 12-20; 32. 

. 120; 345. 

. 34. 

. 130 ; 345. 

. 36. 

. 50. 

. 3-4; 12; .30. 

. 90; 150; 200; 60-120. 

. 88. 

. 88. 

. 30-50; 60-130; 120; 150; 1.30. 

. 15. 20 30-40 ; 50-78. 

. ? 

. 20. 

. ? 

. ? 

. 30-50. 

. ? 60-120. 

. 45. 

. 30-50 ; 48-49. 

. 100. 

It is quite probable, however, that when more inshore-work is carried 
on ill tropical seas records will be abundant from water of much less 
depth than that at present given. Ridley in referring to the depths at 
which JunoMa r/cmmacca occurs gives " Ijctween tide-marks," and, as has 
Ijeen alreaily pointed out in the " Biological Note," it is no uncommon 
occurrence on the scattered coral reefs of the Mergui Archipelago to see at 
low spring tide huge colonies of J. (ji:mmacca and J. juncca as well as 
Mditodis and other Alcyonaria swaying to and fro in the aii'. 

ISiJU'.suN — A lie vision i>J the Gor^oiicUidac. '67 \ 

XXXVII. Geographical Distribution. 

The great importance of the Geographical Distribution of even a small 
group of animals, but especially those whose early life is pelagic and whose 
adult life is sedentary, is becoming more and more evident. Such knowledge, 
combined with systematic oceanographical observations, may eventually help 
to solve many problems that at present are a source of great perplexity to 
the biologist. 

It is premature to attempt such a distribution of Juncellids ; but in view 
of the fact that in this memoir a general survey of the group, so far 
as it is known, has been given, and as the references to localities, especially 
in the case of the older species, are extremely scattered, the following 
summary may serve as a basis for a more detailed study when further records 
are forthcoming. 

Although donbt may exist as to the. specific determination of those species 
added as an appendix to the genus Juncella, it may be useful to include 
them here, inasmuch as they are in all probability Juncellids. 

It has been considered inadvisable with the limited records at our disposal 
to draw any conclusions as to the dispersal of these organisms, as to their 
origin as a part of a littoral fauna, or as to the probability of their being 
originally indigenous in certain areas. 

Distribution of the Jimcclla-group of Gorgonellids. 

The Juucella-group of Gorgonellids occurs both in the Atlantic and 
Pacific waters, but almost entirely within the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, 
and also chiefly in the Pacific Ocean. The extreme records ISToi-th and 
South are " Off Japan " and " Off Cape Colony." The following are the 
chief centres : — (1) Eed Sea, (2) Persian Gulf, (3) Laecadives, (4) Maldives, 
(5) West Coast of India, (6) Ceylon, (7) Andamans, (8) Mergui, (9) Bourbon, 
(10) Mauritius, (11) Cape Colony, (12) East Indies, (13) Japan, (14) East 
Coast of Australia, (15) West Coast of Florida and in the Atlantic, (16) East 
Coast of Central America, (17) N.-E. of South America, (18) Azores, 
(19) Mediterranean Sea. 

Genus Janeella. 

This is the most widely distributed genus in the group, and is almost 
entirely a Pacific Ocean form. 

Genus Scirpearia. 
This genus is entirely restricted, with the exception of S. flagcllum, so far 
as the present records show, to the Pacific Ocean, 


Proceedings of the Lloijal Irish Acadciiuj. 

Genus Micella. 

This genus is entirely restricted to the Pacific Ocean. 

Let us now illustrate " associations of species " in difl'erent localities. 

(a) Laccadives, 

(b) Maldives, . 

(c) Ceylon, 

(d) Audauians, 

(«) Mergui, 
(/) N.-K Australia, . 
(y) Bourbon-Mauritius, 
(/() Cape of Good Hope, 

S. aurantiam, S. quadnlincata, and 

N. rdiadata. 
J. juncca, S. furcata. 
J. (jeiniiuuxa, J. tnliihcata, S. aurantiaca, 

S. ccyhnoisis, S. furcata. 
J. juncca, J. raccmosa. S. hicksoni, 

S. verrucosa, S. anomala, S. anda- 

inaiunsis, S. ramosa. 
J. juncca, J. gcmmacca, S. furcata. 
J. juncca, J. gcmmacca. 
J. juncca, J. gcmmacca, N. diclwtoma. 
S. Jlagcllum, S. furcata. 

JReftrences to various large Collections of Junccllids. 

" Challenger " Collection. 

This collection wia^ made by H.M.S. " Cliallenger," during lier cruise 
round the world, 187.'i-76. The specimens are deposited in the British 
Museum, and were described by Wright and Studer in the Zoological Report 
of the " Challenger" Collections, vol. x.xxi., pp. 15:J-1S1. 

.Tviiri-lfn junrca, 
J\i nflln jii nrcn, 
JuncfUn gcmmncta, 
Juncflla gcmmacca, 
Junrrlln raccmosn, 
Sciifcarin mactdata, 
Scirpcaria profunda, 
Scirpearia profunda, 
Scirpcaria profundn, 
Nicella moniliforme. 


.Tuiicr/h juncca, var. alha, p. 158. 
.Tvnrrlln harhadcnsis, p. 159. 
Juncella gcmmacca, p. 158. 
Ellisdla maculata (pars), p. 160. 
JuncfUa raccmosa, p. 150. 
Ellivlla maculata (pars), p. 160. 
Scirpcareila profunda, p. 155. 
Scirpearella gracilis, p. 156. 
Scirpcarella rubra, p. 157. 
Scirpearella monUiforme, p. 1-56. 

Simpson — A Rn'ifiion of llie flnrcjondlidae. 


Jimcella jmicca, 
Juiicelln juncea, 
Jitncclla f/rmmacca, 
Juncdla cjcinmacea, . 
Scirpearia pectinata, 
Scirpearia onaculata, 

" Alert " Collection. 
This collection was made during the Surveying Voyage of H.M.S. " Alert," 
liming the years 1881-82. The Gorgonellids were reported on by Eidley in 
" The Zoological Collections " of H.M.S. " Alert," 1884, pp. .345-.349. 

Juncclla juneca, p. 345. 
Juncella fraffilis, p. 347. 
Juncdla ficmmacca, p. 346. 
Jmwella doncjata, var., p. 346. 
Ctcnocella pectinata, p. 348. 
Ellisdln calamus, p. 348. 

Ceylon Collection. 
This collection was made by Professor Herdman in the Ceylon Seas 
in 1904 while investigating the Pearl Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar. 
The type-specimens are deposited in the British Museum, and were reported 
upon by Thomson and Henderson, " Ceylon Pearl Oyster Eeport," Royal 
Society, 1905. Supplementary Pieport, No. xx., Aloyonaria, pp. 311-315. 

Juncdla juncea, p. 314. 
Juncdla gcmmaeca, p. 313. 
Juncdla fragilis, p. 314. 
Juncdla frafjilis, var. riihra, p. 314. 
Juncdla trilineata, p. 315. 
Scirpearia up. (?), p. 31.3. 
Scirpeardla sp). B., p. 312. 
Scirpcardla aurantiaea, p. 311. 
Scirpeardla divisa, p. 312. 

Maldive Collection. 1. 
This collection was made by Mr. Stanley Gardiner in 1900, and was 
described by Hickson in "The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and 
Laccadive Archipelagoes," vol. ii., part iv. " The Alcyonaria of the 
Maldives," part iii., pp. 816-823. 


Juncdla juncea, p. 820. 
Juncdla flexilis, p. 821. 
Juncdla clongata, p. 821. 
Scirpearia furcata, p. 822. 
Scitpearia furcata, var., p. 822. 
Scir2)cardla indica, p. 822. 
Juncella clongata (Val.), p. 821, 

Juncdla juncea, 
Juncdla juncea,, 
Juncdla juncea, 
Junedla juncea, 
Juncella trilineata, . 
Scirpearia furcata, . 
Scvpcaria furcata, . 
Scirpearia aurantiaea, 
Scirpearia aurantiaea, 
Scirpearia ceylonensis, 

Juncella juncea, 
Juncdla juncea, 
Juncdla juncea, 
Scirpearia furcata, 
Scirpeao-ia furcata, 
Scirpearia furcata, 
Scirpearia furcata 

374 Prncoedincis of Ihr Roi/ciJ Irish Academy. 

Maldive Collection. II. (described by Thomson and Eussell, 1910). 


Jnncella gcmmacca, . . Juncclla gemoivaem. 

Scii'peana flafjellum, , . Scirpca^'ia flageUum. 

Scii'pccma aurmitiaca ,. . Sciiycarella auraniiaca. 

NiccUa dichotoma, . . A^icella dichotoma. 

Monaco Collection. I. 

The collections made by the Prince of Monaco, during the scientific 
voyage of the yacht " Hirondelle" in the North Atlantic Ocean, in 188G-88, 
contain several Gorgoncllid.s. These have been reported upon by Studer, in 
"Uesultats des Campagnes Scicntitiques du I'rince de Monaco," 1901, 
fasc. XX., pp. 52, 53. 

Scirpearia flagcUum, . . Sch-pcaruijlagdhtm.'p. 53. 
Scirprnrin Jliigrlliim, . Scir2X'aria ochracca, 'p. 5'S. 

Indian Museum Dkep-Sea Collection. 

This Collection was made during the cruise of the old H. I. M. SS. 
"Investigator" in the Indian Ocean. Tlit> specimens are deposited in 
the Indian ^luseum, Calcutta, and were reported on by Thomson and 
Hemlei-sou, in the memoirs of the Indian Museum, Alcyonaria (1906). 

JuncfUa ractmosti, 
Scirpearui profunda, 
Scirptaria alba, 
Seirpcaria Ihomsmvi, 
Nictlhi flabcllata, . 

JitnccUa minuicca, p. 81. 
ScirpearcUa moniliforme, p. 82. 
SciipeareUn aiba, p. 82. 
Juncrllu ilong(d(t, p. 81. 
NiccUa flahellata, p. 80. 

Indlvn Museum Littoral Collection. 

This Collection was made during the surveying cruises of tiie R. I. M. SS. 
" Investigator" in the Indian Ocean. 

The type specimens are deposited in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. They 
were reported on by Thom.son and Simpson, in tlie Memoii-s of the Indian 
Museum Alcyonaria, 1900: Imt .sjn'cifut luinifs were given only to a few; 

Simpson — A Revision of the CfOrcfonelUJae. 375 

descriptions of the others were tabulated, so that the following list will 
enable these to be identified. 


Juncella jmicea, . . . E. and F. 

Jxmcella gcmmacea, . . 0. 

Juncella trilincata, . . E. 

Scirpearia 'pcctinata, . . M. 

Scirpearia andamanensis, . N. 

Scirpearia anomala, . . Q. 

Scirpearia a%irantiaca, . . B. 

Scirpearia ficrcata, . . H, G, D, I. 

Scirpearia furcata var. robusta, P. 

Scirpearia rctmosa, . . K. 

Scirpearia verrucosa, . . C. 

Scirpearia hicJcsoni, . . A. 

ScirpeaHa quadrilineata, . J. 

Wood-Mason Collection. 

This Collection was made by W. J. Wood-Mason in the Indian Ocean. 
A few of the specimens were described by Thoinson and Simpson, but the 
majority of them were left over for incorporation in this paper. The types 
are deposited in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Jitncella racemosa. 
Jtmcella gemmacea. 
Scirpearia auranfiaca. 
Scirpearia furcata. 
Nicella flahellata. 

Mergui Collection. I. 

This Collection was made by Dr. John Anderson for the trustees of the 

Indian Museum, Calcutta, where the specimens are deposited. They were 

described by Eidley in the Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. xxi., 

pp. 240-243. 

described as 

Juncella j'uncea, . . . Juncella frafjilis, var., p. 242. 

Juncella gemmacea, . . . Juncella gcmmacea, p. 241. 

Scirpearia pcctinata, . . CtcnoccUn pcctinata, p. 243. 

B.I. A. PROC, VOL. XX\Tri., SECT. B. [3 P] 

376 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Mkkgui Collection. II. 

This Collection was made by Simpson and Brown in the Mergui 
Ai'chipelago, Burma, in the spring of 1907. The specimens are deposited in 
the Natural History Museum, Aberdeen University, and are reported on 
here for the first time. 

They include the following species : — 

J micella juncea. 
Jmwella geviviucea. 
Scirpearia ycctinata. 
Seii'pcai'ia furcata. 
Sdrpcaria furcata v&v. robusta. 

Australian Museum Collections. 

This Collection was made by Mr. C. Hedley for the Australian Museum, 
where the specimens are deposited. It was reported upcm by Wliitelegge in 
the "Memoirs of the Australian Museum XII.," The Alcyonaria, Part ii. 
(1897 ?), pp. 318-320. 

Nictlla dichotoma, . . Nicella Uuui, p. 318. 

Nialla JlaMlatu, . . . Vcrrucella fabcllata, p. .319. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 377 


i. 1817. CuviER, Eegne Animal. 

ii. 1830. C'uviEK, Kegne Animal. Nouv. Edit., t. iii., Paris. 
iii. 1846. DxUs'A, J. D., Zoophytes, United States Exploring Expedition. 

iv. 1861. DucHASSAiNG et Michelotti, Memoiie sur les C'oraillaires 

des Antilles. Mem. E. Acad. Sci. Torino, 2 ser. xix. 
V. 1866. DucHAssAiNG et Michelotti, Sxipplement, ibid., xxviii., pp. 

97-206. 11 Plates. 
vi. 1786. Ellis and Solander, The Natural History of many curious 

and imcommon Zoophytes. London, 
vii. 1797. EsPER, E. J., Die Pflanzenthiere in AbbUdungen nebst Bes- 

chreibungen. Niirnberg, 1791-1797. 4 vols. 
viii. 1896. Germanos, N. K., Gorgonaceen von Ternate. Abh. Senck. 
Nat. Ges., xxiii., Heft, i., pp., 145-18L 4 Plates, 
ix. 1857. Gray, J. E., Description of new Genera of Gorgoniadae. Proc. 

Zool. Soc, pp. 158, 159. 
x. 1857. Gray, J. E., Synopsis of the Families and Genera of Axiferous 

Zoophytes or Barked Corals. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
xi. 1859. Gray, J. E., Description of some new Genera of Lithophytes. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, xxvii., pp. 479-486. 
xii. 1870. Gray, J. E., Catalogue of the Lithophytes or Stony Corals in 
the Collection of the British Museum, London. 
xii.«. HiCKSON, S. J., The Cambridge Natiu-al History, vol. i., pp. 

xiii. 1900. HiCKSON, S. J., Alcyonaria and Hydi-ocorallinae of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Part 1, Marine Investigations in South 
Africa, i., No. 5, pp. 67-96. 6 Plates, 
xiv. 1904. HiCKSON, S. J., The Alcyonaria of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Part ii.. Marine Investigations Ln South Africa, vol. iii., 
pp. 211-239. 3 Plates. 
XV. 1903. HiCKSON, S. J., Alcyonaria of the Maldives, Fauna and Geogr. 
Maldives and Laccadives, ii., pt. 4, pp. 807-826. Plate 


' The Eoman numerals correspond to the numbers given in the text. 


378 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

s^-i 1699. HiLES, ISA L., The Gorgonacea collected by Dr. Willey. 

"Willey's ZooL Results, pt. 11, pp. 195-206. 2 Plates. 
xviL 1899. HiLKS, Isa L., Report on the Gktrgonacean Corals collected by 

Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner at Funafuti. Proc. ZooL See., 

London, pp. 46-52. 4 Plates, 
xviii. 1»63. Johnson, J. Y., Description of a new species of Juncella. Proc. 

ZooL Soc., London, pp. 505, 506. 
xix. 1864. Johnson, J. Y., Description of a new species of flexible 

Coral belonging to the genus Juncella obtained at 

Madeira (J. Jlagtllum). Ann. Mag. Nat Hist., 3 ser. 

xiv., p. 142. 
XX. 1870. Kknt, Saville, Trans, Roy. Micio. Soc, p. 92. Plate xtil, 

fig. 38. 
xxi. 1893. KsNT, Savuxk, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia. 
xxiL 1897. Klunzingek, C. B., Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres. 

Part 1. Die Alcyonarien und Malacodermen, p. 59. 

4 plates. 
xxiiL 1865. KoLUKEK, A., Icones Histiologicae, pp. 131-142. 8 Plates, 
xxiv. 1816. Lailakck, Hisloire Naturelle des Aniniaux sans Vertebres- 

voL ii., Paris. 
XXV. 1S16. Lamouboux, Histoire des Polj-piers coralligenes flexibles. Caen, 

p. 419. 
xxvi 1867. Milne-Edwakds and, Histoire Naturelle des Corail- 

laires ou Polj-pes proprement dils. 3 vols., 1867-1^60. 
xxviL Pallas, Charakteristik der Thierpflanzen. pp. 224-6. 

xxviiL 1766. Pallas, Elenchus Zoophytorum. 
xxix. ]8.*>2. RiDLK^', Stuabt O., Contributions to the knowledge of the 

Alcyonaria. Part L, Ann. Mag. Nat HisL, 5 ser. ix., pp. 

125-133. 1 Plate. 
XIX. 1882. Ridley, Stuabt 0., iJbid., Part iL, loc cit, 5 ser. ix., pp. 

xxxL 1883. Ridlet. Stuabt O., The Coral-fauna of Ceylon, with descrip- 
tions of new species. Ann. Mag. Nat Hist, 5 ser. xL, 

pp. 250-262. 
xxxiL 1887. Ridley, Stuabt 0., Report on the Alcyoniid and Gorgoniid 

Alcyonaria of the Mergui Archipelago, collected for the 

Indian Museum. Joum. Linn. Soc., London, xL, pp. 223- 

247. 2 Plates. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidac. .379 

xxxiii. 1884. Eidley, Stuart 0., Zoological collections of H.M.S. "Albert," 

xxxiv. 1878. Studek, Th., Uebersicht der Anthozoa Alcyonaria welche 

wahrend der Reise S.M.S. " Gazelle " uni die Erde 

gesammelt warden. Monatsber., Akad. Wiss., Berlin, pp. 

632-688. 5 Plates. 

XXXV. 1887. Studer, Th., Versuch eines Systemes der Alcyonaria, Arch. 
Naturges., liii., pp. 1-74. 1 Plate. 

XXX vi. 1891. Studer, Th., " Note Prelimiuaire sur les Alcyonaires provenant 
des Campagnes du Yacht I'Hirondelle." 2 Partie Mem. 
Soc. Zool. de Prance, vol. iv., Paris. 

xxxvii. 1894. Studer, Th., "Alcyouarien aus der Sanimlung des Natur- 
historischen Museums in Liibeck," Mitteilungen der Geog. 
Gesell., und des Naturhist. Museums in Liibeck, 2 ser.. 
Heft, 7 und 8, pp. 103-128. 

xxxviii. 1901. Studek, Th., " Alcyonaires provenant des Campagnes de 

I'Hirondelle." Eesultats Campagnes scientifiques du 

Prince de Monaco, Fasc. xx., pp. 64. 11 Plates. 
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Pearl Oyster Fisheries Eeport. Eoy. Soc, London, pp. 271- 

328. 6 Plates, 
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collected by the E.I.M.SS. " Investigator " in the Indian 

Ocean. The Alcyonarians of the Deep Sea. Calcutta. 

pp. 79-83. 
xli. 1909. Thomson, J. A., and Simpson, J. J., The Alcyonarians collected 

by the E.I.M.SS. " Investigator " in the Indian Ocean. The 

Littoral Alcyonarians. 
xlii. 1909. Thomson, J. A. (unpublished), 
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Trust Expedition. Trans. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xiii. (1910), 

pp. 139-164. 
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Gorgonides de la class des Polypes. Comptes Eendus, xli,, 

pp. 7-15. 

380 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

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xhiii. 1865. Verrill, A. K, Synopsis of Polyps and Corals of N. Pacific 
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Eesults of the Voyage of H,MS. " Challenger." Zoology, 
voL xxxL, Alcyonaria. 



1. Polyp of Srirpearia ptctiwUa enlarged (x 25) to show structure. 

2. Portion enlarged of Monaco specimen to illustrate the motility of the 


3. Cross-section of a Juncellid axis to show the concentric laminae and 

the " ridges and depressions." 

A. a-g. " Clubs " of JuruxUa, (f-g) showing characteristic variations. 

5. a and b. Two kinds of double-clubs. 

6. Variation forms of double-clubs. 

7. Double-wheels or capstans. 

8. Transition from the elongated double-club (n), through the double- 

spindle (h), to the simple spindle (<•). 

9. Three portions of var. a. of Juncella junua to show the disposition and 

nature of the polyps, (a) near the base of the colony, {b) midway, 
(e) near the tip. 

10. Cross-sections of var. b. of J.juncta to show the internal structure. The 

levels of (rt), (6), and (r) correspond to those of fig. 9, 

11. Three views of the superficial appearance of the axis in J.jnncm. The 

portions shown are from the parte of the colony given in fig. 9. 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 381 


12. Portions of J. juncea var. b. to show the distribution and nature of the 

verrucae, (a) near the base, {h) midway (non-polyp-bearing aspect), 
(e) near the tip. 

13. J. jmicea var. b. Cross-sections at the tln-ee levels given in fig. 12 to 

show the internal structure. 

14. Spicules of J. jv.ncea. 

15. 16, and 17. Three colonies of ./imce/^a ^remTWOc^a, reduced proportionately, 

to show the difference in the branching at different ages. 

IS. Three portions of Juncella geininacea enlarged (X 5) to show the nature 
and distrilmtion of the verrucae at different levels, (a) near the 
base, (b) midway (uon-polyp-bearing aspect), (c) near the tip. 

19. Transverse sections of J. gemmacea, at levels corresponding to those in 

fig. 18, to show the structure of the coenenchyma ( x 5). 

20. Juncella raceviosa. Portion of colony described in XLI. 

21. Juncella racemosa. Colony enlarged (x IJ). 

22. Twig of Juncella racemosa to show disposition and nature of the 


23. Spicules of Juncella racemosa. 

24. Terminal twig of Jmicella trilineata to show the nature and disposition 

of the verrucae. 

25. Transverse section of Juncella trilineata to show (1) the structure of the 

coenenchyma, (2) the three large main canals, and (3) the position 
of three alternating rows of verrucae. 

26. Spicules of Juncella trilineata. 

27. Spicules of Scirpearia profunda. 

28. Scirpearia hicksoni n. sp. Portion near the base enlarged ( X 4) to show 

the appearance of the aspect devoid of polyps. 

29. Scirpearia hicksoni n. sp. Portion near the base enlarged ( X 4) to show 

the nature of the verrucae on the " crowded " aspect. 

30. Scirpearia hicksoni n. sp. Tip of colony enlarged ( X 4) to show the 

distribution and nature of the verrucae. 

31. Spicules of Scirpearia hicksoni n. sp. 

32. Scirpearia verrucosa n. sp. Portion enlarged ( X 6) to show the nature 

and distribution of the verrucae. 

33. Spicules of the Scirpearia verrucosa n. sp. 

382 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


34 Scirpearia anomala n. sp. Three portions enlarged ( X 5) to show the 

difference in the nature and distribution of the polyps at different 

levels, (a) near base, (h) midway, (c) tip. 

35. Spicules of Scirpearia anomala n. sp. 

36-38. Silhouettes of the axis of colonies of S. pcctinata to show diflerent 
angles of origin for the branches. 

39. S. pcctinata. Silhouette of axis of a colony to show the crossing of the 

branches due to contraction. 

40. S. pcctinata. Silhouette of axis of a colony to show how a secondary 

branch may take the place of a primary. 

41. Secondary development in 5, pcctinata. 

42. Portion near the liaso of a colony of S. pcctinata to show the distribution 

of the vemicae and the large canals superficially. 

43. a, b, and c. Ti-ansverse section.s of S. pulinata to show the structure 

of the coencnchyma and the disposition of the main longitudinal 
canals, («) main .stem with numerous lai-ge canals, {h) aud (c) 
secondar)- branch, at different levels, with only two main canals. 

44. a and h. Two views from the non-polj-p-l>earing aspect of a secondary 

branch of .s'. pcctinata Ut show the di.sposition of the polyps and 
also their apjiearance when ]>artially exjjanded, (n) about midway, 
(b) tip. 

45. Spicules of S. pcctinata. 

46. Colony of Scirpearia clonffata in the Museum of the Royal College of 

Surgeons, London (from a photograph supphed by Dr. Bume). 

47. Spicules of the Royal College of Surgeons specimen of Scirpearia clongaia. 

48. Spicules of the British Museum specimen of Scirpearia clongaia. 

49. Scirpearia flnrjeUum. Portion of Naples specimen enlarged (x6) to 

show the nature and distriliution of the verrucae. 

50. Spicules of Scirpearia flagcllum (Naples sjiecimen). 

51. Colony (nat. size) of Scirpearia Jlcujclhtm (Cape). 

52. Portion of colony (fig. 51) to show the nature of the verrucae. 

53. Longitudinal section through the portion of Scirpearia flagcllum shown 

in fig. 52 to show the internal structure and the attachment of the 
strong retractor muscles. 

54. Spicules of Scirpearia flagcllum (fig. 51 specimen). 

Simpson — A Revision of the Gorgonellidae. 383 


55. Young colony of Scirpearia flagellum (nat. size) (Cape). 

56. Portion of colony (fig. 55) enlarged ( X 12) to show the nature and 

distribution of the polyps. 

57. Spicules of Scirpearia flagellum -(fig. 55). 

58. Portion of a Monaco specimen to show the distribution of the verrucae 

■ (x4). 

59. Same as 58) ,.^, 

„„ „ ^ different specmiens. 

60. Same as 58j ^ 

61. Scirpearia thomsont n. sp. Silhouette of axis to show the nature of the 


62. Scirpearia tliomsoni n. sp. Portion enlarged ( x 6) to show the disposition 

and nature of the verrucae. 

63. Spicules of Scirpearia thomsoni n. sp. 

64. Scirpearia alba. Two portions enlarged ( X 5) to show the nature and 

distribution of the verrucae "at different levels, («) near tip, (h) near 
the base. 

65. Spicules of Scirpearia alia. 

66. Scirpearia aurantiaca. Portion enlarged ( X 5) near the middle of the 

colony to show the nature of the verrucae. 

67. Scirpearia aurantiaca. Portion enlarged ( X 5) near the tip of the colony 

to show the nature of the verrucae. 

68. Spicules of Scirpearia cmrantiaca. 

69. Scirpearia fureaia. Two views of the same portion of the type specimen 

of Scirpeccria sp. (?) enlarged ( X 5) to show the nature and distri- 
bution of the verrucae. 

70. Scirpearia furcata. Part of type specimen of Scirpearella sp. B. 

71. Scirpearia furcata. Part of type specimen of Juncella elongata 


72. Scirpearia furcata. Spicules of type specimen of Juncella elo7igata 


73. Scirpearia fircata. Two Adews of the same part of a colony from the Indian 

Collection ( x 5) to show the nature and thstributiou of the \'errucae. 

74. Polyp of Scirpearia furcata. 

75. Spicules of Indian Collection specimen of Scirpearia furcata. 

E.I. A. PROC, VOL. XXVIII., SECT. B. [3 E'\ 

384 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 


76. Silhouette of axis of " Providence " specimen of Seirpearia furcata 

it n. s.). 

77. ScirpeaHa furmta. Small portion of main stem of " Providence " 

specimen to show the verrucae. 

78. Scirpearia furcata. Two ^-iews near the base of the second primary 

branch of the " Pro^•idence " specimen. 

79. Scirpearia furcaia. Two \'iews midway on the third primary branch of 

the " Providence " specimen. 

80. Scirpearia furcata. Two views near the tip of the third primary branch 

of the " Providence " specimen. 

81. Spicules of the " Providence " specimen of Scirpearia fircata. 

82. Scirpearia furcata. Complete colony (nat. size) of a young specimen in 

the Cape Collection. 

83. Scirpearia furcata. Portion enlarged (x8)of a Cape specimen to show 

the low nature of the verrucae. 

84. Scirpearia furcata. Portion enlarged ^ X 4) of a Cape specimen to show 

the nature of the verrucae. 

85. Scirpearia furcata. Portion enlarged ( x 5J of a Cape specimen to show 

the nature of the verrucae. 

86. Scirpearia furcata. Portion enlarged ( x 5) of a Cape specimen to show 

the distribution and nature of the verrucae. 

87. Spicules of a Cape specimen of Scirpearia furcata. 

88. Scirpearia furcata. Two views of a portion near the middle of a colony 

in the Indian Collection to show the distribution of the verrucae, 
(a) polyp-bearing aspect, (6) non-polyp-bearing aspect. 

89. Spicules of Indian Collection specimen (Fig. 88) of Scirpearia furcaia. 

90. Three views from a specimen of Scirpenria furcata in the Indian Collec- 

tion to show the distribution and nature of the verrucae at different 
levels, (a) near l^ase, (6) midway, (r) tip. 

91. Spicules of Scirpearia furcata. (Specimen fig. 90.) 

92. Scirpearia furcata, var. robusta. Colony (nat. size) to show the general 

habit and the distribution of the verrucae. 

93. Scirpearia furcata, var. robusta. Portion enlarged (x 5) near the base 

to show the nature of the verrucae. 

94. Spicules of Scirpearia furcata, var. robugta. (Andamans specimen.) 

Simpson — A Revision of the Goi-gonellidae. 385 


95. Scit'pearia furcata, var. robusta. Tliree portions enlarged ( X 5) to show 

the proportions of the different parts and also the nature and 
distribution of the verrucae, («) near base, (h) midway, (c) near 

96. Spicules of Scirpearia furcata, var. robusta. (Mergui specimen.) 

97. Scirpearia andamanensis, n. sp. Colony (nat. size) to show the mode of 

branching and the general habit. 

98. Scirpearia andamanensis, n. s. Portion near the tip of a branch 

enlarged ( X 6) to show the nature of the verrucae when slightly 

99. Scirpearia andamanensis, n. sp. Portion of a branch enlarged ( X 6) to 

show the nature of the verrucae when partially retracted. 

100. Scirpiearia andaniancnsis, n. sp. Portion near the base enlarged ( X 6) 

to show the nature of the fully retracted verrucae. 

101. Spicules of Scirpearia andamanensis, n. sp. 

102. Scirpearia ramosa, n. sp. Colony (nat. size) to show the mode of 

branching and the general habit. 

103. Scirpiearia ramosa, n. sp. Portion enlarged (x 6) to show the nature of 

the verrucae. 

104. Spicules of Scirpeai'ia ramosa, n. sp. 

105. Scirpea.ria ceylonensis, n. sp. Colony one-half nat. size to show the mode 

of branching and the general habit. 

106. Scirpearia ceylonensis, n. sp. Portion enlarged ( X 5) to show the 

disposition and nature of the verrucae. 

107. Spicides of Scirpearia ceylonensis, n. sp. 

108. " Challenger " specimen of Sciipearia mciculata from Banda. (From a 

photograph supplied by Prof. Bell.) 

109. Spicules of the " Challenger " specimen of Sciipearia maculata. 

110. Fragment of Jnncella gemmacea, originally described as Ellisella 


111. Transverse section through Scirpearia quadrilincata, u. sp., to show the 

structure of the coenenchyma and the position of the four main 

112. Two portions of Scirpearia qimdrilineata, n. sp., slightly enlarged (x 1|) 

to show the distribution and nature of the verrucae at different 
levels, («) near the tip, (b) near the base. 

386 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

113. Spicules of Scirpearia quadrilineata, n. sp. 

114. Spiciiles of Nicella dichotama, 

115. Spicules of Nicella fldbellata. 

116. Spicules of Nicella reticulata. 

117. Three portions of Nicella monUiforme, enlarged (x5) to show the 

difierence in the distribution and nature of the verrucae at the 
various levels, («) near the base, {h) middle of the colony, (c) near 
the tip. 

118. Spicules of Nicella monUiforme. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. 13. 

■•-• ^ e 1 if 

Plate I. 

/:^^lf: .sis 

Fig. 3. 

Fiff. 7. 

rr^\ :<:^>r- -^"^^ //'X\ 

di4 &idj M M 

.,^, ^, 

I'-iff. 4. 


*ig. G. 

Simpson — Gorgonellidae. 

fit. >*. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIIL, Soct. B. 

Plate II. 

Fiff. 9. 

Fig. lO. 

b. a 

Fig. 13. 

Simpson — Gorsrouellidae. 

Proc. R. I. Acad,, Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

Plate III. 

Figr. 14. 

Simpson — Gorgoiiellidae. 

Vis. 16. 

Proc. R. I. Aciicl., Vol. XXVIIL, Sect. B. 

Plate IV. 

tig. 17. 

Fig:. 19. 

Fiff. 18. 



Fig. 30. 

SiMPso.v — GorKoiiellidae. 

Proc. E. r. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B 


Pldte V. 

,'— ^ 7~> 



Vis:. 34. 

8 A (% ^ A 

t%r ^^ 

Fis". 2.3. 

'1' 1 

Fig. 25. 

Fisr. 26. 


Simpson — Gorgonellidae. 

Proc. li. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Kect. ]J. 

Plate VI. 

Figr. 28. 

Fig. 31. 

Fig. 29. 

Fig. 30. 

Fig. 33. 

Fig 32. 

fSiMi'sox — Cioi't,'oiiL>lliJae. 

Proe. E. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

Plate VII. 

JPigr 36. 

*-ie 3? 


lis, 38 

1 iff 39 

Fisf. 3.5 

Fig. lO Fijf. -11 

Simpson — Gorsjonellicliie. 

Proc. E. I. AeaiL, Vol. XXVIIL, Sect. B. 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 12 



■¥■'■ ("*' ■ ■ )n 

,?. ^ 

"^ V t:,: •., J 

Fig. 44: 

Fig. 13 






Fig 13 

Si.MPSO.N — CTor"onulliil;ii'. 

Proe. E. I. Aead., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

Plate IX. 

Figr AS 

Fig. 48 

Simpson — Gorgonellidne. 

Fi<;. 50 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

Plate X. 

Fiff. 51 

Fig;. 53 

Wig. 56 


Fiff. 53 

Fig. 55 

Fiff. .54: 

I'i"-. •>: 

SiMi'SON— Gorgonellidae. 

Proc. 15. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII , Sect. B. 

Plate XI. 






Fiff. 58 

/fe ■ 


V ;■ - 






Fiar. C3 


Fisr. C5 

'■■■■. -\ 

Fis. G7 




Fiff. GG 

Simpson— Gorgonellidiie. 

Hjt Gl 


Proc. R. I. AcacL, Vol. XXVIII. , Sect. P.. 

Plato XII. 

0} fj. M^ p 



W: :Wl 



^-' '"^ 


Fiff. 68 

Fig. 69 

/•■,;?■ ■...■■• ri 

*iS. JO 


.,S&. ,5 

^ \l 

^' Hi vt 

\J . 





Fiff. S2 

Fijj. J3 

Figr- 74 


^Is a"i ihs 

Fijf. «5 

Simpson- — Gorpronclliilae. 

Proc. K. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. 13. 

Plate XIII. 



^.^ 0-7 

■^ 2 

I/; I 


Fiff. so 

ill -Si I ■•:^^--l! 

•■%, ty 


f •>??^'t' ■ ■ ''■^- ■"••'- ■*:■■•'; 
.■;■ • ■■ ■ -tti 

;■ ,- ■ -' .' , V- '*.; 

^i■■ ^. M -;ii'! 
Fig TJ 

f,?^'. ■■:■.'. ■ ^- 

■•«L ) 

<: .v,./rY'.,i 








lis. 80 

I' is M 

Simpson — Gorconellidae. 

Pi-oc. K. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII.. Sect. P.. 




Fiff. 8* 




\> m:-4 

Tig. 88 


Liff. 91 

FIR. 8S 

Plate XIV. 







\ ' 








J 1 















■ y 




FiK. "JO 

Simpson— Goi"OiielIicIae. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

i'lutc XV, 

Fi». 92 


Fig 9* 

J; r. ;•■>.;!•;■?,. ■;-;.''..-j 

Fis. 93 

Fift. 98 


Fig. 99 

Simpson — GorKonellidae. 

Fig 90 




Fis- 05 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

Plate XVI. 

*ig. 9J 

Fisr. lOO 



Vis. ><>■ 


SiMPsoK— Gorgoiiellidae. 

Fig. 103 

Proc. K. I. Acad, Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 

Plate XVII. 

Vigr- J 04 

Fig. lOG 

Fig. 109 

Fig. I0.5 

Fig. 108 

Simpson — Gorgonellidae. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXVIII., Sect. B. 


Fig-. Ill 

Fig. IIU 

/^?> -.r y i^y ^. ^, 


Fig. 114 

Fig. lis 

Simpson — GorgoneUidae. 

Proc. R. I. Acad., Vol. XXYIII., Sect. P.. 

Plate XIX. 




Fiff. IIG 

b.'" ' 

', -Is 

Fi"r. 118 

Simpson — Gorgonellidae. 

[ 387 ] 




[communicated by R. LLOYD PEAEGER.] 

(Plates XX.-XXII.) 

Read June 13. Ordered for Pulilitation June 15. Published July 28, 1910. 

At the time the second edition of " Gybele Hibemica" was published in 1898, 
Leucojicm aestivum was known to Irish botanists from the single station at 
Maemine Junction, Co. Wexford, where the Eev. E. S. Marshall had 
discovered it the year before. Messrs. Colgan and Scully therefore, con- 
sidering that theii' knowledge of its Irish distribution was insufficient to 
justify its admission to the iiora, relegated the plant to the appendix of that 
book, among the excluded species. In the following year, Mr. E. D. O'Brien 
recorded it fi'om some unembanked land liy the Sliannon on the Clare side of 
the river near the Lax Weu', about two miles from Limerick city. On the 
strength of this adtUtional locality